1147

Year 1147 (MCXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1147 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1147
MCXLVII
Ab urbe condita1900
Armenian calendar596
ԹՎ ՇՂԶ
Assyrian calendar5897
Balinese saka calendar1068–1069
Bengali calendar554
Berber calendar2097
English Regnal year12 Ste. 1 – 13 Ste. 1
Buddhist calendar1691
Burmese calendar509
Byzantine calendar6655–6656
Chinese calendar丙寅(Fire Tiger)
3843 or 3783
    — to —
丁卯年 (Fire Rabbit)
3844 or 3784
Coptic calendar863–864
Discordian calendar2313
Ethiopian calendar1139–1140
Hebrew calendar4907–4908
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1203–1204
 - Shaka Samvat1068–1069
 - Kali Yuga4247–4248
Holocene calendar11147
Igbo calendar147–148
Iranian calendar525–526
Islamic calendar541–542
Japanese calendarKyūan 3
(久安3年)
Javanese calendar1053–1054
Julian calendar1147
MCXLVII
Korean calendar3480
Minguo calendar765 before ROC
民前765年
Nanakshahi calendar−321
Seleucid era1458/1459 AG
Thai solar calendar1689–1690
Tibetan calendar阳火虎年
(male Fire-Tiger)
1273 or 892 or 120
    — to —
阴火兔年
(female Fire-Rabbit)
1274 or 893 or 121

Events

By place

Africa

Asia

Europe

By topic

Religion

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ Bresc, Henri (2003). "La Sicile et l'espace libyen au Moyen Age" (PDF). Retrieved 17 January 2012.
  2. ^ King John by Warren. Published by University of California Press in 1961. p. 67
  3. ^ Picard, Christophe (2000). Le Portugal musulman (VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. L'Occident d'al-Andalus sous domination islamique. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose. p. 109. ISBN 2-7068-1398-9.
  4. ^ Picard C. (1997) La mer et les musulmans d'Occident au Moyen Age. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, pp.66
  5. ^ Picard C. (1997) La mer et les musulmans d'Occident au Moyen Age. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, pp.64
1140s in England

Events from the 1140s in England.

Almoravid dynasty

The Almoravid dynasty (Berber languages: ⵉⵎⵔⴰⴱⴹⵏ, Imrabḍen; Arabic: المرابطون‎, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco. It established an empire in the 11th century that stretched over the western Maghreb and Al-Andalus. Founded by Abdallah ibn Yasin, the Almoravid capital was Marrakesh, a city the ruling house founded in 1062. The dynasty originated among the Lamtuna and the Gudala, nomadic Berber tribes of the Sahara, traversing the territory between the Draa, the Niger, and the Senegal rivers.The Almoravids were crucial in preventing the fall of Al-Andalus to the Iberian Christian kingdoms, when they decisively defeated a coalition of the Castilian and Aragonese armies at the Battle of Sagrajas in 1086. This enabled them to control an empire that stretched 3,000 kilometers (1,900 mi) north to south. However, the rule of the dynasty was relatively short-lived. The Almoravids fell—at the height of their power—when they failed to stop the Masmuda-led rebellion initiated by Ibn Tumart. As a result, their last king Ishaq ibn Ali was killed in Marrakesh in April 1147 by the Almohad Caliphate, who replaced them as a ruling dynasty both in Morocco and Al-Andalus.

Battle of Bosra (1147)

In the Battle of Bosra in 1147, a Crusader force commanded by King Baldwin III of Jerusalem fought an inconclusive running battle with Turkish forces from Damascus led by Mu'in ad-Din Unur aided by Nur ad-Din's contingent from Mosul and Aleppo. Since the Frankish army's attempted acquisition of Bosra was thwarted, the campaign ended in a strategic victory for Damascus.

Battle of Dorylaeum (1147)

The second Battle of Dorylaeum took place near Dorylaeum in October 1147, during the Second Crusade. It was not a single clash but consisted of a series of encounters over a number of days. The German crusader forces of Conrad III were defeated by the Seljuk Turks led by Sultan Mesud I.

Battle of Ephesus (1147)

The Battle of Ephesus took place on 24 December 1147, during the Second Crusade. The French crusader army, led by Louis VII of France, successfully fended off an ambush by the Seljuks of Rum just outside the town of Ephesus.

Battle of the Meander

The Battle of the Meander took place in December 1147, during the Second Crusade. The French crusader army, led by Louis VII of France, successfully fended off an ambush by the Seljuks of Rum at the Büyük Menderes River (historically known as the Meander).

Conquest of Santarém

The Conquest of Santarém took place on 15 March 1147, when the troops of the Kingdom of Portugal under the leadership of Afonso I of Portugal captured the Almoravid city of Santarém.

Cosmas II of Constantinople

Cosmas II Atticus (Greek: Κοσμᾶς Β´ ὁ Ἀττικός), (? – after 1147) was Patriarch of Constantinople from April 1146, until February 1147. He was born in Aegina, in Greece, and was a deacon of Hagia Sophia before his ascension, after Michael II Kourkouas abdicated. He was highly respected for his learning and for his holy character. Cosmas reigned during the rule of Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus.

EBCDIC 297

IBM code page 297 (CCSID 297) is an EBCDIC code page with full Latin-1-charset used in IBM mainframes. It is used in France.

CCSID 1147 is the Euro currency update of code page/CCSID 297. Byte 9F is replacing ¤ with € in that code page.

Frederick II, Duke of Swabia

Frederick II (1090 – 6 April 1147), called the One-Eyed, was Duke of Swabia from 1105 until his death, the second from the Hohenstaufen dynasty. His younger brother Conrad was elected King of the Romans in 1138.

Lobet den Herrn, alle seine Heerscharen, BWV Anh. 5

Lobet den Herrn, alle seine Heerscharen (Praise ye the Lord, all ye of his great armies), BWV 1147, BWV Anh. 5, is a church cantata text by Christian Friedrich Hunold which was performed, most likely in a setting by Johann Sebastian Bach, for the twenty-fourth birthday of Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Köthen on 10 December 1718. The composition is lost, but its libretto survives in a 1719 print.

Minamoto no Yoritomo

Minamoto no Yoritomo (源 頼朝, May 9, 1147 – February 9, 1199) was the founder and the first shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate of Japan. He ruled from 1192 until 1199. His Buddhist name was Bukōshōgendaizenmon (武皇嘯原大禅門).

Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester

Robert FitzRoy, 1st Earl of Gloucester (before 1100 – 31 October 1147) (alias Robert Rufus, Robert de Caen, Robert Consul) was an illegitimate son of King Henry I of England. He was the half-brother of the Empress Matilda, and her chief military supporter during the civil war known as The Anarchy, in which she vied with Stephen of Blois for the throne of England.

Second Crusade

The Second Crusade (1147–1149) was the second major crusade launched from Europe. The Second Crusade was started in response to the fall of the County of Edessa in 1144 to the forces of Zengi. The county had been founded during the First Crusade (1096–1099) by King Baldwin of Boulogne in 1098. While it was the first Crusader state to be founded, it was also the first to fall.

The Second Crusade was announced by Pope Eugene III, and was the first of the crusades to be led by European kings, namely Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, with help from a number of other European nobles. The armies of the two kings marched separately across Europe. After crossing Byzantine territory into Anatolia, both armies were separately defeated by the Seljuk Turks. The main Western Christian source, Odo of Deuil, and Syriac Christian sources claim that the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos secretly hindered the crusaders' progress particularly in Anatolia, where he is alleged to have deliberately ordered Turks to attack them. Louis and Conrad and the remnants of their armies reached Jerusalem and participated in 1148 in an ill-advised attack on Damascus. The crusade in the east was a failure for the crusaders and a great victory for the Muslims. It would ultimately have a key influence on the fall of Jerusalem and give rise to the Third Crusade at the end of the 12th century.

The only significant Christian success of the Second Crusade came to a combined force of 13,000 Flemish, Frisian, Norman, English, Scottish, and German crusaders in 1147. Travelling from England, by ship, to the Holy Land, the army stopped and helped the smaller (7,000) Portuguese army in the capture of Lisbon, expelling its Moorish occupants.

Siege of Almería (1147)

The Siege of Almería by the Kingdom of León and Castile and allied forces lasted from July until 21 October 1147. The siege was successful and the Almoravid garrison surrendered. The besieging force was under the overall command of King Alfonso VII of León and Castile, who took possession of the city at the end. He was supported by forces from Navarre under their king, Catalonia under the count of Barcelona and Genoa, which provided the bulk of the naval contingent.

The city of Almería, known in Arabic as al-Mariyya, reached its zenith under the Almoravids in the latter half of the eleventh century and the first half of the twelfth. This period of commercial and cultural richness was cut short by the conquest of 1147. Large sections of the city were physically destroyed and most prominent residents emigrated to North Africa.

Siege of Lisbon

The Siege of Lisbon, from 1 July to 25 October 1147, was the military action that brought the city of Lisbon under definitive Portuguese control and expelled its Moorish overlords. The Siege of Lisbon was one of the few Christian victories of the Second Crusade—it was "the only success of the universal operation undertaken by the pilgrim army", i.e., the Second Crusade, according to the near contemporary historian Helmold, though others have questioned whether it was really part of that crusade. It is seen as a pivotal battle of the wider Reconquista.

The Fall of Edessa in 1144 led to a call for a new crusade by Pope Eugene III in 1145 and 1146. In the spring of 1147, the Pope authorized the crusade in the Iberian peninsula. He also authorized Alfonso VII of León and Castile to equate his campaigns against the Moors with the rest of the Second Crusade. In May 1147, a contingent of crusaders left from Dartmouth in England. They had intended to sail directly to the Holy Land, but weather forced the ships to stop on the Portuguese coast, at the northern city of Porto on 16 June 1147. There they were convinced to meet with King Afonso I of Portugal.

The crusaders agreed to help the King attack Lisbon, with a solemn agreement that offered to the crusaders the pillage of the city's goods and the ransom money for expected prisoners. The siege began on 1 July. The city of Lisbon at the time of arrival consisted of sixty thousand families, including the refugees who had fled Christian onslaught from neighbouring cities of Santarém and others. Also reported by the De expugnatione Lyxbonensi is that the citadel was holding one hundred fifty-four thousand men, not counting women and children, after 17 weeks of siege the inhabitants were despoiled and the city cleansed.

After four months, the Moorish rulers agreed to surrender on 24 October, primarily because of hunger within the city. Most of the crusaders settled in the newly captured city, but some of the crusaders set sail and continued to the Holy Land. Lisbon eventually became the capital city of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1255.

USS Indra (ARL-37)

USS Indra (ARL-37) was one of 39 Achelous-class landing craft repair ships built for the United States Navy during World War II. Named for Indra (the god of weather and war, and lord of Svargaloka in Hinduism), she was the only US Naval vessel to bear the name, and only one of three ships (along with USS Krishna and the Civil War era gunboat USS Varuna) to be named after a Hindu deity.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1147

United Nations Security Council resolution 1147, adopted unanimously on 13 January 1998, after recalling previous resolutions on Croatia including resolutions 779 (1992), 981 (1995), 1025 (1995), 1038 (1996), 1066 (1996), 1093 (1997) and 1119 (1997), the Council authorised the United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP) to continue monitoring the demilitarisation in the Prevlaka peninsula area of Croatia until 15 July 1998.The Council welcomed that Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) had made progress in adopting practical suggestions proposed by the United Nations military observers in May 1996 in order to reduce tension and improve safety and security in the area in addition to resolving the Prevlaka dispute. There was concern at long-standing violations of the demilitarisation regime, but noted that these had occurred less often. The presence of United Nations military observers remained essential for the negotiations.

The parties were urged to fully implement an agreement on the normalisation of their relations, to refrain from violence and to ensure freedom of movement to United Nations observers. The Secretary-General Kofi Annan was requested to report to the Council on the situation by 5 July 1998 concerning progress towards a peaceful solution of the dispute between the two countries. Finally, the Stabilisation Force, authorised in Resolution 1088 (1996), were required to co-operate with UNMOP.

Wendish Crusade

The Wendish Crusade (German: Wendenkreuzzug) was a military campaign in 1147, one of the Northern Crusades and a part of the Second Crusade, led primarily by the Kingdom of Germany within the Holy Roman Empire and directed against the Polabian Slavs (or "Wends"). The Wends are made up of the Slavic tribes of Abrotrites, Rani, Liutizians, Wagarians, and Pomeranians who lived east of the River Elbe in present-day northeast Germany and Poland.The lands inhabited by the Wends were rich in resources, which played a factor in the motivations of those who participated in the crusade. The mild climate of the Baltic area allowed for the cultivation of land and livestock. Animals of this region were also thickly furred, supporting the dependence on fur trading. Access to the coast line also developed fishing and trade networks. The land was attractive for the resources it boasted, and the crusade offered an opportunity for noble families to gain part of it.

By the early 12th century, the German archbishoprics of Bremen and Magdeburg sought the conversion to Christianity of neighboring pagan West Slavs through peaceful means. During the preparation of the Second Crusade to the Holy Land, a papal bull was issued supporting a crusade against these Slavs. The Slavic leader Niklot preemptively invaded Wagria in June 1147, leading to the march of the crusaders later that summer. They achieved an ostensible forced baptism of Slavs at Dobin but were repulsed from Demmin. Another crusading army marched on the already Christian city of Szczecin (Stettin), whereupon the crusaders dispersed upon arrival (see below).

The Christian army, composed primarily of Saxons and Danes, forced tribute from the pagan Slavs and affirmed German control of Wagria and Polabia through colonization, but failed to convert the bulk of the population immediately.

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