1207

Year 1207 (MCCVII) was a loophole free year starting on Monday (link display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1207 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1207
MCCVII
Ab urbe condita1960
Armenian calendar656
ԹՎ ՈԾԶ
Assyrian calendar5957
Balinese saka calendar1128–1129
Bengali calendar614
Berber calendar2157
English Regnal yearJoh. 1 – 9 Joh. 1
Buddhist calendar1751
Burmese calendar569
Byzantine calendar6715–6716
Chinese calendar丙寅(Fire Tiger)
3903 or 3843
    — to —
丁卯年 (Fire Rabbit)
3904 or 3844
Coptic calendar923–924
Discordian calendar2373
Ethiopian calendar1199–1200
Hebrew calendar4967–4968
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1263–1264
 - Shaka Samvat1128–1129
 - Kali Yuga4307–4308
Holocene calendar11207
Igbo calendar207–208
Iranian calendar585–586
Islamic calendar603–604
Japanese calendarKen'ei 2 / Jōgen (Kamakura period) 1
(承元元年)
Javanese calendar1115–1116
Julian calendar1207
MCCVII
Korean calendar3540
Minguo calendar705 before ROC
民前705年
Nanakshahi calendar−261
Thai solar calendar1749–1750
Tibetan calendar阳火虎年
(male Fire-Tiger)
1333 or 952 or 180
    — to —
阴火兔年
(female Fire-Rabbit)
1334 or 953 or 181

Events

By area

Asia

  • Before 1207 – Kosho writes Kuya Preaching, during the Kamakura period (it is now kept at Rokuhara Mitsu-ji, Kyoto).
  • Hōnen and his followers are exiled to remote parts of Japan, while a few are executed, for what the government considers heretical Buddhist teachings.

Europe

By topic

Markets

  • The first evidence is discovered of forced loans in Venice. This technique becomes the staple of public finance in Europe, until the 16th century.[1]

Religion

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ Munro, John H. (2003). "The Medieval Origins of the Financial Revolution". The International History Review. 15 (3): 506–562.
1200s BC (decade)

The 1200s BC is a decade which lasted from 1209 BC to 1200 BC.

1200s in England

Events from the 1200s in England.

1207 in Ireland

Events from the year 1207 in Ireland.

2M1207

2M1207, 2M1207A or 2MASS J12073346-3932539 is a brown dwarf located in the constellation Centaurus; a companion object, 2M1207b, may be the first extrasolar planetary-mass companion to be directly imaged, and is the first discovered orbiting a brown dwarf.2M1207 was discovered during the course of the 2MASS infrared sky survey: hence the "2M" in its name, followed by its celestial coordinates. With a fairly early (for a brown dwarf) spectral type of M8, it is very young, and probably a member of the TW Hydrae association. Its estimated mass is around 25 Jupiter masses. The companion, 2M1207b, is estimated to have a mass of 3–10 Jupiter masses. Still glowing red hot, it will shrink to a size slightly smaller than Jupiter as it cools over the next few billion years.

An initial photometric estimate for the distance to 2M1207 was 70 parsecs. In December 2005, American astronomer Eric Mamajek reported a more accurate distance (53 ± 6 parsecs) to 2M1207 using the moving cluster method. The new distance gives a fainter luminosity for 2M1207. Recent trigonometric parallax results have confirmed this moving cluster distance, leading to a distance estimate of 53 ± 1 parsec or 172 ± 3 light years.Like classical T Tauri stars, many brown dwarfs are surrounded by disks of gas and dust which accrete onto the brown dwarf. 2M1207 was first suspected to have such a disk because of its broad Hα line. This was later confirmed by ultraviolet spectroscopy. The existence of a dust disk has also been confirmed by infrared observations. In general, accretion from disks is known to produce fast-moving jets, perpendicular to the disk, of ejected material. This has also been observed for 2M1207; an April 2007 paper in the Astrophysical Journal reports that this brown dwarf is spouting jets of material from its poles. The jets, which extend around 109 kilometers into space, were discovered using the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the European Southern Observatory. Material in the jets streams into space at a few kilometers per second.

Cockerham Priory

Cockerham Priory was a priory served by Austin Canons in Cockerham, Lancashire, England. St Michael's Church was granted to Leicester Abbey c. 1153-54, with some land. The priory was founded in 1207 or 1208 as a cell of the Abbey of St Mary de Pratis ("St Mary in the Meadows") in Leicester.

Cumae

Cumae (Ancient Greek: Κύμη, translit. (Kumē) or Κύμαι (Kumai) or Κύμα (Kuma); Italian: Cuma) was the first ancient Greek colony on the mainland of Italy, founded by settlers from Euboea in the 8th century BC and soon becoming one of the strongest colonies. It later became a rich Roman city, the remains of which lie near the modern village of Cuma, a frazione of the comune Bacoli in the Province of Naples, Campania, Italy.

The archaeological museum of the Campi Flegri in the Aragonese castle contains many finds from Cumae.

Duchy of the Archipelago

The Duchy of the Archipelago (Italian: Ducato dell'arcipelago, Greek: Δουκάτο του Αρχιπελάγους), or also Duchy of Naxos (Italian: Ducato di Nasso, Greek: Δουκάτο της Νάξου) or Duchy of the Aegean (Italian: Ducato dell'Egeo, Greek: Δουκάτο του Αιγαίου), was a maritime state created by Venetian interests in the Cyclades archipelago in the Aegean Sea, in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade, centered on the islands of Naxos and Paros. It included all the Cyclades (except Mykonos and Tinos). In 1537 it became a tributary of the Ottoman Empire, and was annexed by the Ottomans in 1579; however, Christian rule survived in islands such as Siphnos (conquered by the Ottomans in 1617) and Tinos (conquered only in 1714).

Dunlough Castle

Dunlough Castle, standing atop the cliffs at the northern tip of the Mizen Peninsula, looks at the Atlantic Ocean from the extreme southwest point of Ireland. Founded in 1207 by Donagh O’Mahony, Dunlough is one of the oldest Norman castles in southern Ireland and an interesting example of Norman architecture and dry stone masonry.

Federal Reserve Transparency Act

The Federal Reserve Transparency Act of 2015 (H.R. 24) was a bill introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives of the 114th United States Congress by Congressman Thomas Massie (KY-4). It included proposals for a reformed audit of the Federal Reserve System (the "Fed"). The Senate version was introduced by Senator Rand Paul (R-KY). (S. 264).

The original version of the bill, (H.R. 1207), was proposed by now retired Congressman Ron Paul in response to the 2008 financial crisis during the 111th United States Congress. The Senate version was introduced by Bernie Sanders (I-VT). (S. 604). Ron Paul was disappointed with the Senate's version of the bill, stating it "guts the spirit of a truly meaningful audit of the most crucial transactions of the Fed".The bill was subsequently brought up in the 112th United States Congress as (H.R. 459) /S. 202 and in the 113th United States Congress as (H.R. 24)/S. 209. All three previous attempts passed in United States House of Representatives but died in the US Senate.

German submarine U-1207

German submarine U-1207 was a Type VIIC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.

She was ordered on 2 April 1943, and was laid down on 26 June 1943 at F Schichau GmbH, Danzig, as yard number 1577. She was launched on 6 January 1944 and commissioned under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Kurt Lindemann on 23 March 1944.

Henry III of England

Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death. The son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême, Henry assumed the throne when he was only nine in the middle of the First Barons' War. Cardinal Guala declared the war against the rebel barons to be a religious crusade and Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich in 1217. Henry promised to abide by the Great Charter of 1225, which limited royal power and protected the rights of the major barons. His early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh and then Peter des Roches, who re-established royal authority after the war. In 1230, the King attempted to reconquer the provinces of France that had once belonged to his father, but the invasion was a debacle. A revolt led by William Marshal's son, Richard, broke out in 1232, ending in a peace settlement negotiated by the Church.

Following the revolt, Henry ruled England personally, rather than governing through senior ministers. He travelled less than previous monarchs, investing heavily in a handful of his favourite palaces and castles. He married Eleanor of Provence, with whom he had five children. Henry was known for his piety, holding lavish religious ceremonies and giving generously to charities; the King was particularly devoted to the figure of Edward the Confessor, whom he adopted as his patron saint. He extracted huge sums of money from the Jews in England, ultimately crippling their ability to do business, and as attitudes towards the Jews hardened, he introduced the Statute of Jewry, attempting to segregate the community. In a fresh attempt to reclaim his family's lands in France, he invaded Poitou in 1242, leading to the disastrous Battle of Taillebourg. After this, Henry relied on diplomacy, cultivating an alliance with Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry supported his brother Richard in his bid to become King of the Romans in 1256, but was unable to place his own son Edmund on the throne of Sicily, despite investing large amounts of money. He planned to go on crusade to the Levant, but was prevented from doing so by rebellions in Gascony.

By 1258, Henry's rule was increasingly unpopular, the result of the failure of his expensive foreign policies and the notoriety of his Poitevin half-brothers, the Lusignans, as well as the role of his local officials in collecting taxes and debts. A coalition of his barons, initially probably backed by Eleanor, seized power in a coup d'état and expelled the Poitevins from England, reforming the royal government through a process called the Provisions of Oxford. Henry and the baronial government enacted a peace with France in 1259, under which Henry gave up his rights to his other lands in France in return for King Louis IX recognising him as the rightful ruler of Gascony. The baronial regime collapsed but Henry was unable to reform a stable government and instability across England continued.

In 1263, one of the more radical barons, Simon de Montfort, seized power, resulting in the Second Barons' War. Henry persuaded Louis to support his cause and mobilised an army. The Battle of Lewes occurred in 1264, where Henry was defeated and taken prisoner. Henry's eldest son, Edward, escaped from captivity to defeat de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham the following year and freed his father. Henry initially enacted a harsh revenge on the remaining rebels, but was persuaded by the Church to mollify his policies through the Dictum of Kenilworth. Reconstruction was slow and Henry had to acquiesce to various measures, including further suppression of the Jews, to maintain baronial and popular support. Henry died in 1272, leaving Edward as his successor. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, which he had rebuilt in the second half of his reign, and was moved to his current tomb in 1290. Some miracles were declared after his death; however, he was not canonised.

Jalan FELDA Gedangsa

Federal Route 1207, or Jalan FELDA Gedangsa, is a Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) federal road in Selangor, Malaysia.

The Kilometre Zero is located at Jalan Sabak Bernam-Hulu Selangor.

At most sections, the Federal Route 1207 was built under the JKR R5 road standard, allowing maximum speed limit of up to 90 km/h.

Jōgen (Kamakura period)

Jōgen (承元) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. year name) after Ken'ei and before Kenryaku. This period spanned the years from October 1207 through March 1211. The reigning emperors were Tsuchimikado-tennō (土御門天皇) and Juntoku-tennō (順徳天皇).

Kaloyan of Bulgaria

Kaloyan, also known as Kalojan, Johannitsa or Ioannitsa (Bulgarian: Калоян; c. 1170 – October 1207) was emperor (or tsar) of Bulgaria from 1196 to 1207. He was a younger brother of Theodor and Asen who led the anti-Byzantine uprising of the Bulgarians and Vlachs in 1185. The uprising ended with the restoration of the independence of Bulgaria. He spent years as a hostage in Constantinople in the late 1180s. Theodor (who had been crowned emperor under the name Peter) made him his co-ruler after Asen was murdered in 1196. A year later, Theodor-Peter was also assassinated, and Kaloyan became the sole ruler of Bulgaria.

To obtain an imperial crown from the Holy See, Kaloyan entered into correspondence with Pope Innocent III, offering to acknowledge papal primacy. His expansionist policy brought him into conflict with the Byzantine Empire, Serbia and Hungary. Emeric, King of Hungary allowed the papal legate who delivered a royal crown to Kaloyan to enter Bulgaria only at the Pope's demand. The legate crowned Kaloyan "King of the Bulgarians and Vlachs" on 8 November 1204, but Kaloyan continued to regard his realm as an empire.

Kaloyan took advantage of the disintegration of the Byzantine Empire after the fall of Constantinople to the crusaders (or "Latins") in 1204. He captured fortresses in Macedonia and Thrace and supported the local population's riots against the crusaders. He defeated Baldwin I, Latin emperor of Constantinople, in the Battle of Adrianople on 14 April 1205. Baldwin was captured; he died in Kaloyan's prison. He launched new campaigns against the crusaders and captured or destroyed dozens of their fortresses. He was thereafter known as Kaloyan the Romanslayer, because his troops murdered or captured thousands of Romaioi (or local Greeks). He died under mysterious circumstances during the siege of Thessalonica in 1207.

NGC 246

NGC 246, known as the Skull Nebula, is a planetary nebula in the constellation Cetus. The nebula and the stars associated with it are listed in several catalogs, as summarized by the SIMBAD database. It is roughly 1,600 light-years away. The nebula's central star is the 12th magnitude white dwarf HIP 3678.

Among some amateur astronomers, NGC 246 is known as the "Pac-Man Nebula" because of the arrangement of its central stars and the surrounding star field.

Simon of Wells

Simon of Wells (died 1207) was a medieval Bishop of Chichester.

Socket F

Socket F is a CPU socket designed by AMD for its Opteron line of CPUs released on August 15, 2006. In 2010 Socket F was replaced by Socket C32 for entry-level servers and Socket G34 for high-end servers.

Terra Mariana

Terra Mariana (Medieval Latin for "Land of Mary") was the official name for Medieval Livonia or Old Livonia (German: Alt-Livland, Estonian: Vana-Liivimaa, Latvian: Livonija), which was formed in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade in the territories comprising present day Estonia and Latvia. It was established on 2 February 1207, as a principality of the Holy Roman Empire but lost this status in 1215 when proclaimed by Pope Innocent III as directly subject to the Holy See.Terra Mariana was divided into feudal principalities by Papal Legate William of Modena:

Duchy of Estonia (Dominum directum to the King of Denmark)

Archbishopric of Riga

Bishopric of Courland

Bishopric of Dorpat

Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek

Military administration of the Livonian Brothers of the SwordAfter the 1236 Battle of Saule the surviving members of the Brothers merged in 1237 with the Teutonic Order of Prussia and became known as the Livonian Order. In 1346 the Order bought Danish Estonia. Throughout the existence of medieval Livonia there was a constant struggle over supremacy, between the lands ruled by the Church, the Order, the secular German nobility and the citizens of the Hanseatic towns of Riga and Reval. Following its defeat in the Battle of Grunwald in 1410 the Teutonic Order and the Ordensstaat fell into decline but the Livonian Order managed to maintain its independent existence. In 1561, during the Livonian war, Terra Mariana ceased to exist. Its northern parts were ceded to the Swedish Empire and formed into the Duchy of Estonia, its southern territories became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania — and thus eventually of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth — as the Duchy of Livonia and the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia. The island of Saaremaa became part of Denmark.

Since the beginning of the 20th century Terra Mariana (Estonian: Maarjamaa) has been used as a poetic name or sobriquet for Estonia. In 1995 the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana, a state decoration, was instituted to honor the independence of Estonia.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1207

United Nations Security Council resolution 1207, adopted on 17 November 1998, after recalling all resolutions concerning the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia, in particular Resolution 827 (1993), the Council condemned the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) for its failure to execute arrest warrants issued by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY).The Security Council recalled the General Framework Agreement and deplored the lack of co-operation by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia with the ICTY.

Acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Council reminded all states of their obligation to co-operate with the Tribunal, including the execution of arrest warrants. It called on countries which had not yet done so, including the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, to take measures under their domestic law to implement Resolution 827; it could not invoke provisions of domestic law to account for its failure to meet its obligations under international law.

The resolution condemned that arrest warrants had not been issued for three suspects charged with a massacre of 200 Croats and demanded the immediate and unconditional execution of those arrest warrants and a transfer to the Tribunal. The authorities in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Kosovo and other countries were urged to co-operate with the Prosecutor at the ICTY for alleged war crimes. Finally, the President of the Tribunal was urged to keep the Council informed on developments.

Resolution 1207 was adopted by 14 votes to none against, with one abstention from China, which argued that the ICTY was not a permanent court of law and therefore could not interfere in the internal affairs of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and other countries.

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