117th IOC Session

The 117th International Olympic Committee Session was held for the first time in Singapore from 2 to 9 July 2005. Two important decisions were made through voting during the session – namely the selection of the hosting city for the 2012 Summer Olympics, and a review of the 28 sports currently represented in the summer games.

The session was held at the Raffles City Convention Centre, which is on level 4 of the Raffles City complex. The opening ceremony on 5 July 2005 was held at the Esplanade - Theatres on the Bay.

Logo of the 117th IOC Session, Singapore.
117th IOC Police
Tight security was highly visible during the 117th IOC Session. A police officer stood watch on the fourth floor of the Raffles City complex where the session was taking place.


117th IOC Bannar

Banner of the 117th IOC Session outside the venue at Raffles City

117th IOC car

Official car sponsored by Mercedes-Benz

1 July 2005

An exhibition was launched at the podium of the Raffles City Shopping Complex, that would continue until 10 July.

2 July 2005

The IOC Session commenced.

3 July 2005

The IOC's Executive Board started two days of meetings.

4 July 2005

The Executive Board meetings resumed with updates on the progress of preparations for the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing and 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver by their respective representatives. The board approved Beijing's request to hold the equestrian events in Hong Kong, which is a separate NOC from mainland China in the "best interests of the competition and the well-being of the horses".[1]

5 July 2005

The opening ceremony was held at the Esplanade - Theatres on the Bay and the guest of honour was the Prime Minister of Singapore, Lee Hsien Loong, who officially opened the session. A special type of hybrid orchid had been bred to commemorate the IOC Session in Singapore. It was named Vanda IOC. A cultural performance of dance and songs was held with the theme of "One Voice, One Rhythm, One World".

6 July 2005: 2012 Olympic host city election

Each of the five bid cities had 45 minutes to make a final presentation to the IOC members, after which voting commenced and the final results were announcenced at 19:30 Singapore time. Local sailor Griselda Khng handed an envelope holding the result of the vote to IOC president Jacques Rogge, who announced: "The International Olympic Committee has the honor of announcing, that the games of the 30th Olympiad, in 2012, are awarded to the city of London."

The result of the vote was as follows:

2012 Host City Election – ballot results
City NOC Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Round 4
London  Great Britain 22 27 39 54
Paris  France 21 25 33 50
Madrid  Spain 20 32 31
New York City  United States 19 16
Moscow  Russia 15

7 July 2005

The final evaluation report of the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens was presented and the Athens Games were finally closed. Reports on the progress of preparations for future Games were also submitted.

8 July 2005: Review of Olympic sports

The 28 sports in the Summer Olympics programme that existed at that time were all put up on the ballots, three years after a similar attempt failed to gain support from IOC members during the 114th IOC Session in Mexico City.[2] Prior to the voting, baseball, softball, modern pentathlon, taekwondo and fencing were considered as most likely to be dropped. Five non-Olympic sports would then be voted to get in, in case any of the existing sports would be dropped, as IOC rules allow a maximum of 28 Summer Olympic sports. These sports – golf, roller sports, squash, rugby and karate – were recommended by the IOC Olympic Games Program Committee, which has shotlisted the sports that applied to be included. Golf and rugby were considered the favorites to be voted in, both mainly for their popularity and also for their relatively small number of events (each one, if accepted, would have consisted of 2 events).

IOC President Jacques Rogge has been a keen supportive of this move, which was one of his agendas since being elected in 2001, while the Association of Summer Olympic International Federations (ASOIF) said changing the current set of 28 sports risked changing the "magic combination of team sports and individual sports", attributing one of the success factors of the Olympic games to the current programme.[3]

A few days before the votes were cast, the IOC accepted the ASOIF request that the number of votes given for each sport will not be published, only "yay" or "nay". The reason given for the unusual request was in order to avoid a "popularity ranking" of all Olympic sports. Any sport that would get a simple majority of "nay" would be dropped from the Olympic program in 2012, but would remain eligible for readdmision in future Games.[4]

In the morning IOC members voted to remove baseball and softball from the games. The decision has triggered dismay in some nations such as the United States where both sports originated from, and Canada,[5] where both have a strong following. Some attributed the exclusion of baseball to the fact that Major League Baseball did not allow its players to participate in the Olympics, held during the season (unlike the National Hockey League that allowed it since the 1998 Winter Olympics) and the widespread use of prohibited drugs in the professional leagues. The main reason for exclusion of softball was that it was included as a women-only sport mainly to be a gender-equalizer bat-and-ball sport for baseball (men-only sport), and with baseball out this reasoning no longer existed. Another reason given was that both sports consist of large teams and their elimination will make room for many athletes, in comparison to modern pentathlon, for example, which only consist of 64 athletes.[6]

In the afternoon, a secret vote by IOC members gave squash and karate over 51% of votes, but a subsequent vote to include them in the list of Olympic sports in the Olympic Charter has failed to get the necessary two-thirds majority needed for such amendment. Therefore, by the end of the day two sports were dropped and none added, and the program of the 2012 Summer Olympics was reduced to 26 sports.

That night at The Oriental Singapore, then SNOC president and defence minister, Teo Chee Hean threw a banquet. Rogge gave Singapore full marks for the session organisation, a perfect 6.[7]

9 July 2005

Lambis Nikolaou of Greece and Chiharu Igaya from Japan were elected as Vice presidents. Singapore's IOC member, Ng Ser Miang was elected to the IOC Executive Board to replace Nikolaou, whose term as board member was due to expire.[8]

World's impression of Singapore

A Canadian television report said that the session had placed the country in the centre of the sporting universe and that the spotlight was on six cities, not just the five candidate cities.

The media said that most visitors' first taste of Singapore was an annoying ding-dong alert sound produced in a taxi when it exceeds the speed limit. The speaking of the slang Singlish was highlighted, together with the country's chewing gum laws.

References were made to Singapore's tough drug laws, the traffic jams and the tight security checks. The British daily, The Guardian wrote on the terrorism spectre that stalks the Games, noting that "Even here in Singapore, during the meeting of the 116 members, security has at times been stifling. Access to the Swissôtel, where the members are staying, has been severely restricted and squadrons of Gurkhas armed with hand- and machine-guns patrol inside and outside the hotel."

Two years later in 2008 Singapore was awarded the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics.

Media confusion

There was some kind of confusion by the foreign newspapers mixing up the high-end Raffles Hotel with the Raffles City. Reuters wrote "It is a national monument, the jewel in Singapore's crown, and this week, Raffles Hotel will becoming a bubbling cauldron of lobbying and politics as it stages the most keenly contested Olympic venue vote in the history of the Games. Its Colonial style salons and parlours will be overrun by bid officials and consultants, celebrities and spin-doctors." Later, it clarified that the vote was actually at the adjacent Raffles City Convention Centre and not the hotel.

British paper, The Guardian, in a report on the London team isolating themselves on Sentosa wrote, "They have deliberately retreated from the hothouse atmosphere of the Raffles Hotel complex, the venue for the IOC congress, to perfect a final pitch they believe will be crucial in gathering the votes London requires to win."

The Weekend Australian reported, "First order of the business that day at Raffles Hotel will be determining whether any changes are to be made to the Olympic programme......" The Bangkok Post said, "Members of the International Olympic Committee from around the globe will meet 6 July-9 July at the historic Raffles Hotel to pick the hosts of the 2012 Games of the Olympiad."

Olympic Anthem criticism

The trio who sung the Olympic Hymn in Greek was criticised by both the media and the audience. They were Singaporean soprano Khor Ai Ming, Singaporean tenor William Lim and Japanese soprano Satsuki Nagatome. The trio sung with gusto just before the announcement of the 2012 Summer Olympics.

The Guardian reported on their operatic rendition "Two Singaporean sopranos and a tenor dressed like a maître d' subjected the Olympic anthem, a tune whose primary virtue is to be heard only once every four years, to a fearful mauling."[9] The Times of the UK described them as "three Orientals... one distinctly off key".[10]

See also


  1. ^ "2008 Olympic equestrian events to be held in Hong Kong". USA Today. 8 July 2005.
  2. ^ "New format spares modern pentathlon the axe". TODAY. 9 July 2005.
  3. ^ http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2005-07/08/content_3192125.htm
  4. ^ "Olympic programme may get overhaul; Move to include more sports after softball, baseball were booted out". TODAY. 28 October 2005.
  5. ^ "Canadian Olympic Committee Disappointed in IOC's Decision to remove Baseball and Softball from Olympic Program". Canada Newswire. 9 July 2005.
  6. ^ "IOC slams door on new events; Karate, squash, golf, roller-sports and rugby fail to win approval". South China Morning Post. 9 July 2005.
  7. ^ "Rogge gives Singapore full marks". The Straits Times. 9 July 2005. Retrieved 30 April May 2013.
  8. ^ http://english.people.com.cn/200507/09/eng20050709_195188.html
  9. ^ The Guardian – One sweet word: London
  10. ^ Hamilton, Alan (7 July 2005). "It was the best of times..." London: The Times. Retrieved 20 May 2009.
121st IOC Session

The 121st International Olympic Committee (IOC) Session was held on October 1–9, 2009 in Copenhagen, Denmark, during which Rio de Janeiro was selected as the host city of the 2016 Summer Olympics. The city of Copenhagen was chosen on February 8, 2006 by the 118th IOC Session held in Turin, Italy to stage the 13th Olympic Congress, together with the meetings of the Executive Board and the 121st IOC Session. The other candidates were Athens (Greece), Busan (South Korea), Cairo (Egypt), Riga (Latvia), Singapore (Singapore), Taipei (Chinese Taipei). Convened on the initiative of President Jacques Rogge, the 13th Olympic Congress brought together all the constituent parties of the Olympic Movement to study and discuss the current functioning of the Movement and define the main development axes for the future.The programme for the meeting was:

October 1–2: Part I of the IOC Session. The 2016 host city was announced on October 2: Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

October 3–5: The Olympic Congress.

October 7–9: Part II of the IOC Session. Elections for IOC President and IOC Members were held, as well as the final vote on the potential inclusion of golf and rugby sevens in the 2016 Games. Both sports were approved for the 2016 programme.

2005 Singaporean presidential election

The Singaporean presidential election of 2005 was held to elect the next President of Singapore. The Writ of Election declared 17 August to be Nomination Day, and 27 August would have been declared Polling Day if more than one candidate were to stand nominated on Nomination Day.

After considering the candidate's applications, the Presidential Elections Committee issued one Certificate of Eligibility to Nathan. Nathan was the only candidate to stand nominated and thus re-electing uncontested on nomination day and was sworn-in for his second term of office on 1 September 2005.

2005 in Singapore

The following lists events that happened during 2005 in Singapore.

2012 Summer Olympics

The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom. The first event, the group stage in women's football, began on 25 July at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff, followed by the opening ceremonies on 27 July. 10,768 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participated.Following a bid headed by former Olympic champion Sebastian Coe and then-Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, London was selected as the host city on 6 July 2005 during the 117th IOC Session in Singapore, defeating bids from Moscow, New York City, Madrid, and Paris. London became the first city to host the modern Olympics three times, having previously hosted the Summer Games in 1908 and in 1948.Construction for the Games involved considerable redevelopment, with an emphasis on sustainability. The main focus was a new 200-hectare (490-acre) Olympic Park, constructed on a former industrial site at Stratford, East London. The Games also made use of venues that already existed before the bid.The Games received widespread acclaim for their organisation, with the volunteers, the British military and public enthusiasm praised particularly highly. The opening ceremony, directed by Danny Boyle, received widespread acclaim throughout the world, particular praise from the British public and a minority of widely ranging criticisms from some social media sites. During the Games, Michael Phelps became the most decorated Olympic athlete of all time, winning his 22nd medal. Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Brunei entered female athletes for the first time, so that every currently eligible country has sent a female competitor to at least one Olympic Games. Women's boxing was included for the first time, thus the Games became the first at which every sport had female competitors. These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge.

The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by China and host Great Britain. Several world and Olympic records were set at the games. Though there were several controversies, the 2012 games were deemed highly successful with the rising standards of competition amongst nations across the world, packed stadiums and smooth organisation. Furthermore, the focus on sporting legacy and post-games venue sustainability was seen as a blueprint for future Olympics.

Bids for the 2008 Summer Olympics

Ten cities submitted bids to host the 2008 Summer Olympics and Paralympics that were recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), five of which made the IOC Executive Committee's shortlist. The games were awarded to Beijing, China on July 13, 2001. The other shortlisted cities were Toronto, Paris, Istanbul and Osaka. Beijing won an absolute majority of votes after two rounds of voting, eliminating the need for subsequent rounds of voting. IOC delegates and the media identified a number of factors in its favor, including the size of the country, improvements in Chinese anti-doping enforcement, and its close loss to Sydney, Australia eight years earlier. In that bidding process, which chose the host city for the 2000 Summer Olympics, Beijing led every round of voting but lost in the final round to Sydney by two votes.A number of politicians and non-governmental organizations criticized the Beijing bid and its selection due to concerns about China's human rights record. In response, supporters of the Beijing bid suggested that hosting the games might lead to "progress" on human rights and other issues. Some IOC delegates also expressed concerns about air pollution and heat in Beijing during the summer, and its effects on athletes participating in the games. In order to address such concerns, the Beijing bid included plans to reduce both air and water pollution in the city in advance of the games.

Bids for the 2012 Summer Olympics

Nine cities submitting bids to host the 2012 Summer Olympics and 2012 Summer Paralympics were recognised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The Committee shortlisted five of them—London, Madrid, Moscow, New York City, and Paris—from which London eventually prevailed; thus becoming the first city to host the Olympic Games for a third time. The bidding process for the 2012 Olympics was considered one of the most hotly contested in the history of the IOC. Paris was seen by some as the front-runner for much of the campaign, but skillful lobbying by London's supporters and an inspirational final presentation by Sebastian Coe led to the success of its bid.After a technical evaluation of the nine original bids, the top five were shortlisted on 18 May 2004, becoming official candidates. The remaining applicant cities—Havana, Istanbul, Leipzig and Rio de Janeiro—were eliminated. Four of the five candidate cities were prominent national capitals, which lent an increased competitive interest to the final bidding phase. Paris and Madrid earned the top scores during the application phase, but in early 2005, a more thorough evaluation of the candidates put Paris and London in a close race that became tighter as the final vote approached. On 6 July 2005, in a four-round exhaustive ballot of the IOC (gathered at the 117th IOC Session in Singapore), Moscow, New York City and Madrid were eliminated in the first three rounds. London won the final round by a margin of four votes over Paris and secured the right to host the 2012 Olympics.

In the month after the election, members of the Paris 2012 delegation argued that the London delegation had violated IOC rules. The key points in the accusations were London 2012's abortive athlete incentive initiative and lobbying by then-British Prime Minister Tony Blair. A public statement by IOC President Jacques Rogge dismissed these accusations, stating that the competition had been fair. Another controversy occurred during the bidding process when an undercover investigation by British television series Panorama revealed a corruption scandal associated with IOC member Ivan Slavkov and Olympic agents, who offered to deliver votes from IOC members to any 2012 Olympic bid in return for financial favours. Still recovering from the effects of the Salt Lake City scandal, the IOC reacted swiftly and punitively toward the rule-breaking individuals.

Bids for the 2020 Summer Olympics

There were a total of six bids which were initially submitted for the 2020 Summer Olympics. Tokyo was ultimately elected as the host city at the 125th IOC Session in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on 7 September 2013.

Fairmont Singapore

Fairmont Singapore (Chinese: 费尔蒙特酒店), formerly Raffles The Plaza (Chinese: 莱佛士大厦) is the sister hotel of Swissôtel The Stamford located within the Raffles City complex in Singapore. It has a total of 769 rooms and suites housed within two 26-storey towers. Opened as The Westin Plaza in 1986, the hotel was refurbished together with Swissôtel The Stamford, formerly known as the Westin Stamford, and was renamed Raffles The Plaza on January 1, 2002 and Fairmont Singapore on December 12, 2007 with a change in branding.

Both hotels are currently managed by Fairmont Raffles Hotels International. Fairmont Singapore currently houses one of Asia's largest spas - Willow Stream, formerly RafflesAmrita Spa, and shares all sports and recreation facilities with Swissôtel The Stamford. The hotel is connected to Swissôtel The Stamford, Raffles City, City Hall MRT Station, and CityLink Mall.

In 2005, the 117th IOC Session was held in the Raffles City Convention Centre, located in Raffles City. Most IOC members stayed in this hotel, as did several well-known figures who came to the city to support their cities' bids. In 2006, the hotel's service area in the basement became an expanded retail area of Raffles City with 50 new shops.

Gurkha Contingent

The Gurkha Contingent (GC) is a line department of the Singapore Police Force consisting primarily of Gurkhas from Nepal. Members of the GC are trained to be highly skilled and are selected for their display of strong discipline and dedication in their tasks. The principal role of the contingent is to be a special guard force, and it is currently used as a counter-terrorist force.

Ng Ser Miang

Ng Ser Miang, (simplified Chinese: 黄思绵; traditional Chinese: 黃思綿; pinyin: Huáng Sīmián; born 6 April 1949) is a Singaporean athlete, entrepreneur, and diplomat. He founded Trans-Island Bus Services (now known as SMRT Buses) in 1982 and more recently is the non-executive chairman of the NTUC FairPrice supermarket chain and board member of Singapore Press Holdings. Since 1990 he has been the vice-president of the Singapore National Olympic Council, and since 2009 has served as a vice-president of the International Olympic Committee. In 2013, he was a candidate for the presidency of the International Olympic Committee, but eventually lost to Thomas Bach.

Police K-9 Unit (Singapore)

The Police K-9 Unit (Chinese: 警犬组), formerly the Police Dog Unit (PDU) is a specialist force of the Singapore Police Force (SPF) under the direct command of the Special Operations Command. It specializes in the training of police dogs in explosive detection, drug detection, guard duties, anti-crime operations and general purposes. The Singapore K-9 unit works in collaboration with the rest of the SPF and the Home Team.

Public Transport Security Command

The Public Transport Security Command (Abbreviation: TransCom; Malay: Kommand Keselamatan Pengangkutan Awam; Chinese: 公共交通保安指揮處) is a specialised transit police unit of the Singapore Police Force. It was first established as the Police MRT Unit (PMU) in 2005 as a component unit of the Special Operations Command in response to the need for greater security in public transport operations in Singapore influenced by security concerns at the time. On 15 August 2009, the unit was upgraded into a separate specialist division and took its present name.

Raffles City Singapore

Raffles City is a large complex located in the Civic District within the Downtown Core of the city-state of Singapore. Occupying an entire city block bounded by Stamford Road, Beach Road, Bras Basah Road and North Bridge Road, it houses two hotels and an office tower over a podium which contains a shopping complex and a convention centre. The mall is managed by CapitaCommercial Trust and CapitaMall Trust. It was completed in 1986.

Built on the former site of Raffles Institution, the first school in Singapore, and located beside the historic Raffles Hotel, its aluminium-finish and simple geometric designs gave a stark, modernist contrast to Victorian architecture and classical architecture which used to characterise architecture in that district.

The embassy of Hungary is located on the 29th floor of the Raffles City Tower, which also houses the delegation office of the European Union.

Singapore 2006

Singapore 2006 was a group of several concurrent events that were held in Singapore in support of the 61st Annual Meetings of the Boards of Governors of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. The opening ceremony and plenary sessions for the main meetings took place from 19–20 September 2006 at the Suntec Singapore International Convention and Exhibition Centre (SSICEC) in Marina Centre. The ministers of G8, G10 and G24 coincided with the event on 16 September. Registration for event delegates began on 11 September 2006 at City Hall, and the three-day Program of Seminars from 16 September 2006 at the Pan Pacific Singapore. Other concurrent events that were held at various venues include the Singapore Biennale 2006 (4 September – 12 November), the Raffles Forum 2006 (14–15 September), Indonesia Day (17 September) and the Global Emerging Markets Investors Forum and Networking Reception (18 September).

Event organisers expected a turnout of about 16,000 delegates and observers, but saw a record 23,000 delegates and 300 finance ministers registering themselves, the largest turnout for an overseas annual meeting. It is the largest meeting in Singapore's history, and other meetings include the 117th IOC Session and the WTO Ministerial Conference 1996. The meeting's key focus was to improve the lives of the people in developing nations, with many member nations calling for a louder voice, especially for developing countries. Dominating issues include quotas and voting rights in the IMF, in turn decides on the policies on the prevention and management of financial crises. The event ended with the main achievement being the reform of the IMF system, the main topics were the prospects of and the risk of the global economy.

Singaporean measures against avian influenza

Singapore has taken a series of measures against avian influenza and the potential threat of a pandemic.

Singaporean response to 2005 Kashmir earthquake

In the aftermath of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake on October 8 in the Pakistan-administered region of Kashmir, several rescue and relief operations have been organised in Singapore to assist victims of the disaster.

Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong wrote letters of condolence to both Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf.

In his letter to Musharraf, Lee said he was deeply saddened to hear of the earthquake in South Asia, which has caused devastation and heavy loss of life in Pakistan.

In his letter to Dr. Manmohan Singh, Lee said he was deeply saddened by the loss of life in Kashmir as a result of the earthquake. He said: "On behalf of the Government and people of Singapore, I would like to convey our condolences and deepest sympathies to you and to the families of the victims." He added that India demonstrated resilience and resolve in the wake of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, and he was confident that it would once again respond decisively to this challenge.

Singaporean response to Hurricane Katrina

Following that devastation of the United States and Gulf Coast by Hurricane Katrina, Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong send his personal letter of condolences to U.S. President George W. Bush and also Singaporean Foreign Minister George Yeo send his personal letter of condolences to U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice respectively that promising support for the American people in their relief effort in the wake of Hurricane Katrina.

In his letter, Lee wrote:

"The thoughts of Singaporeans and me are with you and the American people whose lives have been devastated by Hurricane Katrina. America has always been generous in helping others in their time of need. We in Southeast Asia have experienced that, most recently during the tsunami relief operations. Singapore is happy to reciprocate in a small way by participating in your efforts to save lives and restore normality to your people."

The Ritz-Carlton Millenia Singapore

The Ritz-Carlton, Millenia Singapore (Chinese: 新加坡丽思卡尔顿美年酒店) is a 32 floor luxury hotel located at Millenia Singapore, Marina Centre, Singapore. The hotel is run by The Ritz-Carlton group of hotels, and it has won several awards. The hotel was opened in 1996, developed and owned by the Kwee brothers' company Pontiac Land.

Uniforms of the Singapore Police Force

The Singapore Police Force has employed several different styles of uniforms throughout its history. Since 1969 it has used dark blue for its uniforms, although the first police uniforms introduced in 1856 were also in the same colour.

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