115th United States Congress

The One Hundred Fifteenth United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It meets in Washington, D.C. from January 3, 2017, to January 3, 2019, during the final weeks of Barack Obama's presidency and the first two years of Donald Trump's presidency.

Several political scientists described the legislative accomplishments of this Congress as modest, considering that Congress and the Presidency were under unified Republican control.[2][3][4][5] According to a contemporary study, "House and Senate GOP majorities struggled to legislate: GOP fissures and an undisciplined, unpopular president frequently undermined the Republican agenda. Most notably, clashes within and between the two parties strained old ways of doing business."[3]

115th United States Congress
114th ←
→ 116th
U.S. Capitol - March 28, 2016 (25666928564)
January 3, 2017 – January 3, 2019
Senate PresidentJoe Biden (D)
until January 20, 2017
Mike Pence (R)
since January 20, 2017
Senate Pres. pro temOrrin Hatch (R)
House SpeakerPaul Ryan (R)
Members100 senators
435 representatives
6 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityRepublican
House MajorityRepublican
Sessions
1st: January 3, 2017 – January 3, 2018[1]
2nd: January 3, 2018[1] – present

Major events

President Trump%27s First 100 Days- 18 (34252546021)
President Donald Trump addressing Congress, with Vice President Mike Pence and House Speaker Paul Ryan.
Kavanaugh Feinstein 20180906
Senator Dianne Feinstein interviewing Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanaugh.

Major legislation

Enacted

Proposed

Party summary

Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section, below.

Senate

US Senate 47-2-51
Senate membership (since September 4, 2018)
     47 Democrats      51 Republicans
     2 Independents (Democratic caucus)
     0 vacant
Affiliation Party
(shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent Republican
End of previous Congress 44 2 54 100 0
Begin (January 3, 2017) 46 2 52 100 0
February 8, 2017 [a] 51 99 1
February 9, 2017 [a] 52 100 0
January 2, 2018 [b] 45 99 1
January 3, 2018 [a][b] 47 51 100 0
April 1, 2018 [c] 50 99 1
April 2, 2018 [c] 51 100 0
August 25, 2018 [d] 50 99 1
September 4, 2018 [d] 51 100 0
Latest voting share 49.0% 51.0%

House of Representatives

US House 196-236 (3V)
House membership (since November 6, 2018)
     196 Democrats      237 Republicans
     2 vacant
United States House of Representatives, 2017
Ideological divisions in the House (on March 27, 2017)
     69 Progressive Caucus      Freedom Caucus 33      
     113 Party Democrats      Party Republicans 156      
     11 Blue Dog Coalition      Tuesday Group 48      
     4 vacant
Party
(shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent Republican
End of previous Congress 187 0 246 433 2
Begin (January 3, 2017) 194 0 241 435 0
January 23, 2017 [e] 240 434 1
January 24, 2017 [f] 193 433 2
February 10, 2017 [g] 239 432 3
February 16, 2017 [h] 238 431 4
March 1, 2017 [i] 237 430 5
April 11, 2017 [e][j] 238 431 4
May 25, 2017 [i][j] 239 432 3
June 6, 2017 [f][j] 194 433 2
June 20, 2017 [g][h][j] 241 435 0
June 30, 2017 [k] 240 434 1
October 21, 2017 [l] 239 433 2
November 7, 2017 [k][j] 240 434 1
December 5, 2017 [m] 193 433 2
December 8, 2017 [n] 239 432 3
January 15, 2018 [o] 238 431 4
March 13, 2018 [l][j] 194 432 3
March 16, 2018 [p] 193 431 4
April 6, 2018 [q] 237 430 5
April 23, 2018 [r] 236 429 6
April 24, 2018 [n][j] 237 430 5
April 27, 2018 [s] 236 429 6
May 12, 2018 [t] 235 428 7
June 30, 2018 [q][j] 236 429 6
August 7, 2018 [o][j] 237 430 5
September 10, 2018 [u] 236 429 6
September 30, 2018 [v] 235 428 7
November 6, 2018 [m][p][r][s] 196 236 432 3
Latest voting share 45.5% 0.0% 54.5%  
Non-voting members 3 1 2 6 0

Leadership

Section contents: Senate: Majority (R), Minority (D)House: Majority (R), Minority (D)

Senate

Biden 2013 (cropped)
Joe Biden (D),
until January 20, 2017
Mike Pence official portrait (cropped)
Mike Pence (R),
from January 20, 2017

Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership

House of Representatives

Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership

Demographics

Note: demographics as of the beginning of the Congress in January 3, 2017:
-womenwearwhite (32503590144)
Democratic women in the House of Representatives wearing white to honor women's suffrage. (March 2017)

The 115th Congress is, in aggregate, the eldest in recent history. The average age of the members in the House of Representatives is 57.8 years, while the average age of the members in the Senate is 61.8 years.[30]

The most common occupation of Senators prior to election was law, followed by public service/politics, then business. In the House of Representatives, business is the dominant prior occupation, followed by public service/politics, and finally law.[30] Currently 94.1% of House members and 100% of Senators have a bachelor's degree or higher, a historically high level of education for a United States Congress. In addition, 167 members of the House and 55 members of the Senate have a law degree. Only 18 members of Congress have no college education.[30]

The extent of racial diversity in the 115th Congress is 52 African American members, 45 Hispanic or Latino members, 18 members of Asian, South Asian, or Pacific Islander ancestry, 2 members of Native American ancestry, the remaining 418 members of Congress are white.[30] Women comprise 20.1% of the membership in the 115th Congress, which has 109 women and 326 men. This represents an increase of 21 women from the 114th Congress.[30]

Currently, there are seven openly LGBT members serving in Congress. Tammy Baldwin,[31] Jared Polis,[32] Sean Patrick Maloney, Mark Takano, David Cicilline, and Mark Pocan are openly gay, while Kyrsten Sinema is openly bisexual.[33] The majority of the 115th Congress is religiously affiliated with 90.7% Christian adherence. Approximately half of the Christians are Protestant. Other religious faiths of Congress members include Jewish, Buddhist, Muslim, and Hindu.[30]

Members

Senate

The numbers refer to their Senate classes. All of the class 3 seats were contested in the November 2016 elections. Class 1 terms end with this Congress, requiring re-election in 2018; Class 2 began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 2020; and Class 3 began in this Congress, requiring re-election in 2022.

115th United States Congress Senators
Current party membership of the Senate, by state:
  2 Democrats
  2 Republicans
  1 Democrat and 1 Republican
   1 Independent and 1 Democrat
   1 Independent and 1 Republican
Senate majority leadership
Mitch McConnell portrait 2016
Senate Republican Leader
Mitch McConnell
John Cornyn (cropped)
Senate Republican Whip
John Cornyn
John Cornyn (cropped)
Senate minority leadership
Chuck Schumer official photo (cropped)
Senate Democratic Leader
Chuck Schumer
Richard Durbin official photo (cropped)
Senate Democratic Whip
Richard Durbin
Richard Durbin official photo (cropped)

House of Representatives

All 435 seats were filled by the regular elections on November 8, 2016, or subsequent special elections thereafter.

US House 2016
Results of the 2016 elections that were first seated in this Congress. Pale blue are Democratic holds; pale red are Republican holds; bright blue are Democratic gains; bright red are Republican gains.
United States House of Representatives by State Representation, 2016
House votes by party holding plurality in state
House majority leadership
House Maj. Leader Kevin McCarthy official photo (cropped)
House Republican Leader
Kevin McCarthy
Steve Scalise official portrait (cropped)
House Republican Whip
Steve Scalise
Steve Scalise official portrait (cropped)
House minority leadership
Nancy Pelosi 2012 (cropped 2)
House Democratic Leader
Nancy Pelosi
Steny Hoyer, official photo as Whip (cropped)
House Democratic Whip
Steny Hoyer
Steny Hoyer, official photo as Whip (cropped)
115th Congress Freshman Class
Newly-elected members of the House of Representatives on the Capitol steps

Changes in membership

Senate

State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Alabama
(2)
Jeff Sessions
(R)
Resigned February 8, 2017, to become U.S. Attorney General.[35]
Successor appointed February 9, 2017, to continue the term.[36]
Luther Strange
(R)
February 9, 2017
Minnesota
(2)
Al Franken
(D)
Resigned January 2, 2018, amid a sexual misconduct scandal.[37]
Successor appointed January 2, 2018, to continue the term.[34]
Tina Smith
(D)
January 3, 2018
Alabama
(2)
Luther Strange
(R)
Appointment expired January 3, 2018, following a special election.[38][39]
Successor elected December 12, 2017, to finish the term and qualified January 3, 2018.[40]
Doug Jones
(D)
January 3, 2018
Mississippi
(2)
Thad Cochran
(R)
Resigned April 1, 2018, for health reasons.[41]
Successor appointed April 2, 2018, to continue the term.[j]
Cindy Hyde-Smith
(R)
April 9, 2018
Arizona
(3)
John McCain
(R)
Died August 25, 2018.[42]
Successor appointed September 4, 2018, to continue the term.[43]
Jon Kyl
(R)
September 5, 2018

House of Representatives

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Kansas 4 Mike Pompeo
(R)
Resigned January 23, 2017, to become Director of the Central Intelligence Agency.[44]
A special election was held April 11, 2017.[45]
Ron Estes
(R)
April 25, 2017
California 34 Xavier Becerra
(D)
Resigned January 24, 2017, to become Attorney General of California.[46]
A special election was held June 6, 2017.[47]
Jimmy Gomez
(D)
July 11, 2017
Georgia 6 Tom Price
(R)
Resigned February 10, 2017, to become U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services.[48]
A special election was held June 20, 2017.[49]
Karen Handel
(R)
June 26, 2017
South Carolina 5 Mick Mulvaney
(R)
Resigned February 16, 2017, to become Director of the Office of Management and Budget.[50]
A special election was held June 20, 2017.[51]
Ralph Norman
(R)
June 26, 2017
Montana at-large Ryan Zinke
(R)
Resigned March 1, 2017, to become U.S. Secretary of the Interior.[50]
A special election was held May 25, 2017.[52]
Greg Gianforte
(R)
June 21, 2017
Utah 3 Jason Chaffetz
(R)
Resigned June 30, 2017.[53]
A special election was held November 7, 2017.[54]
John Curtis
(R)
November 13, 2017
Pennsylvania 18 Tim Murphy
(R)
Resigned October 21, 2017.[55]
A special election was held March 13, 2018.[56]
Conor Lamb
(D)
April 12, 2018
Michigan 13 John Conyers
(D)
Resigned December 5, 2017.[57]
A special election was held November 6, 2018.[58]
Brenda Jones
(D)[59]
TBD
Arizona 8 Trent Franks
(R)
Resigned December 8, 2017.[60]
A special election was held April 24, 2018.[61]
Debbie Lesko
(R)
May 7, 2018
Ohio 12 Pat Tiberi
(R)
Resigned January 15, 2018, to lead the Ohio Business Roundtable.[62][63]
A special election was held August 7, 2018[64]
Troy Balderson (R) September 5, 2018
New York 25 Louise Slaughter
(D)
Died March 16, 2018.[65]
A special election was held November 6, 2018.[66]
Joseph Morelle
(D)
November 13, 2018
Texas 27 Blake Farenthold
(R)
Resigned April 6, 2018.[22]
A special election was held June 30, 2018.[67]
Michael Cloud
(R)
July 10, 2018
Oklahoma 1 Jim Bridenstine
(R)
Resigned April 23, 2018, to become the Administrator of National Aeronautics and Space Administration.[68][69]
Successor was elected to the next term and, by Oklahoma law, was considered thereby "appointed" November 6, 2018 to finish the current term. There is debate about the legality of such an appointment, however.
Kevin Hern
(R)
November 13, 2018
Pennsylvania 7 Pat Meehan
(R)
Resigned April 27, 2018.[70]
A special election was held November 6, 2018.[71]
Mary Gay Scanlon
(D)
November 13, 2018
Pennsylvania 15 Charlie Dent
(R)
Resigned May 12, 2018.[72]
A special election was held November 6, 2018.[71]
Susan Wild
(D)
TBD
Florida 6 Ron DeSantis
(R)
Resigned September 10, 2018.[73]
Seat remained vacant until determined by general election.
Vacant until the next Congress
West Virginia 3 Evan Jenkins
(R)
Resigned September 30, 2018, to become justice of the Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia.[74]
Seat remained vacant until determined by special election.

Committees

Section contents: Senate, House, Joint

Listed alphabetically by chamber, including Chairman and Ranking Member.

Senate

Committee Chairman Ranking Member
Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Pat Roberts (R-KS) Debbie Stabenow (D-MI)
Appropriations Richard Shelby (R-AL) Patrick Leahy (D-VT)
Armed Services John McCain (R-AZ), until August 25, 2018
Jim Inhofe (R-OK), from September 6, 2018
Acting from December 2017
Jack Reed (D-RI)
Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Mike Crapo (R-ID) Sherrod Brown (D-OH)
Budget Mike Enzi (R-WY) Bernie Sanders (I-VT)
Commerce, Science and Transportation John Thune (R-SD) Bill Nelson (D-FL)
Energy and Natural Resources Lisa Murkowski (R-AK) Maria Cantwell (D-WA)
Environment and Public Works John Barrasso (R-WY) Tom Carper (D-DE)
Finance Orrin Hatch (R-UT) Ron Wyden (D-OR)
Foreign Relations Bob Corker (R-TN) Bob Menendez (D-NJ)
Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Lamar Alexander (R-TN) Patty Murray (D-WA)
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Ron Johnson (R-WI) Claire McCaskill (D-MO)
Judiciary Chuck Grassley (R-IA) Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)
Rules and Administration Roy Blunt (R-MO) Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)
Small Business and Entrepreneurship Jim Risch (R-ID) Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH)
Veterans' Affairs Johnny Isakson (R-GA) Jon Tester (D-MT)
Aging (Special) Susan Collins (R-ME) Bob Casey Jr. (D-PA)
Ethics (Select) Johnny Isakson (R-GA) Chris Coons (D-DE)
Indian Affairs (Permanent Select) John Hoeven (R-ND) Tom Udall (D-NM)
Intelligence (Select) Richard Burr (R-NC) Mark Warner (D-VA)
International Narcotics Control (Permanent Caucus) Chuck Grassley (R-IA) Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)

House of Representatives

Committee Chairman[75] Ranking Member
Agriculture Mike Conaway (R-TX) Collin Peterson (D-MN)
Appropriations Rodney Frelinghuysen (R-NJ) Nita Lowey (D-NY)
Armed Services Mac Thornberry (R-TX) Adam Smith (D-WA)
Budget Diane Black (R-TN), until January 11, 2018
Acting until February 16, 2017
Steve Womack (R-AR), from January 11, 2018
John Yarmuth (D-KY)
Education and the Workforce Virginia Foxx (R-NC) Bobby Scott (D-VA)
Energy and Commerce Greg Walden (R-OR) Frank Pallone (D-NJ)
Ethics Susan Brooks (R-IN) Ted Deutch (D-FL)
Financial Services Jeb Hensarling (R-TX) Maxine Waters (D-CA)
Foreign Affairs Ed Royce (R-CA) Eliot Engel (D-NY)
Homeland Security Michael McCaul (R-TX) Bennie Thompson (D-MS)
House Administration Gregg Harper (R-MS) Bob Brady (D-PA)
Judiciary Bob Goodlatte (R-VA) John Conyers (D-MI), until November 26, 2017
Jerrold Nadler (D-NY), from November 26, 2017
Acting until December 20, 2017
Natural Resources Rob Bishop (R-UT) Raúl Grijalva (D-AZ)
Oversight and Government Reform Jason Chaffetz (R-UT), until June 13, 2017
Trey Gowdy (R-SC), from June 13, 2017
Elijah Cummings (D-MD)
Rules Pete Sessions (R-TX) Louise Slaughter (D-NY), until March 16, 2018
Jim McGovern (D-MA), from March 17, 2018
Acting until April 10, 2018
Science, Space and Technology Lamar Smith (R-TX) Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-TX)
Small Business Steve Chabot (R-OH) Nydia Velázquez (D-NY)
Transportation and Infrastructure Bill Shuster (R-PA) Peter DeFazio (D-OR)
Veterans' Affairs Phil Roe (R-TN) Tim Walz (D-MN)
Ways and Means Kevin Brady (R-TX) Richard Neal (D-MA)
Human Rights (Lantos Commission) Randy Hultgren (R-IL) Jim McGovern (D-MA)
Intelligence (Permanent Select) Devin Nunes (R-CA) Adam Schiff (D-CA)

Joint

Committee Chairman Ranking Member Vice Chairman Vice Ranking Member
Economic Rep. Pat Tiberi (R-OH), until January 11, 2018
Rep. Erik Paulsen (R-MN), from January 11, 2018
Sen. Martin Heinrich (D-NM) Sen. Mike Lee (R-UT) Rep. Carolyn Maloney (D-NY)
Library Sen. Roy Blunt (R-MO) Sen. Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) Sen. Richard Shelby (R-AL) Rep. Bob Brady (D-PA)
Printing Sen. Richard Shelby (R-AL) Rep. Bob Brady (D-PA) Sen. Roy Blunt (R-MO) Sen. Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)
Taxation Rep. Kevin Brady (R-TX) Sen. Ron Wyden (D-OR) Sen. Orrin Hatch (R-UT) Rep. Richard Neal (D-MA)
Budget and Appropriations Process Reform (Select) Rep. Steve Womack (R-AR) (co-chair) Sen. Roy Blunt (R-MO) Rep. Nita Lowey (D-NY) (co-chair) Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI)
Inaugural Ceremonies (Special) Sen. Roy Blunt (R-MO) Rep. Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) Rep. Paul Ryan (R-WI) Sen. Chuck Schumer (D-NY)
Security and Cooperation in Europe (Helsinki Commission) Sen. Roger Wicker (R-MS) Rep. Alcee Hastings (D-FL) Rep. Ben Cardin (D-MD) Sen. Chris Smith (R-NJ)
Solvency of Multiemployer Pension Plans (Select) Sen. Orrin Hatch (R-UT) (co-chair) Rep. Virginia Foxx (R-NC) Sen. Sherrod Brown (D-OH) (co-chair) Rep. Richard Neal (D-MA)

Employees and legislative agency directors

Senate

House of Representatives

Legislative branch agency directors

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c In Alabama, Senator Jeff Sessions (R) resigned February 8, 2017. Luther Strange (R) was appointed February 9, 2017, to continue the term. Doug Jones (D) was elected to finish the term and qualified January 3, 2018.
  2. ^ a b In Minnesota, Senator Al Franken (D) resigned January 2, 2018. Tina Smith (D) was appointed January 3, 2018, to continue the term.
  3. ^ a b In Mississippi, Senator Thad Cochran (R) resigned April 1, 2018. Cindy Hyde-Smith (R) was appointed April 2, 2018, to continue the term.
  4. ^ a b In Arizona, Senator John McCain (R) died August 25, 2018. Jon Kyl (R) was appointed September 4, 2018, to continue the term.
  5. ^ a b In Kansas's 4th district: Mike Pompeo (R) resigned January 23, 2017, and Ron Estes (R) was elected April 11, 2017.
  6. ^ a b In California's 34th district: Xavier Becerra (D) resigned January 24, 2017, and Jimmy Gomez (D) was elected June 6, 2017.
  7. ^ a b In Georgia's 6th district: Tom Price (R) resigned February 10, 2017, and Karen Handel (R) was elected June 20, 2017.
  8. ^ a b In South Carolina's 5th district: Mick Mulvaney (R) resigned February 16, 2017, and Ralph Norman (R) was elected June 20, 2017.
  9. ^ a b In Montana's at-large district: Ryan Zinke (R) resigned March 1, 2017, and Greg Gianforte (R) was elected May 25, 2017.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Service begins on the day of a special election, when qualified, not necessarily upon the oath of office.
  11. ^ a b In Utah's 3rd district: Jason Chaffetz (R) resigned June 30, 2017, and John Curtis (R) was elected November 7, 2017.
  12. ^ a b In Pennsylvania's 18th district: Tim Murphy (R) resigned October 21, 2017, and Conor Lamb (D) was elected March 13, 2018.
  13. ^ a b In Michigan's 13th district: Rep. John Conyers (D) resigned December 5, 2017, and Brenda Jones (D) was elected November 6, 2018.
  14. ^ a b In Arizona's 8th district: Trent Franks (R) resigned December 8, 2017, and Debbie Lesko (R) was elected April 24, 2018.
  15. ^ a b In Ohio's 12th district: Pat Tiberi (R) resigned January 15, 2018, and Troy Balderson (R) was elected August 7, 2018, although the results weren't final until August 24, 2018.
  16. ^ a b In New York's 25th district: Louise Slaughter (D) died March 16, 2018, and Joseph D. Morelle (D) was elected November 6, 2018.
  17. ^ a b In Texas's 27th district: Blake Farenthold (R) resigned April 6, 2018, and Michael Cloud (R) was elected June 30, 2018.
  18. ^ a b In Oklahoma's 1st district: Jim Bridenstine (R) resigned April 23, 2018, and Kevin Hern (R) was elected November 6, 2018.
  19. ^ a b In Pennsylvania's 7th district: Pat Meehan (R) resigned April 27, 2018, and Mary Gay Scanlon (D) was elected November 6, 2018.
  20. ^ In Pennsylvania's 15th district: Charlie Dent (R) resigned May 12, 2018.
  21. ^ In Florida's 6th district: Ron DeSantis (R) resigned September 10, 2018.
  22. ^ In West Virginia's 3rd district: Evan Jenkins (R) resigned September 30, 2018.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i The Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL) and the North Dakota Democratic-Nonpartisan League Party (D-NPL) are the Minnesota and North Dakota affiliates of the U.S. Democratic Party and are counted as Democrats.
  24. ^ In Ohio's 12th congressional district, the special election on August 7, 2018, was so close that it wasn't settled until August 24, 2018.

References

  1. ^ a b H.Res. 670, §3(b), and "House Floor Activities | Legislative Days of January 3, 2018". Office of the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  2. ^ Lee, Frances E. (July 31, 2018). "The 115th Congress and Questions of Party Unity in a Polarized Era". The Journal of Politics. 80 (4): 1464–1473. doi:10.1086/699335. ISSN 0022-3816.
  3. ^ a b Binder, Sarah (2018). "Dodging the Rules in Trump's Republican Congress". The Journal of Politics. 80 (4): 1454–1463. doi:10.1086/699334. ISSN 0022-3816.
  4. ^ Pearson, Kathryn (January 1, 2017). "President Trump and Congressional Republicans: Uncertain Teamwork in the 115th Congress". The Forum. 15 (3). doi:10.1515/for-2017-0033. ISSN 1540-8884.
  5. ^ Edwards III, George C. (January 1, 2017). "No Deal: Donald Trump's Leadership of Congress". The Forum. 15 (3). doi:10.1515/for-2017-0031. ISSN 1540-8884.
  6. ^ "House Overwhelmingly Votes to Condemn UN Resolution on Israel Settlements". Fox News. January 5, 2017. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  7. ^ Cortellessa, Eric (January 6, 2017). "US House Passes Motion Repudiating UN Resolution on Israel". The Times of Israel. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
  8. ^ Caldwell, Leigh Ann (January 12, 2017). "Senate Approves First Step Toward Repealing Obamacare in Late-Night Session". NBC News. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
  9. ^ Kurtzleben, Danielle (January 12, 2017). "Senate Takes First Step To Repeal Obamacare — So What's Next?". NPR. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
  10. ^ "DeVos Confirmed as Education Secretary, Pence Casts Historic Tie-Breaking Vote". Fox News. February 7, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  11. ^ Strafford, Michael; Emma, Caitlin; Heffling, Kimberly (February 7, 2017). "Senate confirms DeVos as secretary of education". Politico. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  12. ^ Caygle, Heather (December 7, 2017). "Democrat Kihuen hanging on despite harassment claim". Politico. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
  13. ^ Watson, Kathryn (December 16, 2017). "Facing ethics probe, Rep. Ruben Kihuen won't run for re-election". CBS News. Retrieved December 17, 2017.
  14. ^ Gay Stolberg, Sheryl; Alcindor, Yamiche; Fandos, Nicholas (December 7, 2017). "Al Franken to Resign From Senate Amid Harassment Allegations". New York Times. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
  15. ^ Viebeck, Elise; Weigel, David (December 5, 2017). "Rep. John Conyers Jr. resigns over sexual harassment allegations after a half-century in Congress". Washington Post. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
  16. ^ Bade, Rachel (December 8, 2017). "Franks to resign Friday after harassment allegations". Politico. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
  17. ^ CNN, Mick Krever and Sophie Tatum, (December 11, 2017). "Exclusive: Gillibrand calls on Trump to resign". CNN.com. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  18. ^ Chandler, Kim; Peoples, Steve (December 12, 2017). "Jones wins in stunning Alabama upset". Associated Press. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  19. ^ Sullivan, Sean; Weigel, David; Fahrenthold, David A. (December 12, 2017). "Doug Jones declared victor in Alabama race for Senate; Roy Moore may seek recount". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved December 13, 2017.
  20. ^ Edelman, Adam; Caldwell, Leigh Ann (December 8, 2017). "Ethics probe into Farenthold picks up steam after accuser agrees to cooperate". NBC News. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
  21. ^ Schneider, Elena (December 14, 2017). "Farenthold won't seek reelection". Politico. Washington, DC. Retrieved December 14, 2017.
  22. ^ a b Brufke, Juliegrace (April 6, 2018). "GOP Rep. Farenthold resigns amid sexual harassment scandal". The Hill. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  23. ^ Kaplan, Thomas. "House Passes Measure to Repeal and Replace the Affordable Care Act". NY Times. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
  24. ^ Roll call vote 256, via Clerk.House.gov
  25. ^ "Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives". June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
  26. ^ Roll call vote 299, via Clerk.House.gov
  27. ^ a b c "Senate Democrats elect Chuck Schumer as their new leader". Retrieved March 19, 2017.
  28. ^ a b c Everett, Burgess; Schor, Elana (November 16, 2016). "Senate Democrats settle on leadership team, Sanders elevated". Politico. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
  29. ^ Robillard, Kevin; Schor, Elana (November 18, 2016). "Van Hollen to serve as DSCC chair". politico.com. Retrieved March 12, 2017.
  30. ^ a b c d e f "Membership of the 115th Congress: A Profile" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. November 13, 2017. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
  31. ^ "Wisconsin's Tammy Baldwin is the first openly gay person elected to Senate". CNN. November 7, 2012. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  32. ^ Parkinson, John (September 30, 2011). "House Democrat Jared Polis Becomes First Openly Gay Parent in Congress". ABC News. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
  33. ^ Candido, Sergio N. (October 29, 2012). "Top 5 Gay National Races". South Florida Gay News. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  34. ^ a b "Certificate of Appointment of United States Senator from Minnesota" (PDF). Minnesota.gov. January 2, 2018. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
  35. ^ United States Congress. "Jefferson Beauregard Sessions III (id: S001141)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  36. ^ News, A. B. C. (February 9, 2017). "Alabama's Attorney General to Replace Jeff Sessions in Senate". ABC News.
  37. ^ "Franken to resign Jan 2 over sexual misconduct allegations". The Washington Post. December 20, 2017. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
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