The 116th United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It convened in Washington, D.C. on January 3, 2019 and will end on January 3, 2021, during the third and fourth years of Donald Trump's presidency. Senators elected to regular terms in 2014 are finishing their terms in this Congress and House seats were apportioned based on the 2010 Census.
In the November 2018 midterm elections, the Democratic Party won a new majority in the House, while the Republican Party increased its majority in the Senate. Consequently, this is the first split Congress since the 113th (2013–2015), and the first Republican Senate/Democrat House split since the 99th (1985–1987). This Congress is considered to be the most diverse ever elected, and the youngest in the past three cycles.
|116th United States Congress|
United States Capitol (2018)
|January 3, 2019 – January 3, 2021|
|Senate President||Mike Pence (R)|
|Senate President pro tem||Chuck Grassley (R)|
|House Speaker||Nancy Pelosi (D)|
435 members of the House
6 non-voting delegates
|1st: January 3, 2019 – TBD|
2nd: TBD – TBD
(With official titles)
(shading indicates majority caucus)
|End of previous Congress||47||2||50||99||1|
|Begin (January 3, 2019)||45||2||52||99||1|
|January 8, 2019[a]||53||100||0|
|Latest voting share||47.0%||53.0%|
(shading indicates majority caucus)
|End of previous Congress||196||0||236||432||3|
|Begin (January 3, 2019)[b]||235||0||199||434||1|
|January 23, 2019[c]||198||433||2|
|February 10, 2019[d]||197||432||3|
|May 21, 2019[c]||198||433||2|
|Latest voting share||54.3%||0.0%||45.7%|
Most members of this Congress are Christian (88.2%), with approximately half being Protestant and 30.5% being Catholic. Jewish membership is 6.4%, the highest percentage in American history. Other religions represented include Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism. One senator says that she is religiously unaffiliated, while the number of members refusing to specify their religious affiliation increased.
The Senate includes 75 men and 25 women — the most women to date. In 6 states, both senators are women; 13 states are represented by 1 man and 1 woman; and 31 states are represented by 2 men. There are 91 non-Hispanic white, 4 Hispanic, 3 Black, 3 Asian, and 1 multiracial senators. And 2 senators identify as LGBTQ+.
There are 102 women in the House, the largest number in history. There are 313 non-Hispanic whites, 56 black, 44 Hispanic, 15 Asian, and 4 Native American. Eight identify as LGBTQ+. Two Democrats — Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Donna Shalala — are the youngest (29) and oldest (77) freshman women in history. Freshmen women Rashida Tlaib (D-MI) and Ilhan Omar (DFL-MN) are the first two female Muslims and freshmen Sharice Davids (D-KS) and Deb Haaland (D-NM) are the first two female Native American members.
The numbers refer to their Senate classes. All class 1 seats were contested in the November 2018 elections. In this Congress, class 1 means their term commenced in the current Congress, requiring re-election in 2024; class 2 means their term ends with this Congress, requiring re-election in 2020; and class 3 means their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 2022.
|Vacator||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's|
|Vacant||Senator-elect chose to wait until finishing term as Governor of Florida.||Rick Scott
|January 8, 2019|
|District||Vacator||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's|
|North Carolina 9||Vacant||Vacant since the January 3, 2019 beginning of the term as allegations of fraud in the 2018 general election prevented the results from being certified.
A special election will be held September 10, 2019.
|Pennsylvania 12||Tom Marino
|Resigned January 23, 2019 to take job in private sector.
A special election was held May 21, 2019.
|North Carolina 3||Walter B. Jones Jr.
|Died February 10, 2019.
A special election will be held September 10, 2019.
Listed alphabetically by chamber, including Chair and Ranking Member.
|Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry||Pat Roberts (R-KS)||Debbie Stabenow (D-MI)|
|Appropriations||Richard Shelby (R-AL)||Patrick Leahy (D-VT)|
|Armed Services||Jim Inhofe (R-OK)||Jack Reed (D-RI)|
|Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs||Mike Crapo (R-ID)||Sherrod Brown (D-OH)|
|Budget||Mike Enzi (R-WY)||Bernie Sanders (I-VT)|
|Commerce, Science and Transportation||Roger Wicker (R-MS)||Maria Cantwell (D-WA)|
|Energy and Natural Resources||Lisa Murkowski (R-AK)||Joe Manchin (D-WV)|
|Environment and Public Works||John Barrasso (R-WY)||Tom Carper (D-DE)|
|Finance||Chuck Grassley (R-IA)||Ron Wyden (D-OR)|
|Foreign Relations||Jim Risch (R-ID)||Bob Menendez (D-NJ)|
|Health, Education, Labor and Pensions||Lamar Alexander (R-TN)||Patty Murray (D-WA)|
|Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs||Ron Johnson (R-WI)||Gary Peters (D-MI)|
|Judiciary||Lindsey Graham (R-SC)||Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)|
|Rules and Administration||Roy Blunt (R-MO)||Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)|
|Small Business and Entrepreneurship||Marco Rubio (R-FL)||Ben Cardin (D-MD)|
|Veterans' Affairs||Johnny Isakson (R-GA)||Jon Tester (D-MT)|
|Aging (Special)||Susan Collins (R-ME)||Bob Casey Jr. (D-PA)|
|Ethics (Select)||Johnny Isakson (R-GA)||Chris Coons (D-DE)|
|Indian Affairs (Permanent Select)||John Hoeven (R-ND)||Tom Udall (D-NM)|
|Intelligence (Select)||Richard Burr (R-NC)||Mark Warner (D-VA)|
|International Narcotics Control (Permanent Caucus)||John Cornyn (R-TX)||Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)|
|Agriculture||Collin Peterson (D-MN)||Mike Conaway (R-TX)|
|Appropriations||Nita Lowey (D-NY)||Kay Granger (R-TX)|
|Armed Services||Adam Smith (D-WA)||Mac Thornberry (R-TX)|
|Budget||John Yarmuth (D-KY)||Steve Womack (R-AR)|
|Education and Labor||Bobby Scott (D-VA)||Virginia Foxx (R-NC)|
|Energy and Commerce||Frank Pallone (D-NJ)||Greg Walden (R-OR)|
|Ethics||Ted Deutch (D-FL)||Kenny Marchant (R-TX)|
|Financial Services||Maxine Waters (D-CA)||Patrick McHenry (R-NC)|
|Foreign Affairs||Eliot Engel (D-NY)||Michael McCaul (R-TX)|
|Homeland Security||Bennie Thompson (D-MS)||Mike Rogers (R-AL)|
|House Administration||Zoe Lofgren (D-CA)||Rodney Davis (R-IL)|
|Judiciary||Jerrold Nadler (D-NY)||Doug Collins (R-GA)|
|Natural Resources||Raúl Grijalva (D-AZ)||Rob Bishop (R-UT)|
|Oversight and Reform||Elijah Cummings (D-MD)||Jim Jordan (R-OH)|
|Rules||Jim McGovern (D-MA)||Tom Cole (R-OK)|
|Science, Space and Technology||Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-TX)||Frank Lucas (R-OK)|
|Small Business||Nydia Velázquez (D-NY)||Steve Chabot (R-OH)|
|Transportation and Infrastructure||Peter DeFazio (D-OR)||Sam Graves (R-MO)|
|Veterans' Affairs||Mark Takano (D-CA)||Phil Roe (R-TN)|
|Ways and Means||Richard Neal (D-MA)||Kevin Brady (R-TX)|
|Climate Crisis (Select)||Kathy Castor (D-FL)||Garret Graves (R-LA)|
|Human Rights (Lantos Commission)||Jim McGovern (D-MA)||Chris Smith (R-NJ)|
|Intelligence (Permanent Select)||Adam Schiff (D-CA)||Devin Nunes (R-CA)|
|Modernization of Congress (Select)||Derek Kilmer (D-WA)||Tom Graves (R-GA)|
|Committee||Chair||Vice Chair||Ranking Member||Vice Ranking Member|
|Economic||Mike Lee (R-UT)||Carolyn Maloney (D-NY)||David Schweikert (R-AZ)||Martin Heinrich (D-NM)|
|Library||Roy Blunt (R-MO)||Zoe Lofgren (D-CA)||Rodney Davis (R-IL)||Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)|
|Printing||Zoe Lofgren (D-CA)||Roy Blunt (R-MO)||Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)||Rodney Davis (R-IL)|
|Taxation[h]||Rich Neal (D-MA)||Chuck Grassley (R-IA)||Ron Wyden (D-OR)||Kevin Brady (R-TX)|
Often called "Elected" leaders, there are many employees of the House and Senate whose leaders are included here.
A special election will be held in 2019 to fill the vacancy in North Carolina's 3rd congressional district in the United States House of Representatives for the remainder of the 116th United States Congress. Walter B. Jones Jr., the incumbent representative, died on February 10, 2019.Parties held primaries to decide their nominees. In order to win a party nomination outright, under current state law, a candidate must exceed 30% of the vote to avoid a runoff (presuming that the second-place finisher calls for that runoff). There must be 30 days of absentee voting prior to each election, according to state law. Filing began on March 4 and ended March 8, as set by Governor Roy Cooper. Twenty-six candidates filed with the State Board of Elections by the filing deadline: 17 Republicans, 6 Democrats, 2 Libertarians, and 1 Constitution Party candidate. All candidates filed are affiliated with a political party. Candidates who wished to run as "unaffiliated" (independent) have until the date of the primary election to file petitions, which has passed. Five candidates advanced after the 1st primary elections: 2 Republicans, 1 Democrat, 1 Libertarian, and 1 Constitution Party candidate.
Cooper set the primary date of April 30, in which the Democrats selected Allen M. Thomas, Libertarians selected Tim Harris, and in the Constitution party primary businessman Greg Holt won by default, but no Republican achieved 30% of the vote. The Republican Primary runoff will occur on July 9 between 2 candidates that are both physicians, Greg Murphy and Joan Perry. The general election will be held on September 10.With the decision by the State Board of Elections to hold a new election to redo the 2018 North Carolina's 9th congressional district election, this becomes one of 2 congressional district special elections in North Carolina in 2019, the other being the 2019 North Carolina's 9th congressional district special election.2019 North Carolina's 9th congressional district special election
A special election will be held in 2019 to fill the vacancy in North Carolina's 9th congressional district in the United States House of Representatives for the remainder of the 116th United States Congress. The seat has been vacant since the opening of the 116th Congress, following the refusal of the North Carolina State Board of Elections to certify the results of the November 2018 election in the district due to allegations of electoral fraud.Mark Harris, a Republican, led Democrat Dan McCready by 905 votes in the unofficial returns for the 2018 North Carolina's 9th congressional district election. However, allegations of fraud in the election prevented its certification. The North Carolina State Board of Elections set an evidentiary hearing to begin on February 18, 2019. After hearing evidence, including testimony from Harris himself, the board unanimously voted on February 21 to call a new election.The primary was held on May 14, 2019, with the general election on September 10.
The filing period for candidates ended on March 15. A total of 13 candidates qualified for the primary, among them 10 Republicans, 1 Democrat, 1 Libertarian and 1 Green. Dan McCready, the Democratic Party nominee in the 2018 election, ran again and faced no primary opposition. Among Republicans, neither Harris nor Robert Pittenger, the incumbent whom Harris defeated in the 2018 primary election, filed to run.With the announcement by the State Board ordering a new election, it becomes the second congressional special election in North Carolina in 2019, the other being the 3rd congressional district's special election.2019 Pennsylvania's 12th congressional district special election
A special election was held on May 21, 2019, to fill the remainder of the term for Pennsylvania's 12th congressional district in the United States House of Representatives for the 116th United States Congress. Tom Marino, a Republican, resigned from office effective January 23.2019 State of the Union Address
The 2019 State of the Union Address was given by the 45th President of the United States, Donald Trump, on Tuesday, February 5, 2019, at 9 p.m. EST in the chamber of the United States House of Representatives to the 116th United States Congress. Presiding over this joint session was the House Speaker, Nancy Pelosi, accompanied by Mike Pence, the Vice President of the United States. It was Trump's second State of the Union Address and his third speech to a joint session of the United States Congress. The Democratic Response was given by 2018 Georgia gubernatorial candidate Stacey Abrams and the Spanish-language response was given by California Attorney General and former U.S. Representative Xavier Becerra.The Address was watched by 46.8 million viewers, which aired live on 12 major television networks. Viewership statistics do not include views from online live streams. There were also 15.2 million interactions regarding the Address on social media.2019 United States House of Representatives elections
There will be three special elections to the United States House of Representatives in 2019, during the 116th United States Congress.2020 United States Senate special election in Arizona
The 2020 United States Senate special election in Arizona will be held on November 3, 2020. Following the death of Republican U.S. Senator John McCain on August 25, 2018, Governor Doug Ducey was required by Arizona law to appoint a Republican to fill the vacancy in McCain's Senate seat. In September 2018, Ducey appointed former U.S. Senator Jon Kyl to fill McCain's seat until after the Special Election of November 2020, which will determine who will serve the remainder of the term until January 2023. Kyl did not complete his interim appointment, and resigned on December 31, 2018. On December 18, 2018, Ducey announced that outgoing U.S. Representative Martha McSally would be appointed to fill the seat following Kyl's resignation. McSally was sworn in as Arizona's junior senator on January 3, 2019. She had been the Republican nominee for Arizona’s Class I U.S. Senate seat in 2018, but lost that race to Democrat Kyrsten Sinema.Affordable College Textbook Act
The Affordable College Textbook Act is a United States legislative bill intended to support use of open textbooks. It was introduced on April 4, 2019, to the 116th Congress by four senators (Dick Durbin of Illinois, Angus King of Maine, Kyrsten Sinema of Arizona, Tina Smith of Minnesota), and one representative (Joe Neguse of Colorado). Organizations supporting the bill include the American Federation of Teachers, the American Association of Community Colleges, the Association of Research Libraries, and Creative Commons.Arizona's congressional districts
Arizona is divided into 9 congressional districts, each represented by a member of the United States House of Representatives.
The districts are currently represented in the 116th United States Congress as legal entities. As of 2018, Democrats became the majority in the state congressional delegation.List of United States Senators in the 116th Congress by seniority
This is a complete list of United States senators during the 116th United States Congress listed by seniority, from January 3, 2019, to January 3, 2021. It is a historical listing and will contain people who have not served the entire two-year Congress should anyone resign, die, or be expelled.
In this Congress, Kyrsten Sinema is the most junior senior senator and Maria Cantwell is the most senior junior senator.
Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a governor of a state. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.List of acts of the 116th United States Congress
The 116th United States Congress, which began on January 3, 2019 and will end on January 3, 2021, has enacted 16 public laws and zero private laws.List of bills in the 116th United States Congress
The following list includes proposed federal laws introduced during the 116th United States Congress. This Congress began on January 3, 2019.List of freshman class members of the 116th United States Congress
The 116th United States Congress began on January 3, 2019. There were nine new senators (two Democrats, seven Republicans) and a minimum of 89 new representatives (59 Democrats, 29 Republicans, with one open seat pending), as well as one new delegate (a Democrat) at the start of its first session.
The Co-Presidents of the House Democratic Freshman Class are Colin Allred and Haley Stevens, while the President of the House Republican Freshman Class is Mark E. Green.List of members of the United States House of Representatives in the 116th Congress by seniority
This is a complete list of members of the United States House of Representatives during the 116th United States Congress, which runs from January 3, 2019, through January 3, 2021, ordered by seniority.List of members of the United States Senate
The United States Senate consists of 100 members, 2 from each of the 50 states. Below is a list of U.S. senators, sitting in the 116th United States Congress.SAFE Banking Act
The SAFE Banking Act (H.R. 1595) (full title Secure and Fair Enforcement (SAFE) Act; also referred to as the SAFE Banking Act of 2019) is proposed legislation regarding disposition of funds gained through the cannabis industry in the United States. In March 2019, it was advanced by the House Financial Services Committee for a vote by the full United States House of Representatives.Sponsors of the bill were Ed Perlmutter of Colorado and Denny Heck of Washington State. The bill had "broad bipartisan support", and there were 152 cosponsors at the time of the committee vote – over a third of the entire House. Heck and Perlmutter "have introduced similar bills every Congress since 2013".As of May 9, 2019, the House bill had 178 cosponsors, and the Senate bill had 24 cosponsors.Taxpayer First Act
The Taxpayer First Act of 2019, H.R. 1957, is a bill introduced in the 116th United States Congress which, according to one critic, would make it illegal for the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) to create free tax preparation software in an effort to prop up businesses like TurboTax and H&R Block. The bill has bipartisan support. Its passage by the House of Representatives on April 9, 2019 was praised by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. The legislation also addresses identity theft protection and taxpayer rights during an income tax audit. The bill includes a provision that will establish the IRS Independent Office of Appeals to resolve federal tax controversies without litigation.United States House Financial Services Subcommittee on Diversity and Inclusion
The United States House Financial Services Subcommittee on Diversity and Inclusion is a subcommittee of the House Committee on Financial Services. The subcommittee was created for the 116th United States Congress by Chairwoman Maxine Waters.United States House Select Committee on the Climate Crisis
The House Select Committee on the Climate Crisis is a select committee established in the 116th United States Congress in 2019 when Democrats regained the majority of the United States House of Representatives. The Chair is Congresswoman Kathy Castor of Florida. The committee has no mandate or subpoena power to compel witnesses to testify.Its predecessor was the United States House Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming, which existed from 2007 to 2011, and was not renewed when the Republicans gained control of the House for the 112th Congress.Nancy Pelosi, in her then-role as House Minority Leader, called for the Select Committee a week prior to Election Day, telling the New York Times she wanted it to "'prepare the way with evidence' for energy conservation and other climate change mitigation legislation...Pelosi said it was clearly still needed to educate the public about the impact of more frequent extreme weather events." In November and December of 2018, youth climate activists with the Sunrise Movement pushed House Democrats to form a select committee with the mandate to draft "Green New Deal" legislation, working with incoming freshman Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, who proposed language for the committee's authorization. The activists staged a series of sit-ins in the offices of Nancy Pelosi, Steny Hoyer, and Jim McGovern, the incoming Speaker, Majority Leader, and Rules Committee chair. About two dozen Democratic members of Congress supported their proposal, but the incoming chairs of the Energy & Commerce and Natural Resources Committees, Reps. Frank Pallone and Raul Grijalva, opposed it.Venezuela TPS Act of 2019
The Venezuela TPS Act of 2019 is a bill in the 116th United States Congress sponsored by Rep. Darren Soto (D-FL) and Mario Diaz-Balart (R-FL). It aims to extend temporary protected status to Venezuelan nationals in light of the 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis and the crisis in Venezuela in general.
The bill was introduced to the House as H.R. 549 on January 15, 2019.
United States Congresses (and year convened)