Year 1168 (MCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1168 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1168
Ab urbe condita1921
Armenian calendar617
Assyrian calendar5918
Balinese saka calendar1089–1090
Bengali calendar575
Berber calendar2118
English Regnal year14 Hen. 2 – 15 Hen. 2
Buddhist calendar1712
Burmese calendar530
Byzantine calendar6676–6677
Chinese calendar丁亥(Fire Pig)
3864 or 3804
    — to —
戊子年 (Earth Rat)
3865 or 3805
Coptic calendar884–885
Discordian calendar2334
Ethiopian calendar1160–1161
Hebrew calendar4928–4929
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1224–1225
 - Shaka Samvat1089–1090
 - Kali Yuga4268–4269
Holocene calendar11168
Igbo calendar168–169
Iranian calendar546–547
Islamic calendar563–564
Japanese calendarNin'an 3
Javanese calendar1075–1076
Julian calendar1168
Korean calendar3501
Minguo calendar744 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−300
Seleucid era1479/1480 AG
Thai solar calendar1710–1711
Tibetan calendar阴火猪年
(female Fire-Pig)
1294 or 913 or 141
    — to —
(male Earth-Rat)
1295 or 914 or 142





  1. ^ Vigueur, Jean-Claude Maire (2010). L'autre Rome: Une histoire des Romains à l'époque communale (XIIe-XIVe siècle). Paris: Tallandier. p. 314.
1160s in England

Events from the 1160s in England.

1168 in Ireland

Events from the year 1168 in Ireland.

Belvoir Fortress

Belvoir Fortress (Hebrew: כוכב הירדן‎, Kochav HaYarden "Star of the Jordan"; Arabic: كوكب الهوا‎, Kawkab al-Hawa "Star of the Wind") is a Crusader fortress in northern Israel, on a hill 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of the Sea of Galilee. Gilbert of Assailly, Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller, began construction of the castle in 1168. The restored fortress is located in Belvoir National Park. It is the best-preserved Crusader fortress in Israel.

Bishopric of Würzburg

The Prince-Bishopric of Würzburg (German: Fürstbistum Würzburg; Hochstift Würzburg) was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire located in Lower Franconia west of the Prince-Bishopric of Bamberg. Würzburg had been a diocese since 743. As definitely established by the Concordat of 1448, bishops in Germany were chosen by the canons of the cathedral chapter and their election was later confirmed by the pope. Following a common practice in Germany, the prince-bishops of Würzburg were frequently elected to other ecclesiastical principalities as well. The last few prince-bishops resided at the Würzburg Residence, which is one of the grandest baroque palaces in Europe.

As a consequence of the 1801 Treaty of Lunéville, Würzburg, along with the other ecclesiastical states of Germany, was secularized in 1803 and absorbed into the Electorate of Bavaria. In the same year Ferdinand III, former Grand Duke of Tuscany, was compensated with the Electorate of Salzburg. In the 1805 Peace of Pressburg, Ferdinand lost Salzburg to the Austrian Empire, but was compensated with the new Grand Duchy of Würzburg, Bavaria having relinquished the territory in return for the Tyrol. This new state lasted until 1814, when it was once again annexed by Bavaria.

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Würzburg was reestablished in 1821 without temporal power.

Christianization of Pomerania

Medieval Pomerania was converted from Slavic paganism to Christianity by Otto von Bamberg in 1124 and 1128 (Duchy of Pomerania), and in 1168 by Absalon (Principality of Rügen).

Earlier attempts at Christianization, undertaken since the 10th century, failed or were short-lived. The new religion stabilized when the Pomeranian dukes founded several monasteries and called in Christian, primarily German settlers during the Ostsiedlung. The first Pomeranian abbey was founded in 1153 at the site where the first Christian duke of Pomerania, Wartislaw I, was slain by a pagan. The Duchy of Pomerania was organized by the Roman Catholic Church in the Bishopric of Cammin in 1140. Pomeranian areas not belonging to the duchy at this time were attached to the dioceses of Włocławek (East), Roskilde (Rügen) and Schwerin (West).

Consumer Ultra-Low Voltage

Consumer Ultra-Low Voltage (CULV) is a computing platform developed by Intel. It has been estimated that this market could reach 10 million CULV laptops shipped within 2009. Competing platforms are the VIA Nano, AMD Yukon, AMD Nile notebook platform, and graphic chips from the Nvidia GeForce line within the "Nvidia Ion platform". Some of the lowest power using processors for the ultra thin CULV category may be only a few watts more than the Intel Atom, which is rated at no more than 2.5 W. Because of their low power and heat output, CULV enables very thin computer systems, and long battery life in notebook computers.

While the first processors in this category were single core (such as the SU3500), newer CULV processors are dual core (e.g., the SU9600). They are all based on the Intel Core 2 architecture, but the ultra-low voltage versions have thermal rating of 5.5 W, more than the Intel Atom but a fraction of the dual-core mainstream Intel mobile chips rated at 25 and 35 watts, and they come in a small 22 mm chip package.Newest CULV processors are also in Core i7 and Core i5 product lines (14 nm).

German submarine U-1168

German submarine U-1168 was a Type VIIC/41 U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.

She was ordered on 2 April 1942, and was laid down on 16 March 1943, at Danziger Werft AG, Danzig, as yard number 140. She was launched on 2 October 1943, and commissioned under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Martin Grasse on 19 January 1944.

HR 2554

HR 2554, also known as V415 Carinae and A Carinae, is an eclipsing spectroscopic binary of the Algol type in the constellation of Carina whose apparent visual magnitude varies by 0.06 magnitudes and is approximately 4.39 at maximum brightness. Its primary is a G-type bright giant star and its secondary is an A-type main sequence star. It is approximately 553 light years from Earth.

Itsukushima Shrine

Itsukushima Shrine (厳島神社, Itsukushima-jinja) is a Shinto shrine on the island of Itsukushima (popularly known as Miyajima), best known for its "floating" torii gate. It is in the city of Hatsukaichi in Hiroshima Prefecture in Japan. The shrine complex is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and the Japanese government has designated several buildings and possessions as National Treasures.

Jury mast knot

The jury mast knot (or masthead knot) is traditionally used for jury rigging a temporary mast on a sailboat or ship after the original one has been lost. The knot is placed at the top of a new mast with the mast projecting through the center of the knot. The loops of the knot are then used as anchor points for makeshift stays and shrouds. Usually small blocks of wood are affixed to, or a groove cut in, the new mast to prevent the knot from sliding downwards.There is contention among knot researchers whether this supposed rigging knot can work as described. Due to a lack of hard historical evidence there is also uncertainty whether it was ever commonly used for rigging jury masts.


KOI8-U (RFC 2319) is an 8-bit character encoding, designed to cover Ukrainian, which uses a Cyrillic alphabet. It is based on KOI8-R, which covers Russian and Bulgarian, but replaces eight graphic characters with four Ukrainian letters Ґ, Є, І, and Ї in both upper case and lower case.

KOI8-RU is closely related, but adds Ў for Belarusian. In both, the letter allocations match those in KOI8-E, except for Ґ which is added to KOI8-F.

In Microsoft Windows, KOI8-U is assigned the code page number 21866. In IBM, KOI8-U is assigned code page 1168.KOI8 remains much more commonly used than ISO 8859-5, which never really caught on. Another common Cyrillic character encoding is Windows-1251. In the future, both may eventually give way to Unicode.

KOI8 stands for Kod Obmena Informatsiey, 8 bit (Russian: Код Обмена Информацией, 8 бит) which means "Code for Information Exchange, 8 bit".

The KOI8 character sets have the property that the Russian Cyrillic letters are in pseudo-Roman order rather than the natural Cyrillic alphabetical order as in ISO 8859-5. Although this may seem unnatural, it has the useful property that if the eighth bit is stripped, the text can still be read (or at least deciphered) in case-reversed transliteration on an ordinary ASCII terminal. For instance, "Русский Текст" in KOI8-U becomes rUSSKIJ tEKST ("Russian Text") if the 8th bit is stripped.

Principality of Rügen

The Principality of Rügen (German: Fürstentum Rügen) was a Danish principality consisting of the island of Rügen and the adjacent mainland from 1168 until 1325. It was governed by a local dynasty of princes of the Wizlawiden (House of Wizlaw) dynasty. For at least part of this period, Rügen was subject to the Holy Roman Empire.

Right to an adequate standard of living

The right to an adequate standard of living is recognized as a human right in international human rights instruments and is understood to establish a minimum entitlement to food, clothing and housing at an adequate level. The right to food and the right to housing have been further defined in human rights instruments.

The right to an adequate standard of living is enshrined in Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and Article 11 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The most significant inspiration for the inclusion of the right to an adequate standard of living in the UDHR was the Four Freedoms speech by US President Franklin Roosevelt, which declared amongst others the "freedom from want". Fulfillment of the right to an adequate standard of living depends on a number of other economic, social and cultural rights, including the right to property, the right to work, the right to education and the right to social security. There have been a number of proposed policies to guarantee people a basic standard of living through the concept of offering a basic income guarantee essentially gifting all citizens a basic level of "free money" in order to meet basic needs such as food and shelter.

Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester

Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester (1104 – 5 April 1168) was Justiciar of England 1155–1168.

The surname "de Beaumont" is given him by genealogists. The only known contemporary surname applied to him is "Robert son of Count Robert". Henry Knighton, the fourteenth-century chronicler notes him as Robert "Le Bossu" (meaning "Robert the Hunchback" in French).

Saint Regis Mountain

Saint Regis Mountain is a 2,874-foot (876 m) mountain in the town of Santa Clara, New York, in Franklin County at the center of the Saint Regis Canoe Area in the Adirondack Park.

It can be climbed from a trailhead on Keese Mills Road in Keese Mill, west of Paul Smiths. The trail is a gradual 3.3 mile ascent with a gain of 1168 feet.The view from the summit includes thirty lakes, including the Upper and Lower Saranac Lake, and Upper and Lower Saint Regis Lake. The Adirondack High Peaks can also be seen.

The summit is bare rock, having been cleared by a fire started accidentally by a surveying party led by Verplanck Colvin in 1876. The St. Regis Mountain Fire Observation Station is at the summit was restored in 2016 and is now open to the public.

Taifa of Jaén

The Taifa of Jaén was a medieval taifa Moorish kingdom centered in Al-Andalus. It existed for only two very short periods: first in 1145 and then in 1168.

Thierry, Count of Flanders

Theoderic (Dutch: Diederik, French: Thierry, German: Dietrich;c. 1099 – January 17, 1168), commonly known as Thierry of Alsace, was the fifteenth count of Flanders from 1128 to 1168. He was the youngest son of Duke Theoderic II of Lorraine and Gertrude of Flanders (daughter of Robert I of Flanders). With a record of four campaigns in the Levant and Africa (including participation in the Second Crusade, the failed 1157–1158 siege of the Syrian city Shaizar, and the 1164 invasion of Egypt), he had a rare and distinguished record of commitment to crusading.

USS Wexford County (LST-1168)

USS Wexford County (LST-1168), previously USS LST-1168, was a United States Navy landing ship tank (LST) in commission from 1953 to 1971, which saw service in the Atlantic, Caribbean, and Pacific and served in the Vietnam War..

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1168

United Nations Security Council resolution 1168, adopted unanimously on 21 May 1998, after recalling resolutions 1031 (1995), 1035 (1995), 1088 (1996), 1103 (1997), 1107 (1997) and 1144 (1997), the Council strengthened the International Police Task Force (IPTF) in Bosnia and Herzegovina by up to 30 posts to a total strength of 2,057.There was a need for more training for local police in Bosnia and Herzegovina, particularly in terms of incident management, corruption, organised crime and drug control. The Council acknowledged that reform of the judicial reform and police reform were closely linked.

The resolution authorised an additional increase in the number of IPTF posts by up to 30 personnel, with a total strength of 2,057, as part of the United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH). It supported improvements to the structure of IPTF and encouraged Member States to contribute equipment, training and other assistance for local police forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The resolution concluded by recognising that the establishment of an indigenous public security capability was essential for strengthening the rule of law in the country and legal reform.

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