Year 1252 (MCCLII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1252 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1252
Ab urbe condita2005
Armenian calendar701
Assyrian calendar6002
Balinese saka calendar1173–1174
Bengali calendar659
Berber calendar2202
English Regnal year36 Hen. 3 – 37 Hen. 3
Buddhist calendar1796
Burmese calendar614
Byzantine calendar6760–6761
Chinese calendar辛亥(Metal Pig)
3948 or 3888
    — to —
壬子年 (Water Rat)
3949 or 3889
Coptic calendar968–969
Discordian calendar2418
Ethiopian calendar1244–1245
Hebrew calendar5012–5013
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1308–1309
 - Shaka Samvat1173–1174
 - Kali Yuga4352–4353
Holocene calendar11252
Igbo calendar252–253
Iranian calendar630–631
Islamic calendar649–650
Japanese calendarKenchō 4
Javanese calendar1161–1162
Julian calendar1252
Korean calendar3585
Minguo calendar660 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−216
Thai solar calendar1794–1795
Tibetan calendar阴金猪年
(female Iron-Pig)
1378 or 997 or 225
    — to —
(male Water-Rat)
1379 or 998 or 226


By place





1250s in England

Events from the 1250s in England.

1252 in Ireland

Events from the year 1252 in Ireland.

Abel, King of Denmark

Abel of Denmark (1218 – 29 June 1252) was Duke of Schleswig from 1232 to 1252 and King of Denmark from 1250 until his death in 1252. He was the son of Valdemar II by his second wife, Berengária of Portugal, and brother to Eric IV and Christopher I.As Duke of Schleswig, Abel came into conflict with his brother, King Eric IV, whose murder in 1250 he was suspected of orchestrating. Upon taking an oath to clear himself of the allegations, he was elected king. After a short reign, he was killed during a military expedition in Frisia.

Abel's reign was the shortest of any Danish monarch since the 9th century. He founded a line of Dukes of Schleswig - the "Abel family" - which ruled the Duchy of Schleswig until 1375.


Anhalt-Bernburg was a principality of the Holy Roman Empire and a duchy of the German Confederation ruled by the House of Ascania with its residence at Bernburg in present-day Saxony-Anhalt. It emerged as a subdivision from the Principality of Anhalt from 1252 until 1468, when it fell to the Ascanian principality of Anhalt-Dessau. Recreated in 1603, Anhalt-Bernburg finally merged into the re-unified Duchy of Anhalt upon the extinction of the line in 1863.

Ferdinand III of Castile

Ferdinand III (Spanish: Fernando III), 1199/1201 – 30 May 1252, called the Saint (el Santo), was King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230 as well as King of Galicia from 1231. He was the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile. Through his second marriage he was also Count of Aumale. Ferdinand III was one of the most successful kings of Castile, securing not only the permanent union of the crowns of Castile and León, but also masterminding the most expansive campaign of Reconquista yet.

By military and diplomatic efforts, Ferdinand greatly expanded the dominions of Castile into southern Spain, annexing many of the great old cities of al-Andalus, including the old Andalusian capitals of Córdoba and Seville, and establishing the boundaries of the Castilian state for the next two centuries.

Ferdinand was canonized in 1671 by Pope Clement X and, in Spanish, he is known as Fernando el Santo, San Fernando or San Fernando Rey. Places such as San Fernando, Pampanga, San Fernando, La Union, Patron Saint of the Diocese of Ilagan,Province of Isabela - San Fernando de Ilagan and the San Fernando de Dilao Church in Paco, Manila in the Philippines, and in California, San Fernando City and the San Fernando Valley, were named for him and placed under his patronage.


Guilder is the English translation of the Dutch and German gulden, originally shortened from Middle High German guldin pfenninc "gold penny". This was the term that became current in the southern and western parts of the Holy Roman Empire for the Fiorino d'oro (introduced 1252). Hence, the name has often been interchangeable with florin (currency sign ƒ or ƒl.).

ISO/IEC 8859-1

ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 1: Latin alphabet No. 1, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1987. ISO 8859-1 encodes what it refers to as "Latin alphabet no. 1," consisting of 191 characters from the Latin script. This character-encoding scheme is used throughout the Americas, Western Europe, Oceania, and much of Africa. It is also commonly used in most standard romanizations of East-Asian languages. It is the basis for most popular 8-bit character sets and the first block of characters in Unicode.

ISO-8859-1 is (according to the standards at least) the default encoding of documents delivered via HTTP with a MIME type beginning with "text/" (HTML5 changed this to Windows-1252). As of March 2019, 3.4% of all web sites claim to use ISO 8859-1. However, this includes an unknown number of pages actually using Windows-1252 and/or UTF-8, both of which are commonly recognized by browsers despite the character set tag.

It is the default encoding of the values of certain descriptive HTTP headers, and defines the repertoire of characters allowed in HTML 3.2 documents (HTML 4.0 uses Unicode), and is specified by many other standards. This and similar sets are often assumed to be the encoding of 8-bit text on Unix and Microsoft Windows if there is no byte order mark (BOM), this is only gradually being changed to UTF-8.

ISO-8859-1 is the IANA preferred name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. The following other aliases are registered: iso-ir-100, csISOLatin1, latin1, l1, IBM819. Code page 28591 a.k.a. Windows-28591 is used for it in Windows. IBM calls it code page 819 or CP819. Oracle calls it WE8ISO8859P1.

List of Farm to Market Roads in Texas (1200–1299)

Farm to Market Roads in Texas are maintained by the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT).

Morača (monastery)

Morača Monastery (Montenegrin: Манастир Морача) is a Serbian Orthodox monastery located in the valley of the Morača River in Kolašin, central Montenegro. It was founded in 1252 by Stefan Vukanović, of the Nemanjić dynasty. It is one of the best known medieval monuments of Montenegro.

Podmalinsko Monastery

Podmalinsko Monastery (Serbian Cyrillic: Манастир Подмалинско) or Tušinski Monastery is a Serbian Orthodox monastery near Šavnik in modern-day Montenegro (then Kingdom of Serbia).

Principality of Anhalt-Zerbst

Anhalt-Zerbst was a principality of the Holy Roman Empire ruled by the House of Ascania, with its residence at Zerbst in present-day Saxony-Anhalt. It emerged as a subdivision of the Principality of Anhalt from 1252 until 1396, when it was divided into the principalities of Anhalt-Dessau and Anhalt-Köthen. Recreated in 1544, Anhalt-Zerbst finally was partitioned between Anhalt-Dessau, Anhalt-Köthen, and Anhalt-Bernburg in 1796 upon the extinction of the line.

Robert Passelewe

Robert Passelewe (or Robert Papelew; died 1252) was a medieval Bishop of Chichester elect as well as being a royal clerk and Archdeacon of Lewes.

Roger de Wynkleigh

Roger de Wynkleigh was Dean of Exeter between 1231 and 1252.

Safi-ad-din Ardabili

Sheikh Safi-ad-din Is'haq Ardabili (of Ardabil) (1252–1334) (Persian: شیخ صفی‌الدین اسحاق اردبیلی‎ Shaikh Ṣāfī ad-Dīn Isḥāq Ardabīlī), was the Kurdish and Sunni Muslim eponym of the Safavid dynasty, founder of the Safaviyya order, and the spiritual heir and son in law of the great Sufi Murshid (Grand Master) Sheikh Zahed Gilani, of Lahijan in Gilan province in northern Iran. Most of what we know about him comes from the Safvat as-safa, a hagiography written by one of his followers.

Wesenberg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Wesenberg is a town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. It is situated 11 km southwest of Neustrelitz, at the south-west end of the Woblitzsee. Wesenberg Castle is located just outside the town.

Western Latin character sets (computing)

Several binary representations of character sets for common Western European languages are compared in this article. These encodings were designed for representation of Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, German, Dutch, English, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, and Icelandic, which use the Latin alphabet, a few additional letters and ones with precomposed diacritics, some punctuation, and various symbols (including some Greek letters). Although they're called "Western European" many of these languages are spoken all over the world. Also, these character sets happen to support many other languages such as Malay, Swahili, and Classical Latin.

This material is technically obsolete, having been functionally replaced by Unicode. However it continues to have historical interest.


Windows-1250 is a code page used under Microsoft Windows to represent texts in Central European and Eastern European languages that use Latin script, such as Polish, Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, Slovene, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian (Latin script), Romanian (before 1993 spelling reform) and Albanian. It may also be used with the German language; German-language texts encoded with Windows-1250 and Windows-1252 are identical.

In modern applications UTF-8 or UTF-16 is a preferred encoding; 0.1% of all web pages use Windows-1250 since August 2017.Windows-1250 is similar to ISO-8859-2 and has all the printable characters it has and more. However a few of them are rearranged (unlike Windows-1252, which keeps all printable characters from ISO-8859-1 in the same place). Most of the rearrangements seem to have been done to keep characters shared with Windows-1252 in the same place as in Windows-1252 but three of the characters moved (Ą, Ľ, ź) cannot be explained this way, since those do not occur in Windows-1252 and could have been put in the same positions as in ISO-8859-2 if ˇ had been put e.g. at 9F. The part that differs from ISO-8859-2 is compared with Windows-1252 in the table below:

Note: The shaded positions at A2, A3, AA, AF, B2, B3, BA, BD and BF are the same as in ISO-8859-2. Positions which are identical in Windows-1252 and Windows-1250 are not shown.


Windows-1252 or CP-1252 (code page – 1252) is a single-byte character encoding of the Latin alphabet, used by default in the legacy components of Microsoft Windows in English and some other Western languages (other languages use different default encodings).

It is probably the most-used 8-bit character encoding in the world. As of March 2019, 0.6% of all web sites declared use of Windows-1252, but at the same time 3.4% used ISO 8859-1, which by HTML5 standards should be considered the same encoding, so that 4.0% of web sites effectively used Windows-1252. In addition, most web browsers will correctly render it if encountered in text that claims to be UTF-8, so its actual usage may be higher.


Windows-1257 (Windows Baltic) is a single byte code page used to support the Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian languages under Microsoft Windows. This code page is similar in layout to ISO 8859-13, but they differ in codepoints A1, A5, B4, FF, and in the range 80–9F, which is typically allocated with graphical characters in most single byte Windows code pages. Windows-1257 is not compatible with the older ISO 8859-4 and ISO 8859-10 encodings.

As with many other code pages, the languages supported in this code page can be supported in other code pages. The Estonian language can be written with Windows-1252. It is possible, but unusual, to write Polish, Swedish, Finnish, Norwegian, Danish and German using this code page. The German specific characters will be identical to those encoded in Windows-1252.

Unicode is preferred to Windows-1257 in modern applications.

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