|1265 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2018|
|Balinese saka calendar||1186–1187|
|English Regnal year||49 Hen. 3 – 50 Hen. 3|
|Chinese calendar||甲子年 (Wood Rat)|
3961 or 3901
— to —
乙丑年 (Wood Ox)
3962 or 3902
|- Vikram Samvat||1321–1322|
|- Shaka Samvat||1186–1187|
|- Kali Yuga||4365–4366|
|Japanese calendar||Bun'ei 2|
|Minguo calendar||647 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1807–1808|
1391 or 1010 or 238
— to —
1392 or 1011 or 239
The papal election of 1264–65 (12 October – 5 February) was convened after the death of Pope Urban IV and ended by electing his successor Pope Clement IV. It met in Perugia, where Urban IV had taken refuge after being driven out of Orvieto. He had never been in Rome as Pope, but spent his entire reign in exile. It was the second election in a row where a pope was elected in absentia; the phenomenon would be repeated in the Conclave of 1268–1271, and again in the Conclave of 1292–1294. In the last two cases, the person elected was not even a Cardinal.1265 in Scotland
Events from the year 1265 in the Kingdom of Scotland.Athir al-Din al-Abhari
Athīr al‐Dīn al‐Mufaḍḍal ibn ʿUmar ibn al‐Mufaḍḍal al‐Samarqandī al‐Abharī, also known as Athīr al‐Dīn al‐Munajjim (d. in 1265 or 1262 Shabestar, Iran) was a philosopher, astronomer, astrologer and mathematician. Other than his influential writings, he had many famous disciples.Battle of Evesham
The Battle of Evesham (4 August 1265) was one of the two main battles of 13th century England's Second Barons' War. It marked the defeat of Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, and the rebellious barons by the future King Edward I, who led the forces of his father, King Henry III. It took place on 4 August 1265, near the town of Evesham, Worcestershire.
With the Battle of Lewes, Montfort had won control of royal government, but after the defection of several close allies and the escape from captivity of Prince Edward, he found himself on the defensive. Forced to engage the royalists at Evesham, he faced an army twice the size of his own. The battle soon turned into a massacre; Montfort himself was killed and his body mutilated. Though the battle effectively restored royal authority, scattered resistance remained until the Dictum of Kenilworth was signed in 1267.Conquest of Murcia (1265–66)
A conquest of Murcia took place in 1265–66 when James I of Aragon conquered the Muslim-held Taifa of Murcia on behalf of his ally Alfonso X of Castile. Previously, Murcia was a semi-independent vassal of Castile, but it renounced its allegiance during the Mudéjar revolt of 1264–1266. Aragon entered the war in Castile's side after Castile's Queen Violant—who was James' daughter—wrote a letter asking for her father's help. After initial negotiations with his nobles, James marched from Valencia at the end of October 1265. Subsequently, Aragonese troops took multiple Murcian towns and defeated a reinforcement column sent by the Emirate of Granada. The siege of the city of Murcia started in January 1266, ending in its surrender on 31 January and James' entrance to the city on 3 February. After the conquest, Murcia was returned to Castile and lost its semi-independent status. Subsequently, its Muslim population was moved to suburbs as Castile brought Christian settlers to populate the region.Dante Alighieri
Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri (Italian: [duˈrante deʎʎ aliˈɡjɛːri]; Latin: Dantes), commonly known by his name of art Dante Alighieri or simply as Dante (Italian: [ˈdante]; English: , UK also ; c. 1265 – 1321), was an Italian poet during the Late Middle Ages. His Divine Comedy, originally called Comedìa (modern Italian: Commedia) and later christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio, is widely considered the most important poem of the Middle Ages and the greatest literary work in the Italian language.In the late Middle Ages, most poetry was written in Latin, making it accessible only to the most educated readers. In De vulgari eloquentia (On Eloquence in the Vernacular), however, Dante defended the use of the vernacular in literature. He would even write in the Tuscan dialect for works such as The New Life (1295) and the Divine Comedy; this highly unorthodox choice set a precedent that important later Italian writers such as Petrarch and Boccaccio would follow.
Dante was instrumental in establishing the literature of Italy, and his depictions of Hell, Purgatory and Heaven provided inspiration for the larger body of Western art. He is cited as an influence on John Milton, Geoffrey Chaucer and Alfred Tennyson, among many others. In addition, the first use of the interlocking three-line rhyme scheme, or the terza rima, is attributed to him. In Italy, he is often referred to as il Sommo Poeta ("the Supreme Poet") and il Poeta; he, Petrarch, and Boccaccio are also called "the three fountains" or "the three crowns".Earl of Leicester
Earl of Leicester is a title that has been created seven times. The first title was granted during the 12th century in the Peerage of England. The current title is in the Peerage of the United Kingdom and was created in 1837.Edmund Crouchback
Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster, 1st Earl of Leicester (16 January 1245 – 5 June 1296), of Grosmont Castle in Monmouthshire, Wales, a member of the House of Plantagenet, was the second surviving son of King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence. In his childhood he had a claim on the Kingdom of Sicily, but he never ruled there. He was granted all the lands of Simon de Montfort in 1265, and from 1267 he was titled Earl of Leicester. In that year he also began to rule Lancashire, but he did not take the title Earl of Lancaster until 1276. Between 1276 and 1284 he governed the counties of Champagne and Brie with his second wife, Blanche of Artois, in the name of her daughter Joan. His nickname, "Crouchback" (meaning "crossed-back"), refers to his participation in the Ninth Crusade.Emperor Fushimi
Emperor Fushimi (伏見天皇, Fushimi-tennō, 10 May 1265 – 8 October 1317) was the 92nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1287 through 1298.Fall of Caesarea
The Crusader fortress of Caesarea fell to the Mamluks in 1265. In 1251, Louis IX had fortified the city, ordering the construction of high walls (parts of which are still standing) and a deep moat. However, strong walls could not keep out the Mamluk sultan Baybars, who ordered his troops to scale the walls in several places simultaneously, enabling them to penetrate the city.Fall of Haifa (1265)
In 1265, the army of Baibars the Mamluk captured Haifa, destroying its fortifications, which had been rebuilt by Louis IX of France, as well as the majority of the city's homes to prevent the European Crusaders from returning.Felim Ua Conchobair
Feidlim Ua Conchobair a.k.a. Fedhlim O'Connor was King of Connacht in Ireland, having been proclaimed King by William de Burgh in 1230, he reigned from 1233–65. Fedhlim died in 1265 and was buried in the Dominican Priory in Roscommon which he founded in 1253. He was succeeded by his eldest son Aedh mac Felim Ua Conchobair.
Among his sons were Aed MadFedlimid (-1274), and Aed Muimnech MacFedlimid a.k.a. Aedh mac Felim Ua Conchobair (-1280). A daughter, Fionnuala Ní Conchobair died in 1301 as abbess of Kilcreevanty, Clonfert. Having married while his brother Aedh Ua Conchobair was designated heir, he more than likely married someone of non-noble birth and thus her name does not appear in the annals.Godfrey Ludham
Godfrey Ludham (died 1265) was Archbishop of York from 1258 to 1265.Hulagu Khan
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (Mongolian: Хүлэгү/ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ, translit. Hu’legu’/Qülegü; Chagatay: ہلاکو; Persian: هولاکو خان, Hulâgu xân; Arabic: هولاكو خان/ هَلَاوُن; Chinese: 旭烈兀; pinyin: Xùlièwù [ɕû.ljê.û]; c. 1218 – 8 February 1265), was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Western Asia. Son of Tolui and the Keraite princess Sorghaghtani Beki, he was a grandson of Genghis Khan and brother of Ariq Böke, Möngke Khan, and Kublai Khan.
Hulagu's army greatly expanded the southwestern portion of the Mongol Empire, founding the Ilkhanate of Persia, a precursor to the eventual Safavid dynasty, and then the modern state of Iran. Under Hulagu's leadership, the siege of Baghdad (1258) destroyed Baghdad's standing in the Islamic world and weakened Damascus, causing a shift of Islamic influence to the Mamluk Sultanate in Cairo.Malaysia Federal Route 1265
Federal Route 1265 (formerly Negeri Sembilan state route N1) is a federal road in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
At most sections, the Federal Route 1265 was built under the JKR R5 road standard, allowing maximum speed limit of up to 90 km/h.Mongol invasion of Thrace
The Mongol invasion of Thrace took place in the winter of 1264/1265, under the leadership of Nogai Khan.
The Seljuk Sultan Kayqubad II appealed to Berke, khan of the Golden Horde to attack the Byzantine Empire in order to free his brother Kaykaus II.
With the assistance of the Second Bulgarian Empire (then vassal of the Golden Horde), around 2 tumens under the leardership of Nogai Khan crossed the Danube river and invaded Byzantine Thrace. Nogai defeated the armies of the Byzantine emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos in the spring of 1265. While most of the defeated army fled, the Byzantine Emperor likewise escaped with the assistance of Italian merchants. After that Thrace was plundered by Nogai's army.
Michael VIII was forced to release Kaykaus, and signed a treaty with Berke, in which he agreed to give one of his daughters, Euphrosyne Palaiogina, in marriage to Nogai. Berke ceded Crimea to Kaykus as appanage and agreed that he would marry a Mongol woman. Michael also sent tribute to the Horde.NGC 1265
NGC 1265 is a Fanaroff and Riley class 1 radio galaxy located in the constellation Perseus, a member of the Perseus Cluster.Simon de Montfort's Parliament
Simon de Montfort's Parliament was an English parliament held from 20 January 1265 until mid-March the same year, instigated by Simon de Montfort, a baronial rebel leader.
Simon de Montfort had seized power in England following his victory over Henry III at the Battle of Lewes during the Second Barons' War, but his grip on the country was under threat. In an attempt to gather more support he summoned representatives from not only the barons and the knights of the shires, as had occurred in previous parliaments, but also burgesses from the major towns. The resulting parliament in London discussed radical reforms and temporarily stabilised Montfort's political situation. Montfort was killed at the Battle of Evesham later that year, but the idea of inviting both knights and burgesses to parliaments became more popular under the reign of Henry's son Edward I. By the 14th century this had become the norm, with the gathering becoming known as the House of Commons. This parliament is sometimes referred to as the first English parliament and Montfort himself is often termed the founder of the Commons.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1265
United Nations Security Council resolution 1265, adopted unanimously on 17 September 1999, in the first resolution to address the topic, the Council discussed the protection of civilians during armed conflict.