|1162 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||1915|
|Balinese saka calendar||1083–1084|
|English Regnal year||8 Hen. 2 – 9 Hen. 2|
|Chinese calendar||辛巳年 (Metal Snake)|
3858 or 3798
— to —
壬午年 (Water Horse)
3859 or 3799
|- Vikram Samvat||1218–1219|
|- Shaka Samvat||1083–1084|
|- Kali Yuga||4262–4263|
|Japanese calendar||Ōhō 2|
|Minguo calendar||750 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||1473/1474 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1704–1705|
1288 or 907 or 135
— to —
1289 or 908 or 136
Events from the 1160s in England.1162 in Ireland
Events from the year 1162 in Ireland.Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi
Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi or Abdallatif al-Baghdadi (Arabic: عبداللطيف البغدادي, 1162 in Baghdad–1231), short for Muwaffaq al-Din Muhammad Abd al-Latif ibn Yusuf al-Baghdadi (Arabic: موفق الدين محمد عبد اللطيف بن يوسف البغدادي), was a physician, historian, Egyptologist and traveler, and one of the most voluminous writers of the Near East in his time.Beta Eridani
Beta Eridani (β Eridani, abbreviated Beta Eri, β Eri), also named Cursa, is the second-brightest star in the constellation of Eridanus, located in the northeast end of this constellation near the shared border with Orion. The apparent visual magnitude of this star is 2.796, so it can be viewed with the naked eye in dark skies. Parallax measurements yield an estimated distance of about 89 light-years (27 parsecs) from the Earth.Crown of Aragon
The Crown of Aragon (; Aragonese: Corona d'Aragón, Catalan: Corona d'Aragó, Spanish: Corona de Aragón) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name.
In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.Eleanor of England, Queen of Castile
Eleanor of England (Spanish: Leonor; c.1161 – 31 October 1214), was Queen of Castile and Toledo as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile. She was the sixth child and second daughter of Henry II, King of England, and Eleanor of Aquitaine.Froher Tag, verlangte Stunden, BWV Anh. 18
Froher Tag, verlangte Stunden (Happy day, long hoped-for hours), BWV Anh. 18, is a cantata by J.S. Bach. He composed the work for the inauguration of a renovation of the Thomasschule, Leipzig. It was first performed on 5 June 1732. The music is lost but the words of Johann Heinrich Winckler survived.In 1731 work began on the reconstruction of the school building, giving it two more storeys. The Bach family, along with other residents, had to move out for a year. On the Bachs' return they benefited from an enlarged apartment. The building is no longer extant.Gebre Mesqel Lalibela
Lalibela (Ge'ez: ላሊበላ), regnal name Gebre Meskel (Ge'ez: ገብረ መስቀል, lit. 'Servant of the Cross'; 1162 – 1221) was Emperor of Ethiopia of the Zagwe dynasty, reigning from 1181 to 1221. According to Taddesse Tamrat, he was the son of Jan Seyum and brother of Kedus Harbe. Perhaps the most well-known of the Zagwe monarchs, the namesake monolithic churches of Lalibela are attributed to his reign, although recent scholarship has suggested origins as early as the late Aksumite period, with the complex reaching its present form during his time. He is venerated as a saint by the Orthodox Tewahedo churches.German submarine U-1162
German submarine U-1162 was a Type VIIC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.
She was ordered on 25 August 1941, and was laid down on 14 November 1943 at Danziger Werft AG, Danzig, as yard number 134. She was launched on 29 May 1943 and commissioned under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Dietrich Sachse on 15 September 1943.Géza II of Hungary
Géza II (Hungarian: II. Géza; Croatian: Gejza II; Slovak: Gejza II; 1130 – 31 May 1162) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1141 to 1162. He was the oldest son of Béla the Blind and his wife, Helena of Rascia. When his father died, Géza was still a child and he started ruling under the guardianship of his mother and her brother, Beloš. A pretender to the throne, Boris Kalamanos, who had already claimed Hungary during Béla the Blind's reign, temporarily captured Pressburg (now Bratislava in Slovakia) with the assistance of German mercenaries in early 1146. In retaliation, Géza, who came of age in the same year, invaded Austria and routed Henry Jasomirgott, Margrave of Austria, in the Battle of the Fischa.
Although the German–Hungarian relations remained tense, no major confrontations occurred when the German crusaders marched through Hungary in June 1147. Two months later, Louis VII of France and his crusaders arrived, along with Boris Kalamanos who attempted to take advantage of the crusade to return to Hungary. Louis VII refused to extradite Boris to Géza, but prevented the pretender from coming into contacts with his supporters in Hungary and took him to Constantinople. Géza joined the coalition that Louis VII and Roger II of Sicily formed against Conrad III of Germany and the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos. The ancestors of the Transylvanian Saxons came to Hungary during Géza's reign. Western European knights and Muslim warriors from the Pontic steppes also settled in Hungary in this period. Géza even allowed his Muslim soldiers to take concubines.
Géza intervened at least six times in the fights for Kiev on behalf of Iziaslav II of Kiev either by sending reinforcements or by personally leading his troops to the Kievan Rus' between 1148 and 1155. He also waged wars against the Byzantine Empire on behalf of his allies, including the Serbs of Rascia, but could not prevent the Byzantines from restoring their suzerainty over them. Conflicts emerged between Géza and his brothers, Stephen and Ladislaus, who fled from Hungary and settled in Emperor Manuel's court in Constantinople. Géza supported Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, against the Lombard League with auxiliary troops between 1158 and 1160. After the cardinals who supported Emperor Frederick I elected Victor IV pope, Géza acknowledged his legitimacy in 1160, but in a year, he changed sides and concluded a concordat with Victor IV's opponent, Pope Alexander III. Before his death, Géza organized a separate appanage duchy for his younger son, Béla.Haakon II of Norway
Haakon II Sigurdsson (1147 – 7 July 1162), also known as Haakon Herdebrei, was King of Norway from 1157 until 1162 during the Civil war era in Norway.ISO/IEC 8859-11
ISO/IEC 8859-11:2001, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 11: Latin/Thai alphabet, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 2001. It is informally referred to as Latin/Thai. It is nearly identical to the national Thai standard TIS-620 (1990). The sole difference is that ISO/IEC 8859-11 allocates non-breaking space to code 0xA0, while TIS-620 leaves it undefined. (In practice, this small distinction is usually ignored.)
ISO-8859-11 is not a main registered IANA charset name despite following the normal pattern for IANA charsets based on the ISO 8859 series. However, it is defined as an alias of the close equivalent TIS-620 (which lacks the non-breaking space), and which can without problems be used for ISO/IEC 8859-11, since the no-break space has a code which was unallocated in TIS-620. Microsoft has assigned code page 28601 a.k.a. Windows-28601 to ISO-8859-11 in Windows. A draft had the Thai letters in different spots.As with all varieties of ISO/IEC 8859, the lower 128 codes are equivalent to ASCII. The additional characters, apart from no-break space, are found in Unicode in the same order, only shifted from 0xA1 to U+0E01 and so forth.
The Microsoft Windows code page 874 as well as the code page used in the Thai version of the Apple Macintosh, MacThai, are extensions of TIS-620 — incompatible with each other, however.Ibn Zuhr
Ibn Zuhr (Arabic: ابن زهر; 1094–1162), traditionally known by his Latinized name of Avenzoar, was an Arab physician, surgeon, and poet. He was born at Seville in medieval Andalusia (present-day Spain), was a contemporary of Averroes and Ibn Tufail, and was the most well-regarded physician of his era. He was particularly known for his emphasis on a more rational, empiric basis of medicine. His major work, Al-Taysīr fil-Mudāwāt wal-Tadbīr ("Book of Simplification Concerning Therapeutics and Diet"), was translated into Latin and Hebrew and was influential to the progress of surgery. He also improved surgical and medical knowledge by keying out several diseases and their treatments.
Ibn Zuhr performed the first experimental tracheotomy on a goat. He is thought to have made the earliest description of bezoar stones as medicinal items.Pentagonal number
A pentagonal number is a figurate number that extends the concept of triangular and square numbers to the pentagon, but, unlike the first two, the patterns involved in the construction of pentagonal numbers are not rotationally symmetrical. The nth pentagonal number pn is the number of distinct dots in a pattern of dots consisting of the outlines of regular pentagons with sides up to n dots, when the pentagons are overlaid so that they share one vertex. For instance, the third one is formed from outlines comprising 1, 5 and 10 dots, but the 1, and 3 of the 5, coincide with 3 of the 10 – leaving 12 distinct dots, 10 in the form of a pentagon, and 2 inside.
pn is given by the formula:
for n ≥ 1. The first few pentagonal numbers are:
1, 5, 12, 22, 35, 51, 70, 92, 117, 145, 176, 210, 247, 287, 330, 376, 425, 477, 532, 590, 651, 715, 782, 852, 925, 1001, 1080, 1162, 1247, 1335, 1426, 1520, 1617, 1717, 1820, 1926, 2035, 2147, 2262, 2380, 2501, 2625, 2752, 2882, 3015, 3151, 3290, 3432, 3577, 3725, 3876, 4030, 4187... (sequence A000326 in the OEIS).
The nth pentagonal number is one third of the 3n-1th triangular number.
Generalized pentagonal numbers are obtained from the formula given above, but with n taking values in the sequence 0, 1, −1, 2, −2, 3, −3, 4..., producing the sequence:
0, 1, 2, 5, 7, 12, 15, 22, 26, 35, 40, 51, 57, 70, 77, 92, 100, 117, 126, 145, 155, 176, 187, 210, 222, 247, 260, 287, 301, 330, 345, 376, 392, 425, 442, 477, 495, 532, 551, 590, 610, 651, 672, 715, 737, 782, 805, 852, 876, 925, 950, 1001, 1027, 1080, 1107, 1162, 1190, 1247, 1276, 1335... (sequence A001318 in the OEIS).
Generalized pentagonal numbers are important to Euler's theory of partitions, as expressed in his pentagonal number theorem.
The number of dots inside the outermost pentagon of a pattern forming a pentagonal number is itself a generalized pentagonal number.
Pentagonal numbers should not be confused with centered pentagonal numbers.Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona
Ramon Berenguer IV (Catalan pronunciation: [rəˈmom bəɾəŋˈɡe]; c. 1114 – 6 August 1162, Anglicized Raymond Berengar IV), sometimes called the Saint, was the Count of Barcelona who brought about the union of his County of Barcelona with the Kingdom of Aragon to form the Crown of Aragon.Richard de Belmeis II
Richard de Belmeis (died 1162) was a medieval cleric, administrator and politician. His career culminated in election as Bishop of London in 1152. He was one of the founders of Lilleshall Abbey in Shropshire.Sulfanilamide
Sulfanilamide (also spelled sulphanilamide) is a sulfonamide antibacterial. Chemically, it is an organic compound consisting of an aniline derivatized with a sulfonamide group. Powdered sulfanilamide was used by the Allies in World War II to reduce infection rates and contributed to a dramatic reduction in mortality rates compared to previous wars. Modern antibiotics have supplanted sulfanilamide on the battlefield; however, sulfanilamide remains in use for treatment of vaginal yeast infections.The term "sulfanilamides" is also used to describe a family of molecules containing these functional groups. Examples include:
Furosemide, a loop diuretic
Sulfadiazine, an antibiotic
Sulfamethoxazole, an antibioticThomas Becket
Thomas Becket (), also known as Saint Thomas of Canterbury, Thomas of London and later Thomas à Becket (21 December c. 1119 (or 1120) – 29 December 1170), was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He engaged in conflict with Henry II, King of England, over the rights and privileges of the Church and was murdered by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral. Soon after his death, he was canonised by Pope Alexander III.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1162
United Nations Security Council resolution 1162, adopted unanimously on 17 April 1998, after recalling resolutions 1132 (1997) and 1156 (1998) on the situation in Sierra Leone, the Council authorised the deployment of 10 United Nations military liaison and security advisory personnel to ascertain the situation in the country.The Security Council welcomed the efforts of the President of Sierra Leone Ahmad Tejan Kabbah to restore peace, stability and governance. Observers from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and United Nations had played an important role. The resolution authorised the deployment of up to 10 liaison and security advisory personnel for up to 90 days under the authority of the Secretary-General's Special Envoy to report on the military situation, to assist the Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) and the design of a disarmament plan. There would soon be a decision on the deployment of United Nations troops, including human rights observers, after the office of the Special Envoy was strengthened in the capital Freetown.Finally, Member States were urged to provide humanitarian assistance to Sierra Leone following an appeal, participate in the reconstruction of the country and to contribute to a trust fund created to support peacekeeping operations in Sierra Leone.