1202

Year 1202 (MCCII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1202 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1202
MCCII
Ab urbe condita1955
Armenian calendar651
ԹՎ ՈԾԱ
Assyrian calendar5952
Balinese saka calendar1123–1124
Bengali calendar609
Berber calendar2152
English Regnal yearJoh. 1 – 4 Joh. 1
Buddhist calendar1746
Burmese calendar564
Byzantine calendar6710–6711
Chinese calendar辛酉(Metal Rooster)
3898 or 3838
    — to —
壬戌年 (Water Dog)
3899 or 3839
Coptic calendar918–919
Discordian calendar2368
Ethiopian calendar1194–1195
Hebrew calendar4962–4963
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1258–1259
 - Shaka Samvat1123–1124
 - Kali Yuga4302–4303
Holocene calendar11202
Igbo calendar202–203
Iranian calendar580–581
Islamic calendar598–599
Japanese calendarKennin 2
(建仁2年)
Javanese calendar1110–1111
Julian calendar1202
MCCII
Korean calendar3535
Minguo calendar710 before ROC
民前710年
Nanakshahi calendar−266
Thai solar calendar1744–1745
Tibetan calendar阴金鸡年
(female Iron-Rooster)
1328 or 947 or 175
    — to —
阳水狗年
(male Water-Dog)
1329 or 948 or 176

Events

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Culture

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Deaths

Science and Technology

References

  1. ^ Warren, W. L. (1961). King John. University of California Press. pp. 77–78.
  2. ^ Picard, Christophe (1997). La mer et les musulmans d'Occident VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
  3. ^ Georg Haggren; Petri Halinen; Mika Lavento; Sami Raninen ja Anna Wessman (2015). Muinaisuutemme jäljet. Helsinki: Gaudeamus. p. 380.
1200s in England

Events from the 1200s in England.

1202 in Ireland

Events from the year 1202 in Ireland.

1202 in Scotland

Events from the year 1202 in the Kingdom of Scotland.

Anglo-French War (1213–1214)

The Anglo-French War was a war between the Kingdom of France and the Kingdom of England. The war was mainly fought in Normandy, where King John of England fought King Philip II of France for domination. The end of the war came to an end at the decisive Battle of Bouvines, where Philip defeated England and its allies.

Normandy, once a site of conflict between Richard I of England and Philip II of France, grew to be one of the hot spots of the wars as the King of England as Duke of Normandy had to defend his territory close to Paris. When John of England rose to the throne, he fought to expand his empire, launching the campaign in Normandy to rival Philip in national territory. He lost much territory leading up to the major battle at Château Gaillard from 1203 to 1204.

The Anglo-Norman army retreated to the castle, holding their position. Though all of their relief attempts failed, they held out for years. Soon, Philip ordered his men to climb up garderobes, or toilet chutes. The sneak attacks resulted in the fall of the castle.

In 1214, when Pope Innocent III assembled an alliance of states against France, John registered in. The allies met Philip near Bouvines. The Battle of Bouvines saw Philip win with the smaller number of troops due to using couched lances. The victory for France ended in the conquest of Flanders and the defeat of any attempt from John to regain his lost territories.

This conflict was an episode in a longer conflict between France and England over the possessions of the English monarchy in France, which started with Henry II of England's accession to the English throne in 1154 and his conflict with Louis VII of France, and ended with the decisive victory of Louis IX of France over Henry III of England at the Battle of Taillebourg in 1242.

Battle of Basian

The Battle of Basiani was fought, in the 13th century, between the armies of the Kingdom of Georgia and the Seljuqid Sultanate of Rum in the Basiani valley, 60 km northeast of the city of Erzurum in what is now northeast Republic of Turkey. The battle is variously dated between 1202 and 1205, but 1203 or 1204 has lately been given preference. The contemporary Muslim analyst Ibn Bibi places the battle in 598 AH (October 1, 1201 – September 19, 1202). The modern Turkish historians identify the castle of Micingerd (Mazankert) as the location of the battle.

Canute VI of Denmark

Canute VI (Danish: Knud Valdemarsøn; 1163 – 12 November 1202) was King of Denmark (1182–1202).

Contemporary sources describe Canute as an earnest, strongly religious man.

Cathal Carragh Ua Conchobair

Cathal Carragh Ua Conchobair was King of Connacht from 1189 to 1202.

One of the seven sons of King Conchobar Maenmaige Ua Conchobair, his nickname carragh ('scabby') suggests he had some sort of skin disease. The identities of his mother and wife are unknown. He first came to prominence during the war of the rigdamnae in 1185, supporting his father in a three-way contest against Conchobair's father, King Ruaidhri of Connacht, and Ruaidhri's brother, Cathal Crobderg Ua Conchobair.

After his father's assassination in 1189, Cathal hunted down and killed the instigator, the mysterious Conchobar ua nDiarmata. Cathal became king but faced contention from Cathal Crobderg; the dynastic in-fighting aided the introduction of Anglo-Norman forces west of the Shannon, who were employed by both men.

Cathal was killed in battle at Corr Sliaib in the Curlew Mountains in 1202. He was survived by at least one son, Melaghlin, who was killed ten years later.

County of Hoya

The County of Hoya (German: Grafschaft Hoya) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the present German state of Lower Saxony. It was centered on the town of Hoya on the middle Weser river, between Bremen and Nienburg; the area now belongs to the districts of Nienburg and Diepholz. The largest city of the county was Nienburg.

Dibromodifluoromethane

Dibromodifluoromethane is a mixed halomethane. It is a colorless non-flammable liquid.

Along with Halons 1211, 2402, and 1301, it is the most effective fire extinguishers, however, also the most toxic one.It is a class I ozone depleting substance (ODS).

Fibonacci

Fibonacci (c. 1170 – c. 1250) was an Italian mathematician from the Republic of Pisa, considered to be "the most talented Western mathematician of the Middle Ages".

The name he is commonly called, "Fibonacci" (Italian: [fiboˈnattʃi]), was made up in 1838 by the Franco-Italian historian Guillaume Libri and is short for filius Bonacci ("son of Bonacci"). He is also known as Leonardo Bonacci, Leonardo of Pisa, or Leonardo Bigollo ("traveller") Pisano.Fibonacci popularized the Hindu–Arabic numeral system in the Western World primarily through his composition in 1202 of Liber Abaci (Book of Calculation). He also introduced Europe to the sequence of Fibonacci numbers, which he used as an example in Liber Abaci.

French invasion of Normandy (1202–1204)

The Normandy Campaigns were wars in Normandy from 1202 to 1204. The Kingdom of England fought the Kingdom of France as well as fighting off rebellions from nobles. Philip II of France conquered the Anglo-Angevin territories in Normandy, resulting in the Siege of Château Gaillard. The Normandy Campaigns ended in a victory for France when the Anglo-Angevin territory was greatly diminished.

German submarine U-1202

German submarine U-1202 was a Type VIIC U-boat built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine for service during World War II.

She was laid down on 28 April 1943 by Schichau-Werke, Danzig as yard number 1572, launched on 11 November 1943 and commissioned on 27 January 1944 under Kapitänleutnant Rolf Thomsen.

Livonian Brothers of the Sword

The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin: Fratres militiæ Christi Livoniae, German: Schwertbrüderorden, French: Ordre des Chevaliers Porte-Glaive) was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga (or possibly by Theoderich von Treyden), in 1202. Pope Innocent III sanctioned the establishment in 1204 for the second time. The membership of the order comprised German "warrior monks" who fought Baltic and Finnic pagans in the area of modern-day Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Alternative names of the Order include Christ Knights, Sword Brethren, and The Militia of Christ of Livonia. The seal reads: +MAGISTRI ETFRM (et fratrum) MILICIE CRI (Christi) DE LIVONIA.

Following their defeat by the Samogitians and Semigallians in the Battle of Schaulen (Saule) in 1236, the surviving Brothers merged into the Teutonic Order as an autonomous branch and became known as the Livonian Order.

Muhammad of Ghor

Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori (Persian: معز الدین محمد غوری‎), born Shihab ad-Din (1149 – March 15, 1206), also known as Muhammad of Ghor, was Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad from 1173 to 1202 and as the sole ruler from 1202 to 1206.

Mu'izz ad-Din was one of the greatest rulers of the Ghurid dynasty and is credited with laying the foundation of Muslim rule in the Indian subcontinent, which lasted for several centuries. He reigned over a territory spanning over parts of modern-day Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, north India, Pakistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan.

Mu'izz ad-Din took the city of Ghazni in 1173 to avenge the death of his ancestor Muhammad ibn Suri at the hands of Mahmud of Ghazni and used it as a launching-pad for expansion into northern India. In the meantime, he assisted his brother Ghiyath in his contest with the Khwarazmian Empire for the lordship of Khorasan in Western Asia. In 1175, Mu'izz captured Multan from the Hamid Ludi dynasty, which were Muslim Pashtun, and also took Uch in 1175. He also annexed the Ghaznavid principality of Lahore in 1186, the last haven of his Persianised rivals. After the death of Ghiyath in 1202, he became the successor of the Ghurid Empire and ruled until his assassination in 1206.

A confused struggle then ensued among the remaining Ghuri leaders, and the Khwarizmi were able to take over the Ghurid Sultanate in about 1215. Though the Ghurids' empire was short-lived, and petty Ghurid states remained in power until the arrival of the Timurids, Mu'izz's conquests laid the foundations of Muslim rule in India. Qutbu l-Din Aibak, a former slave (Mamluk) of Mu'izz, was the first Sultan of Delhi.

Nokia 1202

The Nokia 1202 is a low-end GSM mobile phone sold by Nokia under their Ultrabasic series. It was announced in November 2008 and was released in April 2009, being aimed at first-time mobile phone users.

PSB-SB-1202

PSB-SB-1202 is a coumarin derivative which is an agonist at the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, with a CB1 Ki of 32nM and a CB2 Ki of 49nM. It is also a weak antagonist at the related receptor GPR55, with an IC50 of 6350nM, but has no significant affinity for GPR18.

Sancho I of Portugal

Sancho I (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈsɐ̃ʃu]), nicknamed "the Populator" (Portuguese: "o Povoador"), King of Portugal (Coimbra, 11 November 1154 – 26 March 1211) was the second but only surviving legitimate son and fifth child of Afonso I of Portugal by his wife, Maud of Savoy. Sancho succeeded his father and was crowned in Coimbra when he was 31 years old on 9 December 1185. He used the title King of Silves from 1189 until he lost the territory to Almohad control in 1191.

Siege of Zara

The Siege of Zara or Siege of Zadar (Croatian: Opsada Zadra, Hungarian: Zára ostroma; 10–24 November 1202) was the first major action of the Fourth Crusade and the first attack against a Catholic city by Catholic crusaders. The crusaders had an agreement with Venice for transport across the sea, but the price far exceeded what they were able to pay. Venice set the condition that the crusaders help them capture Zadar (or Zara), a constant battleground between Venice on one side and Croatia and Hungary on the other, whose king, Emeric, pledged himself to join the Crusade. Although some of the crusaders refused to take part in the siege, the attack on Zadar began in November 1202 despite letters from Pope Innocent III forbidding such an action and threatening excommunication. Zadar fell on 24 November and the Venetians and the crusaders sacked the city. After spending the winter in Zadar the Fourth Crusade continued its campaign, which led to the Siege of Constantinople.

Sverre of Norway

Sverre Sigurdsson (Old Norse: Sverrir Sigurðarson) (c. 1145/1151 – 9 March 1202) was the King of Norway from 1184 to 1202. He married Margareta Eriksdotter, the daughter of the Swedish king Eric IX, by whom he had the daughter Kristina Sverresdotter.

Many consider him one of the most important rulers in Norwegian history. He assumed power as the leader of the rebel party known as the Birkebeiner in 1177, during their struggle against King Magnus Erlingsson. After Magnus fell at the Battle of Fimreite in 1184, Sverre ruled as sole king of Norway. Differences with the Church, however, led to his excommunication in 1194. Another civil war began against the church-supported Baglers, which lasted beyond Sverre's death in 1202.

The most important historical source on Sverre's life is his biography, Sverris saga, in part written while Sverre was alive. This saga is likely biased, since the foreword states that part was written under Sverre's direct sponsorship. Correspondence between the Pope and the Norwegian bishops can be used as an alternate source when it comes to church affairs. The saga and the letters mostly agree about the hard facts.

Supposedly, King Sverre was short, so he usually directed his troops from horseback during battles. The contrast is great to the traditional Norse warrior ideals where the king was expected to lead his men from the front of the battle line. Sverre was a talented improviser, both in political and military life. His innovative tactics often helped the Birkebeiners against more tradition-bound opponents. During battle he had his men operate in smaller groups, while previously tactics similar to the shield wall had been preferred. This made the Birkebeiners more mobile and adaptable.

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