|1269 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2022|
|Balinese saka calendar||1190–1191|
|English Regnal year||53 Hen. 3 – 54 Hen. 3|
|Chinese calendar||戊辰年 (Earth Dragon)|
3965 or 3905
— to —
己巳年 (Earth Snake)
3966 or 3906
|- Vikram Samvat||1325–1326|
|- Shaka Samvat||1190–1191|
|- Kali Yuga||4369–4370|
|Japanese calendar||Bun'ei 6|
|Minguo calendar||643 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1811–1812|
1395 or 1014 or 242
— to —
1396 or 1015 or 243
Events from the 1260s in England.1268–71 papal election
The papal election of 1268–71 (from November 1268 to 1 September 1271), following the death of Pope Clement IV, was the longest papal election in the history of the Catholic Church. This was due primarily to political infighting between the cardinals. The election of Teobaldo Visconti as Pope Gregory X was the first example of a papal election by "compromise", that is, by the appointment of a committee of six cardinals agreed to by the other remaining ten. The election occurred more than a year after the magistrates of Viterbo locked the cardinals in, reduced their rations to bread and water, and removed the roof of the Palazzo dei Papi di Viterbo.As a result of the length of the election, during which three of the twenty cardinal-electors died and one resigned, Gregory X promulgated the papal bull Ubi periculum on 7 July 1274, during the Second Council of Lyon, establishing the papal conclave, whose rules were based on the tactics employed against the cardinals in Viterbo. The first election held under those rules is sometimes viewed as the first conclave.Almohad Caliphate
The Almohad Caliphate (British English: /almə(ʊ)ˈhɑːd/, American English: /ɑlməˈhɑd/; Berber languages: ⵉⵎⵡⵃⵃⴷⵉⵢⵏ (Imweḥḥdiyen), from Arabic الموحدون (al-Muwaḥḥidūn), "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century.The Almohad movement was founded by Ibn Tumart among the Berber Masmuda tribes of southern Morocco. Around 1120, the Almohads first established a Berber state in Tinmel in the Atlas Mountains. They succeeded in overthrowing the ruling Almoravid dynasty governing Morocco by 1147, when Abd al-Mu'min al-Gumi (r. 1130–1163) conquered Marrakesh and declared himself Caliph. They then extended their power over all of the Maghreb by 1159. Al-Andalus soon followed, and all of Islamic Iberia was under Almohad rule by 1172.The Almohad dominance of Iberia continued until 1212, when Muhammad III, "al-Nasir" (1199–1214) was defeated at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in the Sierra Morena by an alliance of the Christian princes of Castile, Aragon and Navarre. Nearly all of the Moorish dominions in Iberia were lost soon afterwards, with the great Moorish cities of Cordova and Seville falling to the Christians in 1236 and 1248 respectively.
The Almohads continued to rule in Africa until the piecemeal loss of territory through the revolt of tribes and districts enabled the rise of their most effective enemies, the Marinids, in 1215. The last representative of the line, Idris al-Wathiq, was reduced to the possession of Marrakesh, where he was murdered by a slave in 1269; the Marinids seized Marrakesh, ending the Almohad domination of the Western Maghreb.Constance of Aragon, Lady of Villena
Constance of Aragon (1239–1269) was a daughter of James I of Aragon and his second wife Yolanda of Hungary. She was a member of the House of Barcelona and was Infanta of Castile by her marriage to Manuel of Castile.
Her maternal grandparents were Andrew II of Hungary and his second wife Yolanda de Courtenay. Her paternal grandparents were Peter II of Aragon and Marie of Montpellier. Constance's siblings included: James II of Majorca, Peter III of Aragon, Yolanda, Queen of Castile and Isabella, Queen of France.
In 1260 and in Soria, Constance married Infante Manuel of Castile, the second son of Ferdinand III and his first wife Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen. The couple had at least two children:
Alfonso Manuel (born 1260/1261, died in Montpellier, France in 1276) Died without issue.
Violante Manuel (born 1265, died in Lisbon, Portugal in 1314), lady of Elche and Medellín. Married circa 1287 to Afonso of Portugal, son of Afonso III of Portugal.Constance died in 1269, leaving her husband a widower. He remarried in 1274/5 to Beatrice of Savoy. Their son was Juan Manuel, Prince of Villena, who was successor to his father since Constance's son, Alfonso died young.Duchy of Troppau
The Principality of Opava (Czech: Opavské knížectví) (Polish: Księstwo Opawskie) or Duchy of Troppau (German: Herzogtum Troppau) was a historic territory split off from the Margraviate of Moravia before 1269 by King Ottokar II of Bohemia to provide for his natural son, Nicholas I. The Opava territory thus had not been part of the original Polish Duchy of Silesia in 1138, and was first ruled by an illegitimate offshoot of the Bohemian Přemyslid dynasty, not by the Silesian Piasts like many of the neighbouring Silesian duchies. Its capital was Opava (Troppau) in the modern day Czech Republic.
From 1337 onwards, the Přemyslid dukes also ruled the adjacent former Piast Duchy of Racibórz, whereupon Opava became united with the Upper Silesian lands. When the Opava branch became extinct in 1464, it fell back to the Bohemian Crown, from 1526 part of the Habsburg Monarchy. In the final three centuries of its existence, the duchy was ruled by the House of Liechtenstein. It was dissolved with the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918, but the title of Duke of Troppau and Jägerndorf still exists, belonging to a present-day monarch, Prince Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein.Eleanor of England, Countess of Bar
Eleanor of England (18 June 1269 – 29 August 1298) was an English princess, the eldest surviving daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife, Queen Eleanor of Castile.What evidence exists for Eleanor's early years suggests that while her parents were absent on Crusade between 1270 and 1274, she became very close to her paternal grandmother, Eleanor of Provence, with whom she continued to spend a good deal of time. She was also close to her sickly brother Henry. On one Pentecost Eve, Henry and Eleanor were given two partridges for their dinner, for a special treat.For a long period Eleanor was betrothed to King Alfonso III of Aragon. Alfonso's parents were under papal interdict, however, because of their claims to the throne of Sicily, which were contrary to the papal donation of the Sicilian throne to Charles I of Naples, and despite the Aragonese ruler's repeated pleas that Edward I send his daughter to them for marriage, Edward refused to send her as long as the interdict remained in place. In 1282 he declined one such request by saying that his wife and mother felt the girl, who had just turned 13, was too young to be married, and that they wanted to wait another two years before sending her to Aragon. Alfonso died before the marriage could take place.
Eleanor subsequently married the French nobleman, Henry III, Count of Bar on September 20, 1293, and had two children:
Edward I, Count of Bar
JoanAccording to Kenneth Panton, Eleanor is credited with a daughter called Eleanor (b.1285), who supposedly married a Welshman named Llywelyn ap Owain.Eleanor was buried in Westminster Abbey.Fakr ad-Din Mosque
The Fakr ad-Din Mosque (Arabic: مسجد فخر الدين زنكي), also known as Masjid Fakhr al-Din, is the oldest mosque in Mogadishu, Somalia. It is located in Hamar Weyne (literally "Old Hamar"), the oldest part of the city. It is believed to be the 7th oldest mosque in Africa.House of Welf
The House of Welf (also Guelf or Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th to 20th century and Emperor Ivan VI of Russia in the 18th century.Jacob ben Asher
Jacob ben Asher, also known as Ba'al ha-Turim as well as Rabbi Yaakov ben Raash (Rabbeinu Asher), was probably born in the Holy Roman Empire at Cologne about 1269 and probably died at Toledo, then in the Kingdom of Castile, about 1343.Jacob was an influential Medieval rabbinic authority. He is often referred to as the Ba'al ha-Turim ("Master of the Rows"), after his main work in halakha (Jewish law), the Arba'ah Turim ("Four Rows"). The work was divided into four sections, each called a "tur," alluding to the rows of jewels on the High Priest's breastplate. He was the third son of the Rabbi Asher ben Jehiel (known as the "Rosh"), a Rabbi of the Holy Roman Empire who moved to Castile. Besides his father, who was his principal teacher, Jacob quotes very often in the Turim his elder brother Jehiel; once his brother Judah (see Tur Orach Chaim, § 417), and once his uncle Rabbi Chaim (ib. § 49). According to many, Jacob moved to Castile with his father and was not born there.
Some say Jacob succeeded his father as the rabbi of the Jewish community of Toledo (Zacuto), while others say his brother Judah ben Asher did. His brothers were also rabbis of different communities in Iberia. He lived in abject poverty most of his life, and according to the Sephardic Community of Chios, is said to have fallen ill and died with his ten companions on the island of Chios, in Greece, whilst travelling.List of elections in 1269
The following elections occurred in the year 1269.
Papal election, 1268–1271List of peers 1260–1269
This page lists all peers who held extant titles between the years 1260 and 1269.List of rulers of Lithuania
The following is a list of rulers over Lithuania—grand dukes, kings, and presidents—the heads of authority over historical Lithuanian territory. The timeline includes Lithuania as a sovereign entity or legitimately part of a greater sovereign entity as well as Lithuania under control or occupation of an outside authority (i.e., Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic). The incumbents and office-holders are listed by names most commonly used in English language. Where appropriate, the alternations in Lithuanian, Ruthenian (later Belarusian) and Polish are included.
The state of Lithuania formed in the 1230s, when threatened by the Livonian Order in the north and the Teutonic Knights in the west, the Baltic tribes united under the leadership of Mindaugas. He became the only crowned king of Lithuania. His state became known as Grand Duchy of Lithuania. After Grand Duke Jogaila became also king of Poland in 1386, the two states became closer connected and since 1440 both were ruled by a common ruler. In 1569 Union of Lublin was signed and a new entity—the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth—emerged. The commonwealth was partitioned in 1795 and Lithuania became part of the Russian Empire till 16 February 1918. The Council of Lithuania was able to establish the sovereignty only in 1919, after Germany lost World War I. The first republic of Lithuania existed until 1940 when it was occupied by the Soviet Union. During the Soviet-German War, Lithuania was occupied by Nazi Germany. In 1944, as Germany was losing the war, Russia re-occupied Lithuania and established the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first Soviet republic to declare independence. The restored Republic of Lithuania is a democratic republic, a member of both the European Union and NATO.NGC 1291
NGC 1291 , also known as NGC 1269, is a ring galaxy with an unusual inner bar and outer ring structure located about 33 million light-years away in the constellation Eridanus. It was discovered by James Dunlop in 1826 and subsequently entered into the New General Catalogue as NGC 1291 by Johan Ludvig Emil Dreyer. John Herschel then observed the same object in 1836 and entered it into the catalog as NGC 1269 without realizing that it was a duplicate. This galaxy was cited as an example of a "transitional galaxy" by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer team in 2007.O-1269
O-1269 is a drug that is a diarylpyrazole derivative, related to potent cannabinoid antagonist drugs such as rimonabant and surinabant. However O-1269 and several related drugs were unexpectedly found to act as full or partial agonists at the cannabinoid receptors rather than antagonists, and so produce the usual effects expected of cannabinoid agonists in animal tests, such as sedation and analgesic effects. The N-heptyl homolog O-1270 and the N-propyl homolog O-1399 also act as cannabinoid agonists with similar potency in vivo, despite weaker binding affinity at cannabinoid receptors compared to the pentyl homolog O-1269. Agonist-like and atypical cannabinoid activity has also been observed with a number of related compounds.Penkun
Penkun (German pronunciation: [pɛŋˈkuːn]) is a town in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. It is situated 25 km east of Prenzlau, and 23 km southwest of Szczecin.
Penkun is known for its renaissance castle. Due to its proximity to the Szczecin agglomeration, it is a prospering town.Philip of Artois
Philip of Artois (1269 – 11 September 1298) was the son of Robert II of Artois, Count of Artois, and Amicie de Courtenay. He was the Lord of Conches, Nonancourt, and Domfront.
He married Blanche of Brittany, daughter of John II, Duke of Brittany, and had the following children:
Margaret (1285–1311), married in 1301 Louis, Count of Évreux
Robert III of Artois (1287–1342)
Isabelle (1288–1344), a nun at Poissy
Joan of Artois (1289 – aft. 1350), married Gaston I, Count of Foix, in Senlis in 1301
Othon (died 2 November 1291)
Marie of Artois (1291 – 22 January 1365, Wijnendaele), Lady of Merode, married in 1309 in Paris John I, Marquis of Namur
Catherine (1296–1368, Normandy), married John II of Ponthieu, Count of AumaleHe served under his father at the Battle of Furnes, where he was wounded. He never recovered, and died of the effects over a year later. He was buried in the now-demolished church of the Couvent des Jacobins in Paris. His premature death led to a legal battle later, when Artois was left to his sister Mahaut rather than his son Robert.Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
The Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (German: Fürstentum Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel) was a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, whose history was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications. Various dynastic lines of the House of Welf ruled Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. As a result of the Congress of Vienna, its successor state, the Duchy of Brunswick, was created in 1815.Shvarn
Shvarn, Shvarno or Svaromir Daniilovich (Lithuanian: Švarnas, Ukrainian: Шварно Данилович; c. 1230 – c. 1269), was the knyaz of western parts of Galicia (1264 – c. 1269) and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1267 – c. 1269). An influential leader, he became involved in internal struggles of power within neighboring Grand Duchy of Lithuania. He also held the town of Kholm (modern Chełm, Poland) in his domain.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1269
United Nations Security Council resolution 1269, adopted unanimously on 19 October 1999, after expressing concern at the increasing number of acts of international terrorism, the Council condemned terrorist attacks and called upon states to fully implement anti-terrorist conventions. It was the first time the Security Council had addressed terrorism in a general manner, though it did not define what constituted terrorism.