115th United States Congress

The One Hundred Fifteenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from January 3, 2017, to January 3, 2019, during the final weeks of Barack Obama's presidency and the first two years of Donald Trump's presidency.

Several political scientists described the legislative accomplishments of this Congress as modest, considering that both Congress and the Presidency were under unified Republican Party control.[2][3][4][5] According to a contemporary study, "House and Senate GOP majorities struggled to legislate: GOP fissures and an undisciplined, unpopular president frequently undermined the Republican agenda. Most notably, clashes within and between the two parties strained old ways of doing business."[3]

115th United States Congress
114th ←
→ 116th
2017 US Capitol 02
January 3, 2017 – January 3, 2019
Senate PresidentJoe Biden (D),
until January 20, 2017
Mike Pence (R),
from January 20, 2017
Senate President pro temOrrin Hatch (R)
House SpeakerPaul Ryan (R)
Members100 senators
435 members of the House
6 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityRepublican
House MajorityRepublican
1st: January 3, 2017 – January 3, 2018[1]
2nd: January 3, 2018 – January 3, 2019[1]

Major events

President Trump's First 100 Days- 18 (34252546021)
President Donald Trump addressing Congress, with Vice President Mike Pence and House Speaker Paul Ryan.
Kavanaugh Feinstein 20180906
Senator Dianne Feinstein interviewing Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanaugh.

Major legislation



Party summary

Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section, below.


US Senate 47-2-50 (1V)

Final (from December 31, 2018)

US Senate 46-2-52

January 3, 2017 – February 8, 2017

US Senate 46-2-51 (1V)

February 8, 2017 – February 9, 2017

US Senate 46-2-52

February 9, 2017 – January 2, 2018

US Senate 45-2-52 (1V)

January 2, 2018 – January 3, 2018

US Senate 47-2-51

January 3, 2018 – April 1, 2018

US Senate 47-2-50 (1V)

April 1, 2018 – April 2, 2018

US Senate 47-2-51

April 2, 2018 – August 25, 2018

US Senate 47-2-50 (1V)

August 25, 2018 – September 4, 2018

US Senate 47-2-51

September 4, 2018 – December 31, 2018

Affiliation Party
(shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent Republican
End of previous Congress 44 2 54 100 0
Begin (January 3, 2017) 46 2 52 100 0
February 8, 2017 [a] 51 99 1
February 9, 2017 [a] 52 100 0
January 2, 2018 [b] 45 99 1
January 3, 2018 [a][b] 47 51 100 0
April 1, 2018 [c] 50 99 1
April 2, 2018 [c] 51 100 0
August 25, 2018 [d] 50 99 1
September 4, 2018 [d] 51 100 0
December 31, 2018 [d] 50 99 1
Final voting share 49.5% 50.5%
Beginning of the next Congress 45 2 52 99 1

House of Representatives

United States House of Representatives, 196-236 (3V)
House membership (from December 31, 2018)
     196 Democrats      236 Republicans
     3 vacant
United States House of Representatives, 2017
Ideological divisions in the House (on March 27, 2017)
     69 Progressive Caucus      Freedom Caucus 33      
     113 Party Democrats      Party Republicans 156      
     11 Blue Dog Coalition      Tuesday Group 48      
     4 vacant
(shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent Republican
End of previous Congress 187 0 246 433 2
Begin (January 3, 2017) 194 0 241 435 0
January 23, 2017 [e] 240 434 1
January 24, 2017 [f] 193 433 2
February 10, 2017 [g] 239 432 3
February 16, 2017 [h] 238 431 4
March 1, 2017 [i] 237 430 5
April 11, 2017 [e][j] 238 431 4
May 25, 2017 [i][j] 239 432 3
June 6, 2017 [f][j] 194 433 2
June 20, 2017 [g][h][j] 241 435 0
June 30, 2017 [k] 240 434 1
October 21, 2017 [l] 239 433 2
November 7, 2017 [k][j] 240 434 1
December 5, 2017 [m] 193 433 2
December 8, 2017 [n] 239 432 3
January 15, 2018 [o] 238 431 4
March 13, 2018 [l][j] 194 432 3
March 16, 2018 [p] 193 431 4
April 6, 2018 [q] 237 430 5
April 23, 2018 [r] 236 429 6
April 24, 2018 [n][j] 237 430 5
April 27, 2018 [s] 236 429 6
May 12, 2018 [t] 235 428 7
June 30, 2018 [q][j] 236 429 6
August 7, 2018 [o][j] 237 430 5
September 10, 2018 [u] 236 429 6
September 30, 2018 [v] 235 428 7
November 6, 2018 [m][p][r][s][t] 197 236 433 2
December 31, 2018 [w] 196 432 3
Final voting share 45.4% 0.0% 54.6%  
Non-voting members 3 1 2 6 0
Beginning of the next Congress 235 0 199 434 1[28]


Section contents: Senate: Majority (R), Minority (D)House: Majority (R), Minority (D)


Biden 2013 (cropped)
Joe Biden (D),
until January 20, 2017
Mike Pence official Vice Presidential portrait (cropped)
Mike Pence (R),
from January 20, 2017

Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership

House of Representatives

Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership


Note: Demographics are accurate as of the commencement of the 115th Congress on January 3, 2017.
-womenwearwhite (32503590144)
Democratic women in the House of Representatives wearing white to honor women's suffrage. (March 2017)

The average age of members of the House of Representatives during the 115th Congress was 57.8 years, while the average age of U.S. senators was 61.8 years.[32]

The most common occupation of senators prior to being elected to their posts was law, followed by public service/politics and business. In the House of Representatives, business was the dominant prior occupation, followed by public service/politics and law.[32] In the 115th Congress, 94.1% of House members and 100% of Senators had attained a bachelor's degree or a higher degree; this was a historically high level of education for a United States Congress. In addition, 167 members of the House and 55 members of the Senate had law degrees. Only 18 members of Congress had no college education.[32]

Ethnic minorities in the 115th Congress consisted of 52 African American members, 45 Hispanic or Latino members, 18 Asian-American or Pacific Islander members, and two members of Native American ancestry.[32] Women comprised 20.1% of the membership in the 115th Congress, which had 109 women and 326 men. This represented an increase of 21 women from the 114th Congress.[32]

Seven openly LGBT members served in the 115th Congress. Tammy Baldwin,[33] Jared Polis,[34] Sean Patrick Maloney, Mark Takano, David Cicilline, and Mark Pocan are openly gay, while Kyrsten Sinema is openly bisexual.[35]

The majority of the 115th Congress was religiously affiliated, with 90.7% identifying as Christians. Approximately half of the Christians were Protestant. Other religious faiths of congressmembers in the 115th Congress included Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism.[32]



The numbers refer to their Senate classes. All of the class 3 seats were contested in the November 2016 elections. Class 1 terms end with this Congress, requiring re-election in 2018; Class 2 began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 2020; and Class 3 began in this Congress, requiring re-election in 2022.

115th United States Congress Senators
Current party membership of the Senate, by state:
  2 Democrats
  2 Republicans
  1 Democrat and 1 Republican
   1 Independent and 1 Democrat
   1 Independent and 1 Republican
Senate majority leadership
Mitch McConnell portrait 2016
Senate Republican Leader
Mitch McConnell
John Cornyn (cropped)
Senate Republican Whip
John Cornyn
John Cornyn (cropped)
Senate minority leadership
Chuck Schumer official photo (cropped)
Senate Democratic Leader
Chuck Schumer
Richard Durbin official photo (cropped)
Senate Democratic Whip
Richard Durbin
Richard Durbin official photo (cropped)

House of Representatives

All 435 seats were filled by the regular elections on November 8, 2016, or subsequent special elections thereafter.

US House 2016
Results of the 2016 elections that were first seated in this Congress. Pale blue are Democratic holds; pale red are Republican holds; bright blue are Democratic gains; bright red are Republican gains.
United States House of Representatives by State Representation, 2016
House votes by party holding plurality in state
House majority leadership
House Maj. Leader Kevin McCarthy official photo (cropped)
House Republican Leader
Kevin McCarthy
Steve Scalise official portrait (cropped)
House Republican Whip
Steve Scalise
Steve Scalise official portrait (cropped)
House minority leadership
Nancy Pelosi 2012 (cropped 2)
House Democratic Leader
Nancy Pelosi
Steny Hoyer, official photo as Whip (cropped)
House Democratic Whip
Steny Hoyer
Steny Hoyer, official photo as Whip (cropped)
115th Congress Freshman Class
Newly-elected members of the House of Representatives on the Capitol steps

Changes in membership


Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Jeff Sessions
Resigned February 8, 2017, to become U.S. Attorney General.[37]
Successor appointed February 9, 2017, to continue the term.[38]
Luther Strange
February 9, 2017
Al Franken
Resigned January 2, 2018, amid a sexual misconduct scandal.[39]
Successor appointed January 2, 2018, to continue the term.[36]
Appointee was later elected to finish the term.
Tina Smith
January 3, 2018
Luther Strange
Appointment expired January 3, 2018, following a special election.[40][41]
Successor elected December 12, 2017, to finish the term and qualified January 3, 2018.[42]
Doug Jones
January 3, 2018
Thad Cochran
Resigned April 1, 2018, for health reasons.[43]
Successor appointed April 2, 2018, to continue the term.[j]
Appointee was later elected to finish the term.
Cindy Hyde-Smith
April 9, 2018
John McCain
Died August 25, 2018.[44]
Successor appointed September 4, 2018, to continue the term.[45]
Jon Kyl
September 5, 2018
Jon Kyl
Resigned December 31, 2018.[27]
Successor will be seated in next Congress.
Vacant until the next Congress

House of Representatives

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Kansas 4 Mike Pompeo
Resigned January 23, 2017, to become Director of the Central Intelligence Agency.[46]
A special election was held April 11, 2017.[47]
Ron Estes
April 25, 2017
California 34 Xavier Becerra
Resigned January 24, 2017, to become Attorney General of California.[48]
A special election was held June 6, 2017.[49]
Jimmy Gomez
July 11, 2017
Georgia 6 Tom Price
Resigned February 10, 2017, to become U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services.[50]
A special election was held June 20, 2017.[51]
Karen Handel
June 26, 2017
South Carolina 5 Mick Mulvaney
Resigned February 16, 2017, to become Director of the Office of Management and Budget.[52]
A special election was held June 20, 2017.[53]
Ralph Norman
June 26, 2017
Montana at-large Ryan Zinke
Resigned March 1, 2017, to become U.S. Secretary of the Interior.[52]
A special election was held May 25, 2017.[54]
Greg Gianforte
June 21, 2017
Utah 3 Jason Chaffetz
Resigned June 30, 2017, for health reasons.[55]
A special election was held November 7, 2017.[56]
John Curtis
November 13, 2017
Pennsylvania 18 Tim Murphy
Resigned October 21, 2017.[57]
A special election was held March 13, 2018.[58]
Conor Lamb
April 12, 2018
Michigan 13 John Conyers
Resigned December 5, 2017.[59]
A special election was held November 6, 2018.[60]
Brenda Jones
November 29, 2018
Arizona 8 Trent Franks
Resigned December 8, 2017.[62]
A special election was held April 24, 2018.[63]
Debbie Lesko
May 7, 2018
Ohio 12 Pat Tiberi
Resigned January 15, 2018, to lead the Ohio Business Roundtable.[64][65]
A special election was held August 7, 2018[66]
Troy Balderson (R) September 5, 2018
New York 25 Louise Slaughter
Died March 16, 2018.[67]
A special election was held November 6, 2018.[68]
Joseph Morelle
November 13, 2018
Texas 27 Blake Farenthold
Resigned April 6, 2018.[22]
A special election was held June 30, 2018.[69]
Michael Cloud
July 10, 2018
Oklahoma 1 Jim Bridenstine
Resigned April 23, 2018, to become the Administrator of National Aeronautics and Space Administration.[70]
Successor was elected to the next term and, by Oklahoma law, was considered thereby "appointed" November 6, 2018 to finish the current term. There is debate about the legality of such an appointment, however.
Kevin Hern
November 13, 2018
Pennsylvania 7 Pat Meehan
Resigned April 27, 2018.[71]
A special election was held November 6, 2018.[72]
Mary Gay Scanlon
November 13, 2018
Pennsylvania 15 Charlie Dent
Resigned May 12, 2018.[73]
A special election was held November 6, 2018.[72]
Susan Wild
November 27, 2018[74]
Florida 6 Ron DeSantis
Resigned September 10, 2018.[75]
Seat remained vacant until determined by general election.
Vacant until the next Congress
West Virginia 3 Evan Jenkins
Resigned September 30, 2018, to become justice of the Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia.[76]
Seat remained vacant until determined by general election.
New Mexico 1 Michelle Lujan Grisham
Resigned December 31, 2018, to become Governor of New Mexico.


Section contents: Senate, House, Joint

Listed alphabetically by chamber, including Chairman and Ranking Member.


Committee Chairman Ranking Member
Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Pat Roberts (R-KS) Debbie Stabenow (D-MI)
Appropriations Richard Shelby (R-AL) Patrick Leahy (D-VT)
Armed Services John McCain (R-AZ), until August 25, 2018
Jim Inhofe (R-OK), from September 6, 2018
Acting from December 2017
Jack Reed (D-RI)
Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Mike Crapo (R-ID) Sherrod Brown (D-OH)
Budget Mike Enzi (R-WY) Bernie Sanders (I-VT)
Commerce, Science and Transportation John Thune (R-SD) Bill Nelson (D-FL)
Energy and Natural Resources Lisa Murkowski (R-AK) Maria Cantwell (D-WA)
Environment and Public Works John Barrasso (R-WY) Tom Carper (D-DE)
Finance Orrin Hatch (R-UT) Ron Wyden (D-OR)
Foreign Relations Bob Corker (R-TN) Bob Menendez (D-NJ)
Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Lamar Alexander (R-TN) Patty Murray (D-WA)
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Ron Johnson (R-WI) Claire McCaskill (D-MO)
Judiciary Chuck Grassley (R-IA) Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)
Rules and Administration Roy Blunt (R-MO) Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)
Small Business and Entrepreneurship Jim Risch (R-ID) Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH)
Veterans' Affairs Johnny Isakson (R-GA) Jon Tester (D-MT)
Aging (Special) Susan Collins (R-ME) Bob Casey Jr. (D-PA)
Ethics (Select) Johnny Isakson (R-GA) Chris Coons (D-DE)
Indian Affairs (Permanent Select) John Hoeven (R-ND) Tom Udall (D-NM)
Intelligence (Select) Richard Burr (R-NC) Mark Warner (D-VA)
International Narcotics Control (Permanent Caucus) Chuck Grassley (R-IA) Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)

House of Representatives

Committee Chairman[77] Ranking Member
Agriculture Mike Conaway (R-TX) Collin Peterson (D-MN)
Appropriations Rodney Frelinghuysen (R-NJ) Nita Lowey (D-NY)
Armed Services Mac Thornberry (R-TX) Adam Smith (D-WA)
Budget Diane Black (R-TN), until January 11, 2018
Acting until February 16, 2017
Steve Womack (R-AR), from January 11, 2018
John Yarmuth (D-KY)
Education and the Workforce Virginia Foxx (R-NC) Bobby Scott (D-VA)
Energy and Commerce Greg Walden (R-OR) Frank Pallone (D-NJ)
Ethics Susan Brooks (R-IN) Ted Deutch (D-FL)
Financial Services Jeb Hensarling (R-TX) Maxine Waters (D-CA)
Foreign Affairs Ed Royce (R-CA) Eliot Engel (D-NY)
Homeland Security Michael McCaul (R-TX) Bennie Thompson (D-MS)
House Administration Gregg Harper (R-MS) Bob Brady (D-PA)
Judiciary Bob Goodlatte (R-VA) John Conyers (D-MI), until November 26, 2017
Jerrold Nadler (D-NY), from November 26, 2017
Acting until December 20, 2017
Natural Resources Rob Bishop (R-UT) Raúl Grijalva (D-AZ)
Oversight and Government Reform Jason Chaffetz (R-UT), until June 13, 2017
Trey Gowdy (R-SC), from June 13, 2017
Elijah Cummings (D-MD)
Rules Pete Sessions (R-TX) Louise Slaughter (D-NY), until March 16, 2018
Jim McGovern (D-MA), from March 17, 2018
Acting until April 10, 2018
Science, Space and Technology Lamar Smith (R-TX) Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-TX)
Small Business Steve Chabot (R-OH) Nydia Velázquez (D-NY)
Transportation and Infrastructure Bill Shuster (R-PA) Peter DeFazio (D-OR)
Veterans' Affairs Phil Roe (R-TN) Tim Walz (D-MN)
Ways and Means Kevin Brady (R-TX) Richard Neal (D-MA)
Human Rights (Lantos Commission) Randy Hultgren (R-IL) Jim McGovern (D-MA)
Intelligence (Permanent Select) Devin Nunes (R-CA) Adam Schiff (D-CA)


Committee Chairman Ranking Member
Economic Rep. Pat Tiberi (R-OH), until January 11, 2018
Rep. Erik Paulsen (R-MN), from January 11, 2018
Sen. Martin Heinrich (D-NM)
Library Sen. Roy Blunt (R-MO) Sen. Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)
Printing Sen. Richard Shelby (R-AL) Rep. Bob Brady (D-PA)
Taxation Rep. Kevin Brady (R-TX) Sen. Ron Wyden (D-OR)
Budget and Appropriations Process Reform (Select) Rep. Steve Womack (R-AR) (co-chair)
Rep. Nita Lowey (D-NY) (co-chair)
Sen. Roy Blunt (R-MO)
Inaugural Ceremonies (Special) Sen. Roy Blunt (R-MO) Rep. Nancy Pelosi (D-CA)
Security and Cooperation in Europe (Helsinki Commission) Sen. Roger Wicker (R-MS) Rep. Alcee Hastings (D-FL)
Solvency of Multiemployer Pension Plans (Select) Sen. Orrin Hatch (R-UT) (co-chair)
Sen. Sherrod Brown (D-OH) (co-chair)
Rep. Virginia Foxx (R-NC)

Employees and legislative agency directors


House of Representatives

Legislative branch agency directors

See also


  1. ^ a b c In Alabama, Senator Jeff Sessions (R) resigned February 8, 2017. Luther Strange (R) was appointed February 9, 2017, to continue the term. Doug Jones (D) was elected to finish the term and qualified January 3, 2018.
  2. ^ a b In Minnesota, Senator Al Franken (D) resigned January 2, 2018. Tina Smith (D) was appointed January 3, 2018, to continue the term.
  3. ^ a b In Mississippi, Senator Thad Cochran (R) resigned April 1, 2018. Cindy Hyde-Smith (R) was appointed April 2, 2018, to continue the term.
  4. ^ a b c In Arizona, Senator John McCain (R) died August 25, 2018. Jon Kyl (R) was appointed September 4, 2018, to continue the term. Kyl announced his resignation, effective December 31, 2018.[27]
  5. ^ a b In Kansas's 4th district: Mike Pompeo (R) resigned January 23, 2017, and Ron Estes (R) was elected April 11, 2017.
  6. ^ a b In California's 34th district: Xavier Becerra (D) resigned January 24, 2017, and Jimmy Gomez (D) was elected June 6, 2017.
  7. ^ a b In Georgia's 6th district: Tom Price (R) resigned February 10, 2017, and Karen Handel (R) was elected June 20, 2017.
  8. ^ a b In South Carolina's 5th district: Mick Mulvaney (R) resigned February 16, 2017, and Ralph Norman (R) was elected June 20, 2017.
  9. ^ a b In Montana's at-large district: Ryan Zinke (R) resigned March 1, 2017, and Greg Gianforte (R) was elected May 25, 2017.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Service begins on the day of a special election, when qualified, not necessarily upon the oath of office.
  11. ^ a b In Utah's 3rd district: Jason Chaffetz (R) resigned June 30, 2017, and John Curtis (R) was elected November 7, 2017.
  12. ^ a b In Pennsylvania's 18th district: Tim Murphy (R) resigned October 21, 2017, and Conor Lamb (D) was elected March 13, 2018.
  13. ^ a b In Michigan's 13th district: Rep. John Conyers (D) resigned December 5, 2017, and Brenda Jones (D) was elected November 6, 2018.
  14. ^ a b In Arizona's 8th district: Trent Franks (R) resigned December 8, 2017, and Debbie Lesko (R) was elected April 24, 2018.
  15. ^ a b In Ohio's 12th district: Pat Tiberi (R) resigned January 15, 2018, and Troy Balderson (R) was elected August 7, 2018, although the results weren't final until August 24, 2018.
  16. ^ a b In New York's 25th district: Louise Slaughter (D) died March 16, 2018, and Joseph D. Morelle (D) was elected November 6, 2018.
  17. ^ a b In Texas's 27th district: Blake Farenthold (R) resigned April 6, 2018, and Michael Cloud (R) was elected June 30, 2018.
  18. ^ a b In Oklahoma's 1st district: Jim Bridenstine (R) resigned April 23, 2018, and Kevin Hern (R) was elected November 6, 2018.
  19. ^ a b In Pennsylvania's 7th district: Pat Meehan (R) resigned April 27, 2018, and Mary Gay Scanlon (D) was elected November 6, 2018.
  20. ^ a b In Pennsylvania's 15th district: Charlie Dent (R) resigned May 12, 2018 and Susan Wild (D) was elected November 6, 2018.
  21. ^ In Florida's 6th district: Ron DeSantis (R) resigned September 10, 2018.
  22. ^ In West Virginia's 3rd district: Evan Jenkins (R) resigned September 30, 2018.
  23. ^ In New Mexico's 1st district: Michelle Lujan Grisham (D) resigned December 31, 2018.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i The Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL) and the North Dakota Democratic-Nonpartisan League Party (D-NPL) are the Minnesota and North Dakota affiliates of the U.S. Democratic Party and are counted as Democrats.
  25. ^ In Ohio's 12th congressional district, the special election on August 7, 2018, was so close that it wasn't settled until August 24, 2018.


  1. ^ a b H.Res. 670, §3(b), and "House Floor Activities | Legislative Days of January 3, 2018". Office of the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  2. ^ Lee, Frances E. (July 31, 2018). "The 115th Congress and Questions of Party Unity in a Polarized Era". The Journal of Politics. 80 (4): 1464–1473. doi:10.1086/699335. ISSN 0022-3816.
  3. ^ a b Binder, Sarah (2018). "Dodging the Rules in Trump's Republican Congress". The Journal of Politics. 80 (4): 1454–1463. doi:10.1086/699334. ISSN 0022-3816.
  4. ^ Pearson, Kathryn (January 1, 2017). "President Trump and Congressional Republicans: Uncertain Teamwork in the 115th Congress". The Forum. 15 (3). doi:10.1515/for-2017-0033. ISSN 1540-8884.
  5. ^ Edwards III, George C. (January 1, 2017). "No Deal: Donald Trump's Leadership of Congress". The Forum. 15 (3). doi:10.1515/for-2017-0031. ISSN 1540-8884.
  6. ^ "House Overwhelmingly Votes to Condemn UN Resolution on Israel Settlements". Fox News. January 5, 2017. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  7. ^ Cortellessa, Eric (January 6, 2017). "US House Passes Motion Repudiating UN Resolution on Israel". The Times of Israel. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
  8. ^ Caldwell, Leigh Ann (January 12, 2017). "Senate Approves First Step Toward Repealing Obamacare in Late-Night Session". NBC News. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
  9. ^ Kurtzleben, Danielle (January 12, 2017). "Senate Takes First Step To Repeal Obamacare — So What's Next?". NPR. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
  10. ^ "DeVos Confirmed as Education Secretary, Pence Casts Historic Tie-Breaking Vote". Fox News. February 7, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  11. ^ Strafford, Michael; Emma, Caitlin; Heffling, Kimberly (February 7, 2017). "Senate confirms DeVos as secretary of education". Politico. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  12. ^ Caygle, Heather (December 7, 2017). "Democrat Kihuen hanging on despite harassment claim". Politico. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
  13. ^ Watson, Kathryn (December 16, 2017). "Facing ethics probe, Rep. Ruben Kihuen won't run for re-election". CBS News. Retrieved December 17, 2017.
  14. ^ Gay Stolberg, Sheryl; Alcindor, Yamiche; Fandos, Nicholas (December 7, 2017). "Al Franken to Resign From Senate Amid Harassment Allegations". New York Times. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
  15. ^ Viebeck, Elise; Weigel, David (December 5, 2017). "Rep. John Conyers Jr. resigns over sexual harassment allegations after a half-century in Congress". Washington Post. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
  16. ^ Bade, Rachel (December 8, 2017). "Franks to resign Friday after harassment allegations". Politico. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
  17. ^ CNN, Mick Krever and Sophie Tatum, (December 11, 2017). "Exclusive: Gillibrand calls on Trump to resign". CNN.com. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  18. ^ Chandler, Kim; Peoples, Steve (December 12, 2017). "Jones wins in stunning Alabama upset". Associated Press. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  19. ^ Sullivan, Sean; Weigel, David; Fahrenthold, David A. (December 12, 2017). "Doug Jones declared victor in Alabama race for Senate; Roy Moore may seek recount". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved December 13, 2017.
  20. ^ Edelman, Adam; Caldwell, Leigh Ann (December 8, 2017). "Ethics probe into Farenthold picks up steam after accuser agrees to cooperate". NBC News. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
  21. ^ Schneider, Elena (December 14, 2017). "Farenthold won't seek reelection". Politico. Washington, DC. Retrieved December 14, 2017.
  22. ^ a b Brufke, Juliegrace (April 6, 2018). "GOP Rep. Farenthold resigns amid sexual harassment scandal". The Hill. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  23. ^ Kaplan, Thomas. "House Passes Measure to Repeal and Replace the Affordable Care Act". NY Times. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
  24. ^ Roll call vote 256, via Clerk.House.gov
  25. ^ "Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives". June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
  26. ^ Roll call vote 299, via Clerk.House.gov
  27. ^ a b Taylor, Jessica (December 14, 2018). "Arizona Sen. Jon Kyl To Step Down, Leaving McCain's Seat Vacant Again". NPR. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  28. ^ 2018 United States House of Representatives elections in North Carolina#District 9
  29. ^ a b c "Senate Democrats elect Chuck Schumer as their new leader". Retrieved March 19, 2017.
  30. ^ a b c Everett, Burgess; Schor, Elana (November 16, 2016). "Senate Democrats settle on leadership team, Sanders elevated". Politico. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
  31. ^ Robillard, Kevin; Schor, Elana (November 18, 2016). "Van Hollen to serve as DSCC chair". politico.com. Retrieved March 12, 2017.
  32. ^ a b c d e f "Membership of the 115th Congress: A Profile" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. November 13, 2017. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
  33. ^ "Wisconsin's Tammy Baldwin is the first openly gay person elected to Senate". CNN. November 7, 2012. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  34. ^ Parkinson, John (September 30, 2011). "House Democrat Jared Polis Becomes First Openly Gay Parent in Congress". ABC News. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
  35. ^ Candido, Sergio N. (October 29, 2012). "Top 5 Gay National Races". South Florida Gay News. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  36. ^ a b "Certificate of Appointment of United States Senator from Minnesota" (PDF). Minnesota.gov. January 2, 2018. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
  37. ^ United States Congress. "Jefferson Beauregard Sessions III (id: S001141)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  38. ^ News, A. B. C. (February 9, 2017). "Alabama's Attorney General to Replace Jeff Sessions in Senate". ABC News.
  39. ^ "Franken to resign Jan 2 over sexual misconduct allegations". The Washington Post. December 20, 2017. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
  40. ^ "Governor Moves Special Election for Alabama Senate Seat". Roll Call. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
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External links

2017 South Carolina's 5th congressional district special election

A special election was held on June 20, 2017, to determine the member of the United States House of Representatives for South Carolina's 5th congressional district. Representative Mick Mulvaney was nominated by President Donald Trump as director of the Office of Management and Budget and confirmed by the United States Senate on February 16, 2017, necessitating his resignation from the House of Representatives.State Representative Ralph Norman narrowly defeated Archie Parnell, a senior advisor for Goldman Sachs, 51.0% to 47.9%, in a low-turnout election.

2017 Speaker of the United States House of Representatives election

The 2017 Speaker of the United States House of Representatives election took place on January 3, 2017, on the opening day of the 115th United States Congress, two months after the United States 2016 elections. This was 124th Speaker of the House of Representatives election since the office was created in 1789. The incumbent speaker, Paul Ryan, received 239 votes, a majority of the votes cast and was re-elected speaker.

Immediately after the election, the Dean of the United States House of Representatives, John Conyers, administered the oath of office to the speaker. Ryan in turn administered the oath of office en masse to the rest of the members of the House of Representatives.

2018 Michigan's 13th congressional district special election

A special election for Michigan's 13th congressional district was held on November 6, 2018, following the resignation of Democratic U.S. Representative John Conyers.

The Democratic primary was held on August 7, 2018. No Republican candidate ran in the special election, making the win in the Democratic primary tantamount to election in this district. Both the primary for this election and primary for the regular election were concurrent; similarly, the special election was held the same day as regular election. The winner of the regular Democratic primary was former state Representative Rashida Tlaib.

The winner of the special Democratic primary was Detroit City Council President Brenda Jones, who served only from November 29, 2018 to January 3, 2019, the last day of Conyers' 27th term.

2018 New York's 25th congressional district special election

A special election for New York's 25th congressional district was held following the death of U.S. Representative Louise Slaughter. Democrat Joseph Morelle defeated Republican Jim Maxwell on November 6, 2018.

2018 Texas's 27th congressional district special election

A special election for Texas's 27th congressional district was held on June 30, 2018, following the resignation of Rep. Blake Farenthold. Republican Michael Cloud won with about 54.7% of the vote, crossing the 50% threshold needed to avoid a runoff. Running again against Eric Holguin in the general election, he won a full term.

2019 United States federal budget

The United States federal budget for fiscal year 2019 runs from October 1, 2018 to September 30, 2019. Five appropriations bills were passed in September 2018, the first time five bills had been enacted on time in 22 years, with the rest of the government being funded through a series of three continuing resolutions. A gap between the second and third of these led to the 2018–19 federal government shutdown. The remainder of government funding was enacted as an omnibus spending bill in February 2019.


The Communications Over Various Feeds Electronically for Engagement Act (COVFEFE Act) is a bill introduced into the United States House of Representatives in 2017, during the 115th United States Congress.

The bill would amend the Presidential Records Act to preserve Twitter posts and other social media interactions of the President of the United States, and to require the National Archives to store such items.U.S. Representative Mike Quigley, Democrat of Illinois, introduced the legislation in the wake of Donald Trump's routine use of Twitter, stating "In order to maintain public trust in government, elected officials must answer for what they do and say; this includes 140-character tweets. If the president is going to take to social media to make sudden public policy proclamations, we must ensure that these statements are documented and preserved for future reference." If enacted, the bill "would bar the prolifically tweeting president from deleting his posts, as he has sometimes done."If the bill were enacted, it would see US law treat US presidents' personal social media accounts (such as Trump's "@realDonaldTrump" Twitter account) the same as "official" social media accounts (such as "@POTUS" Twitter account).

Congressional Cannabis Caucus

The Congressional Cannabis Caucus is a bipartisan registered Congressional Member Organization in the United States Congress, which was formed during the 115th United States Congress in 2017. The caucus was founded by Republicans Dana Rohrabacher and Don Young and Democrats Earl Blumenauer and Jared Polis. The goal of the caucus is to harmonize federal laws that prohibit medical and recreational cannabis use with state laws that permit it.

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017

The Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2017 (H.R. 244, Pub.L. 115–31), also known as the 2017 omnibus spending bill, is a United States appropriations legislation passed during the 115th Congress. It provides spending permission to several federal agencies for fiscal year 2017, and it authorizes $1.1 trillion in spending.

February 2017 Donald Trump speech to joint session of Congress

The 45th President of the United States, Donald Trump, gave his first public address before a joint session of the United States Congress on Tuesday, February 28, 2017. Similar to a State of the Union address, it was delivered before the 115th United States Congress in the Chamber of the United States House of Representatives in the United States Capitol. Presiding over this joint session was the House Speaker, Paul Ryan. Accompanying the Speaker of the House was the President of the United States Senate, Mike Pence, the Vice President of the United States.

During his speech, President Trump announced the creation of the Office of Victims of Immigration Crime Engagement (VOICE) in the United States Department of Homeland Security.Veterans Affairs Secretary David Shulkin was the designated survivor and did not attend the address in order to maintain a continuity of government. He was sequestered at a secret secure location for the duration of the event.

Forced Arbitration Injustice Repeal Act

The Forced Arbitration Injustice Repeal (FAIR) Act of 2019 is comprehensive legislation which prohibits pre-dispute, forced arbitration agreements from being valid or enforceable if it requires forced arbitration of an employment, consumer, or civil rights claim against a corporation. The bill has been introduced in the 116th Congress as H.R. 1423 and S. 610. The bill’s sponsors include, Representative Hank Johnson (D-GA) and Senator Richard Blumenthal (D-CT). Previous similar versions of this bill were introduced in the 115th United States Congress as H.R. 1374 and S. 2591

Justice for Victims of Lynching Act

Justice for Victims of Lynching Act of 2018 is a proposed bill that would classify lynching–defined as bodily injury on the basis of perceived race, color, religion or, nationality–a federal hate crime in the United States. According to vox.com, the bill is largely symbolic, aiming to recognize and apologize for historical governmental failures to prevent lynching in the US.The act was first introduced in the US Senate in June 2018 by the body's three Black members: Kamala Harris, Cory Booker, and Tim Scott. The legislation passed the Senate unanimously on December 19, 2018.

List of United States Senators in the 115th Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of United States senators during the 115th United States Congress listed by seniority, from January 3, 2017, to January 3, 2019. It is a historical listing and will contain people who have not served the entire two-year Congress should anyone resign, die, or be expelled.

In this Congress, Bill Cassidy is the most junior senior senator. Jeff Sessions was the most senior junior senator at the start of this Congress, but resigned on February 8, 2017, to become United States Attorney General. Maria Cantwell became the most senior junior senator after Sessions's resignation.

Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a governor of a state. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.

List of members of the United States House of Representatives in the 115th Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States House of Representatives during the 115th United States Congress, which runs from January 3, 2017, through January 3, 2019, ordered by seniority.

Music Modernization Act

The Orrin G. Hatch–Bob Goodlatte Music Modernization Act, or Music Modernization Act or MMA (H.R. 1551, Pub.L. 115–264) is United States legislation signed into law on October 11, 2018 aimed to modernize copyright-related issues for music and audio recordings due to new forms of technology like digital streaming. It is a consolidation of three separate bills introduced during the 115th United States Congress.

Special Counsel Independence and Integrity Act

The Special Counsel Independence and Integrity Act (S. 2644) is a proposed United States law that would impose restrictions on the firing of a special counsel appointed by the United States Attorney General.

Taiwan Travel Act

The Taiwan Travel Act (H.R. 535, Pub.L. 115–135) is an Act of the United States Congress. Passed on February 28, 2018, it was signed into law by President Donald Trump on March 16, 2018. As a follow-up to the Taiwan Relations Act, the bill allows high-level officials of the United States to visit Taiwan and vice versa.

The law is considered a substantial upgrade to Taiwan–United States relations, making them official though still sub-diplomatic. As such, the law was harshly criticized by the government of the People's Republic of China in Beijing (which had formally protested the bill through ambassador Cui Tankai, demanding it not pass) for violating the One-China principle, which holds that Taiwan is an inalienable sovereign part of China. Although it does not refer to the government of Taiwan by a name, the Act significantly upgrades relations between the United States and the Republic of China, which currently governs Taiwan.

United States Senate Democratic Steering and Outreach Committee

According to their official website, the Senate Democratic Steering and Outreach Committee (DSOC) is a committee dedicated to fostering dialogue between Senate Democrats and community leaders across the nation. The Steering Committee hosts several meetings each year with advocates, activists, policy experts, and elected officials to help the structuring of the Democrat's agenda in the United States Senate.

Washington's 37th legislative district

Washington's 37th Legislative District is one of forty-nine districts in Washington state for representation in the state legislature.

The district encompasses Beacon Hill, Central District, Rainer Valley, Columbia City, Rainier Beach, and Renton.

The district's legislators are state representatives Sharon Tomiko Santos (pos. 1) and Eric Pettigrew (pos. 2), with Rebecca Saldaña chosen as state senator to replace Pramila Jayapal following Jayapal's win to represent Washington's 7th congressional district in the 115th United States Congress. All legislators in the district are Democrats.

On December 12, 2016, Rebecca Saldaña was selected to fill Pramila Jaypal's seat in the senate over Rory O'Sullivan and Shasti Conrad following a special appointment by the King County Council. Jayapal had recommended Rebecca Saldaña for her replacement, stating "Rebecca is a proven and effective leader – she has gotten results on some of the toughest issues our community faces. I strongly support her appointment to the State Senate."

United States Congresses (and year convened)

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