11 (number)

11 (eleven) is the natural number following 10 and preceding 12. It is the first repdigit. In English, it is the smallest positive integer requiring three syllables and the largest prime number with a single-morpheme name.

← 10 11 12 →
Cardinaleleven
Ordinal11th
(eleventh)
Factorizationprime
Prime5th
Divisors1, 11
Greek numeralΙΑ´
Roman numeralXI
Binary10112
Ternary1023
Quaternary234
Quinary215
Senary156
Octal138
DuodecimalB12
HexadecimalB16
VigesimalB20
Base 36B36

Name

Eleven derives from the Old English ęndleofon which is first attested in Bede's late 9th-century Ecclesiastical History of the English People.[2][3] It has cognates in every Germanic language (for example, German elf), whose Proto-Germanic ancestor has been reconstructed as *ainalifa-,[4] from the prefix *aina- (adjectival "one") and suffix *-lifa- of uncertain meaning.[3] It is sometimes compared with the Lithuanian vienúolika, although -lika is used as the suffix for all numbers from 11 to 19 (analogous to "-teen").[3]

The Old English form has closer cognates in Old Frisian, Saxon, and Norse, whose ancestor has been reconstructed as *ainlifun. This has formerly been considered derived from Proto-Germanic *tehun ("ten");[3][5] it is now sometimes connected with *leikʷ- or *leip- ("left; remaining"), with the implicit meaning that "one is left" after having already counted to ten.[3]

In languages

Grammar

While, as mentioned above, 11 has its own name in Germanic languages such as English, German, and Swedish. It is the first compound number in many other languages, e.g., Italian ùndici (but in Spanish and Portuguese, 16, and in French, 17 is the first compound number), Chinese 十一 shí yī, Korean 열한 yeol han.

In mathematics

11 is a prime number. It is the smallest two-digit prime number in the decimal base.

The next prime is 13, with which it comprises a twin prime.

If a number is divisible by 11, reversing its digits will result in another multiple of 11. As long as no two adjacent digits of a number added together exceed 9, then multiplying the number by 11, reversing the digits of the product, and dividing that new number by 11, will yield a number that is the reverse of the original number. (For example: 142,312 × 11 = 1,565,432 → 2,345,651 ÷ 11 = 213,241.)

Multiples of 11 by one-digit numbers all have matching double digits: 00 (=0), 11, 22, 33, 44, etc.

An 11-sided polygon is called a hendecagon or undecagon.

There are 11 regular and semiregular convex uniform tilings in the second dimension, and 11 planigons that correspond to these 11 regular and semiregular tilings.

In base 10, there is a simple test to determine if an integer is divisible by 11: take every digit of the number located in odd position and add them up, then take the remaining digits and add them up. If the difference between the two sums is a multiple of 11, including 0, then the number is divisible by 11.[6] For instance, if the number is 65,637 then (6 + 6 + 7) - (5 + 3) = 19 - 8 = 11, so 65,637 is divisible by 11. This technique also works with groups of digits rather than individual digits, so long as the number of digits in each group is odd, although not all groups have to have the same number of digits. For instance, if one uses three digits in each group, one gets from 65,637 the calculation (065) - 637 = -572, which is divisible by 11.

Another test for divisibility is to separate a number into groups of two consecutive digits (adding a leading zero if there is an odd number of digits), and then add up the numbers so formed; if the result is divisible by 11, the number is divisible by 11. For instance, if the number is 65,637, 06 + 56 + 37 = 99, which is divisible by 11, so 65,637 is divisible by eleven. This also works by adding a trailing zero instead of a leading one: 65 + 63 + 70 = 198, which is divisible by 11. This also works with larger groups of digits, providing that each group has an even number of digits (not all groups have to have the same number of digits).

An easy way of multiplying numbers by 11 in base 10 is: If the number has:

  • 1 digit - Replicate the digit (so 2 × 11 becomes 22).
  • 2 digits - Add the 2 digits together and place the result in the middle (so 47 × 11 becomes 4 (11) 7 or 4 (10+1) 7 or (4+1) 1 7 or 517).
  • 3 digits - Keep the first digit in its place for the result's first digit, add the first and second digits together to form the result's second digit, add the second and third digits together to form the result's third digit, and keep the third digit as the result's fourth digit. For any resulting numbers greater than 9, carry the 1 to the left. Example 1: 123 × 11 becomes 1 (1+2) (2+3) 3 or 1353. Example 2: 481 × 11 becomes 4 (4+8) (8+1) 1 or 4 (10+2) 9 1 or (4+1) 2 9 1 or 5291.
  • 4 or more digits - Follow the same pattern as for 3 digits.

In base 13 and higher bases (such as hexadecimal), 11 is represented as B, where ten is A. In duodecimal, however, 11 is sometimes represented as E and ten as T or X.

There are 11 orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems (to within a conformal symmetry) in which the 3-variable Helmholtz equation can be solved using the separation of variables technique.

See also 11-cell.

11 of the thirty-five hexominoes can be folded to form cubes. 11 of the sixty-six octiamonds can be folded to form octahedra.

11 is the fourth Sophie Germain prime,[7] the third safe prime,[8] the fourth Lucas prime,[9] the first repunit prime,[10] the second good prime,[11] and the second unique prime.[12] Although it is necessary for n to be prime for 2n − 1 to be a Mersenne prime, the converse is not true: 211 − 1 = 2047 which is 23 × 89.

11 raised to the nth power is the nth row of Pascal's Triangle. (This works for any base, but the number eleven must be changed to the number represented as 11 in that base; for example, in duodecimal this must be done using thirteen.)

11 is a Heegner number, meaning that the ring of integers of the field has the property of unique factorization.

One consequence of this is that there exists at most one point on the elliptic curve x3 = y2 + 11 that has positive-integer coordinates. In this case, this unique point is (15, 58).

List of basic calculations

Multiplication 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 50 100 1000
11 × x 11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 110 121 132 143 154 165 176 187 198 209 220 275 550 1100 11000
Division 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
11 ÷ x 11 5.5 3.6 2.75 2.2 1.83 1.571428 1.375 1.2 1.1 1 0.916 0.846153 0.7857142 0.73
x ÷ 11 0.09 0.18 0.27 0.36 0.45 0.54 0.63 0.72 0.81 0.90 1 1.09 1.18 1.27 1.36
Exponentiation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
11x 11 121 1331 14641 161051 1771561 19487171 214358881 2357947691 25937421601
x11 1 2048 177147 4194304 48828125 362797056 1977326743 8589934592 31381059609 100000000000
Radix 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
110 120 130 140 150 200 250 500 1000 10000 100000 1000000
x11 1 5 A11 1411 1911 2311 2811 3711 4611 5511 6411 7311 8211 9111
A011 AA11 10911 11811 12711 17211 20811 41511 82A11 757211 6914A11 62335111

In numeral systems

११ Devanagari
௧௧ Tamil
൧൧ Malayalam
౧౧ Telugu
১১ Bangla

In science

Astronomy

In religion

Christianity

After Judas Iscariot was disgraced, the remaining apostles of Jesus were sometimes described as "the Eleven" (Mark 16:11; Luke 24:9 and 24:33); this occurred even after Matthias was added to bring the number to twelve, as in Acts 2:14:[14] Peter stood up with the eleven (New International Version). The New Living Translation says Peter stepped forward with the eleven other apostles, making clear that the number of apostles was now twelve.

Saint Ursula is said to have been martyred in the third or fourth century in Cologne with a number of companions, whose reported number "varies from five to eleven".[15] A legend that Ursula died with eleven thousand virgin companions[16] has been thought to appear from misreading XI. M. V. (Latin abbreviation for "Eleven martyr virgins") as "Eleven thousand virgins".

Babylonian

In the Enûma Eliš the goddess Tiamat creates eleven monsters to take revenge for the death of her husband, Apsû.

In music

In sports

In the military

In computing

In Canada

In other fields

See also

  • 11:11
  • 11:11 (numerology)

References

  1. ^ Bede, Eccl. Hist., Bk. V, Ch. xviii.
  2. ^ Specifically, in the line jjvjv ðæt rice hæfde endleofan wintra.[1]
  3. ^ a b c d e Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "eleven, adj. and n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1891.
  4. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013). Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic. Leiden: Brill. p. 11f. ISBN 978-90-04-18340-7.
  5. ^ Dantzig, Tobias (1930), Number: The Language of Science.
  6. ^ Higgins, Peter (2008). Number Story: From Counting to Cryptography. New York: Copernicus. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-84800-000-1.
  7. ^ "Sloane's A005384 : Sophie Germain primes". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
  8. ^ "Sloane's A005385 : Safe primes". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
  9. ^ "Sloane's A005479 : Prime Lucas numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
  10. ^ "Sloane's A004022 : Primes of the form (10^n - 1)/9". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
  11. ^ "Sloane's A028388 : Good primes". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
  12. ^ "Sloane's A040017 : Unique period primes (no other prime has same period as 1/p) in order (periods are given in A051627)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2018-11-20.
  13. ^ photos., Robert Erdmann, Bob Erdmann, Robert, Bob, Erdmann, NGC, IC, Astronomy, Deep-Sky, Database, Galaxy, Galaxies, Dreyer, Herschel, telescope, Corwin, Skiff, Buta, Archinal, Cragin, Ling, Gottlieb, Deep, Sky, Space, Catalog, Catalogs, pictures,. "The NGC / IC Project - Home of the Historically Corrected New General Catalogue (HCNGC) since 1993". www.ngcicproject.org.
  14. ^ "Acts 2:14 Then Peter stood up with the eleven, lifted up his voice, and addressed the crowd: "Men of Judea and all who dwell in Jerusalem, let this be known to you, and listen carefully to my words". bible.cc.
  15. ^ Ursulines of the Roman Union, Province of Southern Africa, St. Ursula and Companions Archived 2016-03-19 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 10 July 2016
  16. ^ Four scenes from the life of St Ursula, accessed 10 July 2016
  17. ^ Corazon, Billy (July 1, 2009). "Imaginary Interview: Jason Webley". Three Imaginary Girls. Archived from the original on 2012-04-04. Retrieved 2012-09-06.
  18. ^ ESMD, US Census Bureau Classification Development Branch,. "US Census Bureau Site North American Industry Classification System main page". www.census.gov.
  19. ^ "Surveying Units and Terms". Directlinesoftware.com. 2012-07-30. Retrieved 2012-08-20.

External links

11

Eleven or 11 may refer to:

11 (number), the natural number following 10 and preceding 12

one of the years 11 BC, AD 11, 1911, 2011

1800 United States Census

The United States Census of 1800 was the second Census conducted in the United States. It was conducted on August 4, 1800.

It showed that 5,308,483 people were living in the United States, of whom 893,602 were slaves. The 1800 Census included the new District of Columbia. The census for the following states were lost: Georgia, Kentucky, New Jersey, Tennessee, and Virginia. This would be the last census in which Virginia was the most populous state.

Algebra

Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis. In its most general form, algebra is the study of mathematical symbols and the rules for manipulating these symbols; it is a unifying thread of almost all of mathematics. It includes everything from elementary equation solving to the study of abstractions such as groups, rings, and fields. The more basic parts of algebra are called elementary algebra; the more abstract parts are called abstract algebra or modern algebra. Elementary algebra is generally considered to be essential for any study of mathematics, science, or engineering, as well as such applications as medicine and economics. Abstract algebra is a major area in advanced mathematics, studied primarily by professional mathematicians.

Elementary algebra differs from arithmetic in the use of abstractions, such as using letters to stand for numbers that are either unknown or allowed to take on many values. For example, in the letter is unknown, but the law of inverses can be used to discover its value: . In E = mc2, the letters and are variables, and the letter is a constant, the speed of light in a vacuum. Algebra gives methods for writing formulas and solving equations that are much clearer and easier than the older method of writing everything out in words.

The word algebra is also used in certain specialized ways. A special kind of mathematical object in abstract algebra is called an "algebra", and the word is used, for example, in the phrases linear algebra and algebraic topology.

A mathematician who does research in algebra is called an algebraist.

Apothecary

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Armenian Genocide

The Armenian Genocide (Armenian: Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire. The starting date is conventionally held to be 24 April 1915, the day that Ottoman authorities rounded up, arrested, and deported from Constantinople (now Istanbul) to the region of Ankara 235 to 270 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders, the majority of whom were eventually murdered. The genocide was carried out during and after World War I and implemented in two phases—the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of women, children, the elderly, and the infirm on death marches leading to the Syrian Desert. Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery, rape, and massacre. Other ethnic groups were similarly targeted for extermination in the Assyrian genocide and the Greek genocide, and their treatment is considered by some historians to be part of the same genocidal policy. Most Armenian diaspora communities around the world came into being as a direct result of the genocide.Raphael Lemkin was moved specifically by the annihilation of the Armenians to define systematic and premeditated exterminations within legal parameters and coin the word genocide in 1943. The Armenian Genocide is acknowledged to have been one of the first modern genocides, because scholars point to the organized manner in which the killings were carried out. It is the second most-studied case of genocide after the Holocaust.Turkey denies the word genocide is an accurate term for these crimes. In recent years, Turkey has been faced with repeated calls to recognize them as genocide. As of 2018, 29 countries have officially recognized the mass killings as genocide, as have most genocide scholars and historians.

Benzhuism

Benzhuism (Chinese: 本主教; pinyin: Běnzhǔjiào; literally: 'religion of the patrons') is the indigenous religion of the Bai people, an ethnic group of Yunnan, China. It consists in the worship of the ngel zex, the Bai word for "patrons" or "lords", rendered as benzhu (本主) in Chinese, that are local gods and deified ancestors of the Bai people. It is very similar to common Chinese religion.

While many of the Bai are Buddhists, the local government of China has recently helped the revival of the Benzhu ethnic religion, for example through the promotion of the Gwer Sa La festival.

Billy Currington

William Matthew Currington (born November 19, 1973) is an American country music singer and songwriter. Signed to Mercury Records Nashville in 2003, he has released six studio albums for the label: his self-titled debut (2003), Doin' Somethin' Right (2005), Little Bit of Everything (2008), Enjoy Yourself (2010), We Are Tonight (2013), and most recently Summer Forever (2015).

These six albums have produced 18 singles on the U.S. Billboard Hot Country Songs and Country Airplay charts, including 11 number one hits: "Must Be Doin' Somethin' Right", "Good Directions", "People Are Crazy", "That's How Country Boys Roll", "Pretty Good at Drinkin' Beer", "Let Me Down Easy", "Hey Girl", "We Are Tonight", "Don't It", "It Don't Hurt Like It Used To", and "Do I Make You Wanna". Currington has also charted as a duet partner on Shania Twain's single "Party for Two" and his own non-album single "Tangled Up", for a total of twenty Top 40 hits.

Setting a new record in August 2017 with his number one single "Do I Make You Wanna", Currington is the only country music artist in US Billboard Country Airplay chart history to have a song in the #1 spot gain an audience of nearly 9,500,000 over another country music artist's song in the #2 spot.

Cazuza

Agenor de Miranda Araújo Neto, better known as Cazuza (Portuguese pronunciation: [kaˈzuzɐ]; 4 April 1958 – 7 July 1990), was a Brazilian singer and songwriter, born in Rio de Janeiro. Along with Raul Seixas, Renato Russo and Os Mutantes, Cazuza, both while fronting Barão Vermelho and at solo career, is considered one of the best exponents of Brazilian rock music. In his 9-year career, he sold more than 5 million albums and achieved 11 number one singles and 18 Top 10 singles in Brazil.

Departments of France

In the administrative divisions of France, the department (French: département, pronounced [depaʁt(ə)mɑ̃]) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, and five are overseas departments, which are also classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; the last two have no autonomy, and are used for the organisation of police, fire departments, and sometimes, elections.

Each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council (conseil départemental (sing.), conseils départementaux (plur.)). From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils (conseil général (sing.), conseils généraux (plur.)). Each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school (collège) buildings and technical staff, and local roads and school and rural buses, and a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; however, regions have gained importance in this regard since the 2000s, with some department-level services merged into region-level services.

The departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity; the title "department" is used to mean a part of a larger whole. Almost all of them were named after physical geographical features (rivers, mountains, or coasts), rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project particularly identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had already been frequently discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers. The earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in many countries, some of them former French colonies.

Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number. The number is used, for example, in the postal code, and was until recently used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents commonly use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are generally referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments. For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45".

In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, and to transfer their powers to other levels of governance. This reform project has since been abandoned.

Gay

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Hank Williams

Hiram King "Hank" Williams (September 17, 1923 – January 1, 1953) was an American singer-songwriter and musician. Regarded as one of the most significant and influential American singers and songwriters of the 20th century, Williams recorded 35 singles (five released posthumously) that reached the Top 10 of the Billboard Country & Western Best Sellers chart, including 11 that ranked number one (three posthumously).

Born in Mount Olive, Butler County, Alabama, Williams relocated to Georgiana with his family, where he met Rufus Payne, who gave him guitar lessons in exchange for meals or money. Payne had a major influence on Williams' later musical style, along with Roy Acuff and Ernest Tubb. Williams would later relocate to Montgomery, where he began his music career in 1937, when producers at radio station WSFA hired him to perform and host a 15-minute program. He formed the Drifting Cowboys backup band, which was managed by his mother, and dropped out of school to devote his time to his career.

When several of his band members were conscripted into military service during World War II, Williams had trouble with their replacements, and WSFA terminated his contract because of his alcohol abuse. Williams eventually married Audrey Sheppard, who was his manager for nearly a decade. After recording "Never Again" and "Honky Tonkin'" with Sterling Records, he signed a contract with MGM Records. In 1947, he released "Move It on Over", which became a hit, and also joined the Louisiana Hayride radio program.

One year later, he released a cover of "Lovesick Blues" recorded at Herzog Studio in Cincinnati, which carried him into the mainstream of music. After an initial rejection, Williams joined the Grand Ole Opry. He was unable to read or notate music to any significant degree. Among the hits he wrote were "Your Cheatin' Heart", "Hey, Good Lookin'", and "I'm So Lonesome I Could Cry".

Years of back pain, alcoholism and prescription drug abuse severely compromised his health. In 1952, he divorced Sheppard and was dismissed by the Grand Ole Opry because of his unreliability and alcohol abuse. On New Year's Day 1953, he died suddenly while traveling to a concert in Canton, Ohio at the age of 29. Despite his short life, Williams is one of the most celebrated and influential popular musicians of the 20th century, especially in regards to country music.

Many artists covered songs Williams wrote and recorded. He influenced Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis and Bob Dylan, among others. Williams was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame (1961), the Songwriters Hall of Fame (1970), and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (1987).

Hurlburt Field

Hurlburt Field (ICAO: KHRT, FAA LID: HRT) is a United States Air Force installation located in Okaloosa County, Florida, immediately west of the Town of Mary Esther. It is part of the greater Eglin Air Force Base reservation, and is home to Headquarters Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC), the 1st Special Operations Wing (1 SOW), the USAF Special Operations School (USAFSOS) and the Air Combat Command's (ACC) 505th Command and Control Wing. It was named for First Lieutenant Donald Wilson Hurlburt, who died in a crash at Eglin. The installation is nearly 6,700 acres (27 km2), and employs nearly 8,000 military personnel.

This facility is assigned a three-letter location identifier of HRT by the Federal Aviation Administration, but it does not have an International Air Transport Association (IATA) airport code (the IATA assigned HRT to RAF Linton-on-Ouse in England).

I Will Stand

I Will Stand is the fourth album of country music singer Kenny Chesney. It was released on July 15, 1997 on BNA Records. "She's Got It All" was the album's first single, as well as Chesney's first Number One single on the Billboard country music charts. "A Chance", "That's Why I'm Here" and "I Will Stand" were all released as singles as well, peaking at number 11, number 2, and number 27, respectively, on the country charts. Also included is an acoustic rendition of Chesney's 1996 single "When I Close My Eyes". It is his first certified Gold album. This was Kenny's last album to have a neotraditional country sound before developing a more crossover-friendly country-pop sound.

Lexus IS

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Loretta Lynn

Loretta Lynn (née Webb; born April 14, 1932) is an American country music singer-songwriter with multiple gold albums in a career spanning almost 60 years. She is famous for hits such as "You Ain't Woman Enough (To Take My Man)", "Don't Come Home A' Drinkin' (With Lovin' on Your Mind)", "One's on the Way", "Fist City", and "Coal Miner's Daughter" along with the 1980 biographical film of the same name.

Lynn has received numerous awards and other accolades for her groundbreaking role in country music, including awards from both the Country Music Association and Academy of Country Music as a duet partner and an individual artist. She is the most awarded female country recording artist and the only female ACM Artist of the Decade (1970s). Lynn, has sold more than 45 million albums worldwide, scored 24 number one hit singles, and 11 number one albums. Lynn continues to tour, appear at the Grand Ole Opry and release new albums. She is recognized by the strength and quality of her voice still today, as well as her down to earth, quick wit and humor.

Seventh-day Adventist Church

The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination which is distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week in Christian and Jewish calendars, as the Sabbath, and its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming (advent) of Jesus Christ. The denomination grew out of the Millerite movement in the United States during the mid-19th century and it was formally established in 1863. Among its founders was Ellen G. White, whose extensive writings are still held in high regard by the church.Much of the theology of the Seventh-day Adventist Church corresponds to common Protestant Christian teachings, such as the Trinity and the infallibility of Scripture. Distinctive teachings include the unconscious state of the dead and the doctrine of an investigative judgment. The church is known for its emphasis on diet and health, its "holistic" understanding of the person, its promotion of religious liberty, and its conservative principles and lifestyle.The world church is governed by a General Conference, with smaller regions administered by divisions, union conferences, and local conferences. It currently has a worldwide baptized membership of over 20 million people, and 25 million adherents. As of May 2007, it was the twelfth-largest religious body in the world, and the sixth-largest highly international religious body. It is ethnically and culturally diverse, and maintains a missionary presence in over 215 countries and territories. The church operates over 7,500 schools including over 100 post-secondary institutions, numerous hospitals, and publishing houses worldwide, as well as a humanitarian aid organization known as the Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA).

Sony Music

Sony Music Entertainment (SME), commonly known as Sony Music, is an American global music conglomerate owned by Sony and incorporated as a general partnership of Sony Music Holdings Inc. through Sony Entertainment Inc., a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, which in turn is a subsidiary of the Japanese Sony Corporation. It was originally founded in 1929 as American Record Corporation and renamed as Columbia Recording Corporation in 1938, following its acquisition by the Columbia Broadcasting System. In 1966, the company was reorganized to become CBS Records, and Sony Corporation bought the company in 1988, renaming it under its current name in 1991. In 2004, Sony and Bertelsmann established a 50-50 joint venture known as Sony BMG Music Entertainment, which transferred the businesses of Sony Music and Bertelsmann Music Group into one entity. However, in 2008, Sony acquired Bertelsmann's stake, and the company reverted to the SME name shortly after; the buyout allowed Sony to acquire all of BMG's labels, and led to the dissolution of BMG, which instead relaunched as BMG Rights Management.

Sony Music Entertainment is the second largest of the "Big Three" record companies, behind Universal Music Group and ahead of Warner Music Group. Its music publishing division Sony/ATV is the largest music publisher in the world. It also owns 50% of SYCO Entertainment, which operates some of the world's most successful reality TV formats, including Got Talent and The X Factor.

Statolatry

Statolatry, which combines idolatry with the state, first appeared in Giovanni Gentile's Doctrine of Fascism, published in 1931 under Mussolini's name, and was also mentioned in Gramsci's Prison Notebooks (1971) sometime between 1931-1932, while he was imprisoned by Mussolini. The same year, the encyclical Non abbiamo bisogno by Pope Pius XI criticized Fascist Italy as developing "a pagan worship of the state" which it called "statolatry".The term politiolatry was used to describe reason of state doctrine in the 17th century with similar intent.

USL League Two

USL League Two (USL2), formerly the Premier Development League (PDL), is a development soccer league sponsored by United Soccer Leagues in the United States and Canada, forming part of the United States soccer league system. The league has 72 teams competing in four conferences, split into eleven regional divisions. Unofficially, it is considered to be the fourth tier of competition, behind Major League Soccer, USL Championship, and USL League One. USL League Two is headquartered in Tampa, Florida.Calgary Foothills FC are the current champions (the last championship under the PDL branding), having defeated Reading United AC 4–2 in extra time in the 2018 PDL Championship game on August 4, 2018.

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