1148

Year 1148 (MCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1148 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1148
MCXLVIII
Ab urbe condita1901
Armenian calendar597
ԹՎ ՇՂԷ
Assyrian calendar5898
Balinese saka calendar1069–1070
Bengali calendar555
Berber calendar2098
English Regnal year13 Ste. 1 – 14 Ste. 1
Buddhist calendar1692
Burmese calendar510
Byzantine calendar6656–6657
Chinese calendar丁卯(Fire Rabbit)
3844 or 3784
    — to —
戊辰年 (Earth Dragon)
3845 or 3785
Coptic calendar864–865
Discordian calendar2314
Ethiopian calendar1140–1141
Hebrew calendar4908–4909
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1204–1205
 - Shaka Samvat1069–1070
 - Kali Yuga4248–4249
Holocene calendar11148
Igbo calendar148–149
Iranian calendar526–527
Islamic calendar542–543
Japanese calendarKyūan 4
(久安4年)
Javanese calendar1054–1055
Julian calendar1148
MCXLVIII
Korean calendar3481
Minguo calendar764 before ROC
民前764年
Nanakshahi calendar−320
Seleucid era1459/1460 AG
Thai solar calendar1690–1691
Tibetan calendar阴火兔年
(female Fire-Rabbit)
1274 or 893 or 121
    — to —
阳土龙年
(male Earth-Dragon)
1275 or 894 or 122

Events

Africa

Asia

Europe

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ Abulafia, David (1985). The Norman kingdom of Africa and the Norman expeditions to Majorca and the Muslim Mediterranean. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-416-6.
  2. ^ Picard C. (1997) La mer et les musulmans d'Occident au Moyen Age. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, pp.73
  3. ^ Picard C. (1997) La mer et les musulmans d'Occident au Moyen Age. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, pp.77
  4. ^ McGrank, Lawrence (1981). "Norman crusaders and the Catalan reconquest: Robert Burdet and te principality of Tarragona 1129–55". Journal of Medieval History. 7 (1): 67–82. doi:10.1016/0304-4181(81)90036-1.
1140s in England

Events from the 1140s in England.

1148 in Ireland

Events from the year 1148 in Ireland.

Alexander of Lincoln

Alexander of Lincoln (died February 1148) was a medieval English Bishop of Lincoln, a member of an important administrative and ecclesiastical family. He was the nephew of Roger of Salisbury, a Bishop of Salisbury and Chancellor of England under King Henry I, and he was also related to Nigel, Bishop of Ely. Educated at Laon, Alexander served in his uncle's diocese as an archdeacon in the early 1120s. Unlike his relatives, he held no office in the government before his appointment as Bishop of Lincoln in 1123. Alexander became a frequent visitor to King Henry's court after his elevation to the episcopate, often witnessing royal documents, and he served as a royal justice in Lincolnshire.

Although Alexander was known for his ostentatious and luxurious lifestyle, he founded a number of religious houses in his diocese and was an active builder and literary patron. He also attended church councils and reorganised his diocese by increasing the number of archdeaconries and setting up prebends to support his cathedral clergy. Under Henry's successor, King Stephen, Alexander was caught up in the fall from favour of his family, and was imprisoned together with his uncle Roger in 1139. He subsequently briefly supported Stephen's rival, Matilda, but by the late 1140s Alexander was once again working with Stephen. He spent much of the late 1140s at the papal court in Rome, but died in England in early 1148. During his episcopate he began the rebuilding of his cathedral, which had been destroyed by fire. Alexander was the patron of medieval chroniclers Henry of Huntingdon and Geoffrey of Monmouth, and also served as an ecclesiastical patron of the medieval hermit Christina of Markyate and Gilbert of Sempringham, founder of the Gilbertines.

Am'aq

Shihabuddin Am'aq (Persian: عمعق‎) was a 12th-century Persian (Tajik) poet.

Originating from Bukhara, he was an imposing poet that carried the title amir al-shu'ara ("Amir of poets") in the Khaqanid courts. An excellent panegyrist and composer of elegies, he was praised by Anvari.

His mathnavi no longer exists, but it is said to have been written on the story of Yusof and Zoleikha (Joseph and Potiphar's wife).

It is said that he lived a long life of over 100 years and died in 1148 CE.

Amadeus III, Count of Savoy

Amadeus III of Savoy (1095 – April 1148) was Count of Savoy and Maurienne from 1103 until his death. He was also known as a Crusader.

Ascelin (bishop)

Ascelin (or Anselm) was a medieval Bishop of Rochester.

Ascelin was prior of Dover Priory in Kent before being selected as bishop. He was consecrated in 1142. He died on 24 January 1148.

Battle of Mount Cadmus

The Battle of Mount Cadmus took place near Laodicea on January 6, 1148, during the Second Crusade. The French crusader army, led by Louis VII of France, was defeated by the Seljuks of Rum.

Conan III, Duke of Brittany

Conan III, also known as Conan of Cornouaille and Conan the Fat (Breton: Konan III a Vreizh, and Konan Kerne; c. 1093–1096 – September 17, 1148) was duke of Brittany, from 1112 to his death. He was the son of Duke Alan IV and Ermengarde of Anjou.Conan III allied himself with Stephen of England in Stephen's war against the dispossessed Empress Matilda.

EBCDIC 500

IBM code page 500 (CCSID 500) is an EBCDIC code page with full Latin-1-charset used in IBM mainframes.

CCSID 1148 is the Euro currency update of code page/CCSID 500. Byte 9F is replacing ¤ with € in that code page.

It superseded EBCDIC 256.

HD 223229

HD 223229 is a suspected variable star in the northern constellation of Andromeda. It is a double star consisting of a magnitude 6.11 primary and a magnitude 8.73 companion. The pair have an angular separation of 0.80″ along a position angle of 250°, as of 2009. The primary is a B-type subgiant star with a stellar classification of B3IV. It has an estimated 6.3 times the mass of the Sun, with an effective temperature of 17,900 K.

HIP 57050

HIP 57050 (GJ 1148 / LHS 2443 / G 122-40 / Ross 1003) is a red dwarf 36 light-years from the Sun with a planetary companion HIP 57050 b.HIP 57050 has a metallicity twice that of the Sun and is among the highest in the immediate solar neighborhood.

La Rose, California

La Rose is a former settlement in Kern County, California. It was located on the Southern Pacific Railroad 3 miles (4.8 km) northwest of Mojave, at an elevation of 3766 feet (1148 m). La Rose still appeared on maps as of 1947.

Pietro Polani

Pietro Polani (died 1148) was the 36th Doge of Venice. He reigned from 1130 to 1148.

Polani was elected Doge over the protests of the Dandolo and Bado families because of his first marriage to Adelasa Michele, who was the daughter of his predecessor Domenico Michele. His opponents saw his election to Doge as a violation of a decree that sought to prevent public positions from being passed on through inheritance.

Polani's reign was characterized primarily by external threats to the Republic of Venice. Between 1133 and 1135 the Hungarians captured important Venetian bases on the Dalmatian coast, such as Sebenica, Trogir, and Split. In 1141 Padua tried to expand its territory and influence at the expense of Venice, and tried to subvert the monopoly the Venetians held over the salt trade. At the same time, Ancona was infringing on the Venetian border zone in the south. The political structure in Venice reacted to the complicated and dangerous situation by establishing a council of wise men (sapientes) to advise the Doge. The initially informal council included representatives of the previously dominant aristocracy as well as bankers and merchants. This gradually formed a new oligarchy that participated in ruling the state and during the ensuing centuries increasingly restricted the rights of the Doge. One of the first joint decisions by the sapientes and the Doge was the decision not to participate in the Second Crusade.

Venice won new influence in the eastern Mediterranean by assisting the Byzantine Empire against the Italo-Normans led by Roger II of Sicily. Many of the noble Venetian families were violently opposed to supporting Byzantium, and the Patriarch Enrico Dandolo fulminated against making a pact with the "schismatic" East. But not even an excommunication of Polani by the pope could convince the Venetians to forgo the valuable commercial rights they received in Chios, Cyprus, Rhodes, and Candia (Crete) through their alliance with the Byzantine Empire. Polani himself commanded the Venetian fleet against the Normans until sickness forced him to return prematurely to Venice where he died soon thereafter. The fleet went on without him to decisively defeat the Norman forces of George of Antioch at Cape Matapan in 1148.

Polani was buried in the San Cipriano monastery in Murano.

Robert de Bethune

Robert de Bethune (died 1148) was a medieval Bishop of Hereford. From a knightly family, he became a teacher before becoming a canon, a type of monk, by 1115. He was elected prior of Llanthony Priory in the middle 1120s, and was named bishop by King Henry I of England in 1130. As bishop, he was often appointed a judge by the papacy, and was known for the care he took of his diocese.

After Henry's death in 1135, Bethune first supported King Stephen, who seized the throne from Henry's heiress the Empress Matilda, but when Matilda's forces captured Stephen, Bethune switched sides to support Matilda. When Matilda did not secure the throne, Bethune once more switched back to supporting Stephen. Construction of Hereford Cathedral was completed under Bethune's episcopate, and consecrated in 1142 and 1148. Stephen appointed Bethune as one of the English bishops that the king allowed to attend the Council of Reims in 1148, and Bethune died there in April 1148. A hagiography is the only surviving evidence of Bethune's cathedral chapter's attempts to promote him as a saint.

Roger de Clinton

Roger de Clinton (died 1148) was a medieval Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield. He was responsible for organising a new grid street plan for the town of Lichfield in the 12th century which survives to this day.

Siege of Damascus (1148)

The Siege of Damascus took place between 24 and 29 July 1148, during the Second Crusade. It ended in a decisive crusader defeat and led to the disintegration of the crusade. The two main Christian forces that marched to the Holy Land in response to Pope Eugene III and Bernard of Clairvaux's call for the Second Crusade were led by Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany. Both faced disastrous marches across Anatolia in the months that followed, with most of their armies being destroyed. The original focus of the crusade was Edessa (Urfa), but in Jerusalem, the preferred target of King Baldwin III and the Knights Templar was Damascus. At the Council of Acre, magnates from France, Germany, and the Kingdom of Jerusalem decided to divert the crusade to Damascus.

The crusaders decided to attack Damascus from the west, where orchards would provide them with a constant food supply. Having arrived outside the walls of the city, they immediately put it to siege, using wood from the orchards. On 27 July, the crusaders decided to move to the plain on the eastern side of the city, which was less heavily fortified but had much less food and water. Nur ad-Din Zangi arrived with Muslim reinforcements and cut off the crusaders' route to their previous position. The local crusader lords refused to carry on with the siege, and the three kings had no choice but to abandon the city. The entire crusader army retreated back to Jerusalem by 28 July.

Siege of Tortosa (1148)

The Siege of Tortosa (1 July – 30 December 1148) was a military action of the Second Crusade (1147–49) in Spain. A multinational force under the command of Count Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona besieged the city of Tortosa (Arabic Ṭurṭūs̲h̲a), then a part of the Almoravid Emirate, for seven months before the garrison surrendered.

The campaign originated in an agreement between Barcelona and the Italian city-state of Genoa in 1146, following a Genoese raid on Almoravid territory. At the same time, the Genoese also agreed to aid the Castilians in an expedition against Almoravid Almería. Papal approval, which connected the two Spanish endeavours to the call for a second crusade to the Holy Land, was obtained the next year. Participants in the siege of Tortosa were called "pilgrims" (peregrini), the same term used for those en route to the Holy Land.

The siege itself was a hard-fought battle. Siege engines were employed on both sides. Even after the outer walls were breached, the defenders fought in the streets to prevent the crusaders from advancing on the citadel. Eventually the citadel itself came under direct attack and the defenders asked for and received a truce of forty days before surrendering. There was no massacre and no looting, unlike during the conquest of Almería the previous year. The population, a mix of Muslims and Jews, was allowed to stay, while the city itself was quickly settled by Christian colonists.

The conquest of Tortosa was a major event in the Reconquista of the Ebro Valley. Raymond Berengar IV followed it up with the conquest of Lleida on his own, without Genoese assistance or papal approval, in 1149.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1148

United Nations Security Council resolution 1148, adopted unanimously on 26 January 1998, after recalling all previous resolutions on the Western Sahara, particularly Resolution 1133 (1997), the Council approved the deployment of an engineering unit to support the deployment of the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO).The resolution began by welcoming the appointment of Charles Dunbar, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General Kofi Annan. The Secretary-General had submitted plans detailing the strengthening of MINURSO, and the Council welcomed the resumption of identification of eligible voters. It approved the deployment of an engineering unit to assist in demining activities and of additional administrative staff to support the deployment of military personnel. Additional troops would be deployed when it was considered necessary. Both the Moroccan government and the Polisario Front were called upon to co-operate in the implementation of the Settlement Plan and the identification process in a timely manner.

Zirid dynasty

The Zirid dynasty (Berber languages: ⵉⵣⵉⵔⵉⴻⵏ Tagelda en Ayt Ziri, Arabic: زيريون‎ /ALA-LC: Zīryūn; Banu Ziri) was a Sanhaja Berber dynasty from modern-day Algeria which ruled the central Maghreb from 972 to 1014 and Ifriqiya (eastern Maghreb) from 972 to 1148.Descendants of Ziri ibn Menad, a military leader of the Cairo-based Fatimid Caliphate and the eponymous founder of the dynasty, the Zirids were Emirs who ruled in the name of the Fatimids. The Zirids gradually established their autonomy in Ifriqiya through military conquest until officially breaking with the Fatimids in the mid-11th century. The rule of the Zirid emirs opened the way to a period in North African history where political power was held by Berber dynasties such as the Almoravid dynasty, Almohad Caliphate, Zayyanid dynasty, Marinid dynasty and Hafsid dynasty.Continuing their conquests to Fez and much of modern-day Morocco in 980, the Zirids encountered resistance from the local Zenata Berbers, who gave their allegiance to the Caliphate of Cordoba. Various Zirid branches did however rule the central Maghreb. This branch of the Zirids, at the beginning of the 11th century, following various family disputes, broke away as the Hammadids and took control of the territories of the central Maghreb. The Zirids proper were then designated as Badicides and occupied only Ifriqiyah between 1048 and 1148. Part of the dynasty fled to al-Andalus and later founded, in 1019, the Taifa of Granada on the ruins of the Caliphate of Cordoba. The Zirids of Granada were again defeated by the expansion of the Almoravids, who annexed their kingdom in 1090, while the Badicides and the Hammadids remained independent. Following the recognition of the Sunni Muslim Abbasid Caliphate and the assertion of Ifriqiya and the Central Maghreb as independent kingdoms of Sunni obedience in 1048, the Fatimids reportedly masterminded the migration of the Hilalians to the Maghreb. In the 12th century, the Hilalian invasions combined with the attacks of the Normans of Sicily on the littoral weakened Zirid power. The Almohad caliphate finally conquered the central Maghreb and Ifriqiya in 1152, thus unifying the whole of the Maghreb and ending the Zirid dynasties.

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