1137

Year 1137 (MCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1137 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1137
MCXXXVII
Ab urbe condita1890
Armenian calendar586
ԹՎ ՇՁԶ
Assyrian calendar5887
Balinese saka calendar1058–1059
Bengali calendar544
Berber calendar2087
English Regnal yearSte. 1 – 3 Ste. 1
Buddhist calendar1681
Burmese calendar499
Byzantine calendar6645–6646
Chinese calendar丙辰(Fire Dragon)
3833 or 3773
    — to —
丁巳年 (Fire Snake)
3834 or 3774
Coptic calendar853–854
Discordian calendar2303
Ethiopian calendar1129–1130
Hebrew calendar4897–4898
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1193–1194
 - Shaka Samvat1058–1059
 - Kali Yuga4237–4238
Holocene calendar11137
Igbo calendar137–138
Iranian calendar515–516
Islamic calendar531–532
Japanese calendarHōen 3
(保延3年)
Javanese calendar1043–1044
Julian calendar1137
MCXXXVII
Korean calendar3470
Minguo calendar775 before ROC
民前775年
Nanakshahi calendar−331
Seleucid era1448/1449 AG
Thai solar calendar1679–1680
Tibetan calendar阳火龙年
(male Fire-Dragon)
1263 or 882 or 110
    — to —
阴火蛇年
(female Fire-Snake)
1264 or 883 or 111

Events

By place

Africa

Asia

  • In Song Dynasty China, a fire breaks out in the new capital of Hangzhou; the government suspends the requirement of rent payments, alms of 108,840 kg (120 tons) of rice are distributed to the poor, and items such as bamboo, planks, and rush-matting are exempted from government taxation.

Europe

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ a b Picard 1997.
  2. ^ Palmer, Alan; Palmer, Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 61–63. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
  3. ^ a b "Fires, Great", in The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance, Cornelius Walford, ed. (C. and E. Layton, 1876) p26
  4. ^ "Decameron Web | History". www.brown.edu. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
  5. ^ Ashley, Leonard (2013). The Complete Book of Vampires. Souvenir Press. p. 71. ISBN 9780285642270.
  6. ^ "Lothar II (or III) | Holy Roman emperor". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 28 July 2018.

Sources

  • Picard, Christophe (1997). La mer et les musulmans d'occident au Moyen Âge, VIIIe-XIIIe siècle (in French). Presses Universitaires de France. ISBN 978-2130488101.
1130s in England

Events from the 1130s in England.

1137 in Ireland

Events from the year 1137 in Ireland.

2MASS J1119–1137

2MASS J11193254–1137466 (AB) (often shortened to 2MASS J1119–1137) is a planetary mass binary located 86±23 light-years from the Earth in the constellation Crater. The components of 2MASS J1119–1137 are each roughly four Jupiter masses. The exoplanet is probably a part of the TW Hydrae association which has an age of approximately 10 million years.

Adela of Normandy

Adela of Normandy, of Blois, or of England (c. 1067 – 8 March 1137), also known as Saint Adela in Roman Catholicism, was Countess of Blois, Chartres, and Meaux by marriage to Stephen II, Count of Blois. He greatly benefited from the increased social status and prestige that came with such a marriage. She brought with her not only her title, but a wedding gift of cash and other movable goods from the prodigious store of Anglo-Norman wealth. She was regent of Blois during the absence of her spouse in 1096–1100 and 1101–02, and during the minority of her son from 1102 until 1120. Adela was a daughter of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders. She was also the mother of Stephen, King of England and Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester. The couple had ten children, though not all of them are known to have been Adela's biological children. It is certain only that she had five sons and might have had three or more daughters.

Battle of Ba'rin

In the Battle of Ba'rin (Mont Ferrand) in 1137, a Crusader force commanded by King Fulk of Jerusalem was scattered and defeated by Zengi, the atabeg of Mosul and Aleppo. This setback resulted in the permanent loss of the Crusader castle of Baarin.

County of Isenburg

Isenburg was a region of Germany located in southern present-day Hesse, located in territories north and south of Frankfurt. The states of Isenburg emerged from the Niederlahngau (located in the Rhineland-Palatinate), which partitioned in 1137 into Isenburg-Isenburg and Isenburg-Limburg-Covern. These countships were partitioned between themselves many times over the next 700 years.

Eleanor of Aquitaine

Eleanor of Aquitaine (French: Aliénor d'Aquitaine, Éléonore, Latin: Alienora; 1122 or 1124 – 1 April 1204) was queen consort of France (1137–1152) and England (1154–1189) and duchess of Aquitaine in her own right (1137–1204). As a member of the Ramnulfids (House of Poitiers) rulers in southwestern France, she was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in western Europe during the High Middle Ages. She was patron of literary figures such as Wace, Benoît de Sainte-Maure, and Bernart de Ventadorn. She led armies several times in her life and was a leader of the Second Crusade.

As duchess of Aquitaine, Eleanor was the most eligible bride in Europe. Three months after becoming duchess upon the death of her father, William X, she married King Louis VII of France, son of her guardian, King Louis VI. As queen of France, she participated in the unsuccessful Second Crusade. Soon afterwards, Eleanor sought an annulment of her marriage, but her request was rejected by Pope Eugene III. However, after the birth of her second daughter Alix, Louis agreed to an annulment, as 15 years of marriage had not produced a son. The marriage was annulled on 21 March 1152 on the grounds of consanguinity within the fourth degree. Their daughters were declared legitimate, custody was awarded to Louis, and Eleanor's lands were restored to her.

As soon as the annulment was granted, Eleanor became engaged to the duke of Normandy, who became King Henry II of England in 1154. Henry was her third cousin and 11 years younger. The couple married on Whitsun, 18 May 1152, eight weeks after the annulment of Eleanor's first marriage, in Poitiers Cathedral. Over the next 13 years, she bore eight children: five sons, three of whom became kings; and three daughters. However, Henry and Eleanor eventually became estranged. Henry imprisoned her in 1173 for supporting their son Henry's revolt against him. She was not released until 6 July 1189, when Henry died and their second son, Richard the Lionheart, ascended the throne.

As queen dowager, Eleanor acted as regent while Richard went on the Third Crusade; on his return, Richard was captured and held prisoner. Eleanor lived well into the reign of her youngest son, John.

Eric II of Denmark

Eric II the Memorable (Danish: Erik II Emune) (c. 1090 – 18 September 1137) was king of Denmark between 1134 and 1137. Eric was an illegitimate son of Eric I of Denmark, who ruled Denmark from 1095 to 1103. Eric the Memorable rebelled against his uncle Niels of Denmark, and was declared king in 1134. He punished his adversaries severely, and rewarded his supporters handsomely. He was killed by a subject in 1137 and was promptly succeeded by his nephew Eric III of Denmark.

Gruffudd ap Cynan

Gruffudd ap Cynan (c. 1055 – 1137), sometimes written as Gruffydd ap Cynan, was King of Gwynedd from 1081 until his death in 1137. In the course of a long and eventful life, he became a key figure in Welsh resistance to Norman rule, and was remembered as King of all Wales. As a descendant of Rhodri Mawr, Gruffudd ap Cynan was a senior member of the princely House of Aberffraw.Through his mother, Gruffudd had close family connections with the Norse settlement around Dublin and he frequently used Ireland as a refuge and as a source of troops. He three times gained the throne of Gwynedd and then lost it again, before regaining it once more in 1099 and this time keeping power until his death. Gruffudd laid the foundations which were built upon by his son Owain Gwynedd and his great-grandson Llywelyn the Great.

Gruffydd ap Rhys

Gruffydd ap Rhys (c. 1081 – 1137) was King of Deheubarth, in Wales. His sister was the Princess Nest ferch Rhys. He was the father of Rhys ap Gruffydd, known as 'The Lord Rhys', who was one of the most successful rulers of Deheubarth during this period.

John I (bishop of Rochester)

John was a medieval Bishop of Rochester.

Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor

Lothair II or Lothair III (before 9 June 1075 – 4 December 1137), known as Lothair of Supplinburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1133 until his death. He was appointed Duke of Saxony in 1106 and elected King of Germany in 1125 before being crowned emperor in Rome. The son of the Saxon count Gebhard of Supplinburg, his reign was troubled by the constant intriguing of the Hohenstaufens, Duke Frederick II of Swabia and Duke Conrad of Franconia. He died while returning from a successful campaign against the Norman Kingdom of Sicily.

Louis VI of France

Louis VI (c.1081 – 1 August 1137), called the Fat (French: le Gros) or the Fighter (French: le Batailleur), was King of the Franks from 1108 to 1137, the fifth from the House of Capet. Chronicles called him "roi de Saint-Denis". Louis was the first member of his house to make a lasting contribution to the centralizing institutions of royal power. He spent almost all of his twenty-nine-year reign fighting either the "robber barons" who plagued Paris or the Norman kings of England for their continental possession of Normandy. Nonetheless, Louis VI managed to reinforce his power considerably and became one of the first strong kings of France since the death of Charlemagne in 814.

Louis was a warrior king but by his forties his weight had become so great that it was increasingly difficult for him to lead in the field. A biography - The Deeds of Louis the Fat, prepared by his loyal advisor Abbot Suger of Saint Denis - offers a fully developed portrait of his character, in contrast to what little historians know about most of his predecessors.

Ramanuja

Ramanuja (traditionally, 1017–1137 CE; IAST: Rāmānujā; [ɽaːmaːnʊdʑɐ] ) was an Indian theologian, philosopher, and one of the most important exponents of the Sri Vaishnavism tradition within Hinduism. His philosophical foundations for devotionalism were influential to the Bhakti movement.Ramanuja's guru was Yādava Prakāśa, a scholar who was a part of the more ancient Advaita Vedānta monastic tradition. Sri Vaishnava tradition holds that Ramanuja disagreed with his guru and the non-dualistic Advaita Vedānta, and instead followed in the footsteps of Indian Alvārs tradition, the scholars Nāthamuni and Yamunāchārya. Ramanuja is famous as the chief proponent of Vishishtadvaita subschool of Vedānta, and his disciples were likely authors of texts such as the Shatyayaniya Upanishad. Ramanuja himself wrote influential texts, such as bhāsya on the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita, all in Sanskrit.His Vishishtadvaita (qualified monism) philosophy has competed with the Dvaita (theistic dualism) philosophy of Madhvāchārya, and Advaita (monism) philosophy of Ādi Shankara, together the three most influential Vedantic philosophies of the 2nd millennium. Ramanuja presented the epistemic and soteriological importance of bhakti, or the devotion to a personal God (Vishnu in Ramanuja's case) as a means to spiritual liberation. His theories assert that there exists a plurality and distinction between Ātman (soul) and Brahman (metaphysical, ultimate reality), while he also affirmed that there is unity of all souls and that the individual soul has the potential to realize identity with the Brahman.

USS Chimaera (ARL-33)

USS Chimaera (ARL-33) was one of 39 Achelous-class landing craft repair ships built for the United States Navy during World War II. Named for the Chimaera (a mythological character, symbolic of the destructive forces of nature), she was the only U.S. Naval vessel to bear the name.

Originally planned as LST-1137, the ship was redesignated ARL-33 14 August 1944 ; launched 30 March 1945 by Chicago Bridge and Iron Company of Seneca, Illinois; sponsored by Mrs. D. L. Mahoney; placed in partial commission 11 April 1945; decommissioned 7 May 1945 for conversion at Baltimore, Maryland; and commissioned in full 7 August 1945 with Lieutenant F. E. Clerk, Jr., USNR, in command.

USS PC-1137

USS PC-1137 was a PC-461-class submarine chaser built for the United States Navy during World War II. Shortly after the end of the war, she was renamed USS PCC-1137 when she was reclassified as a combat communications control ship. In 1956, she was renamed Worthington (PC-1137) but never saw active service under that name.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1137

United Nations Security Council resolution 1137, adopted unanimously on 12 November 1997, after reaffirming resolutions 687 (1991), 707 (1991), 715 (1991), 1060 (1996), 1115 (1997) and 1134 (1997) on the monitoring of Iraq's weapons programme, the Council imposed travel restrictions on Iraqi officials and members of the armed forces after non-compliance with the United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM).The Security Council was concerned at letters it received from Iraqi officials imposing conditions on its co-operation with UNSCOM and implicitly threatening the safety of reconnaissance aircraft, demanding that they be withdrawn from Iraqi airspace. Iraq had also moved dual use equipment which was being monitored by the Commission, which the Council deemed unacceptable. UNSCOM itself had reported that two of its officers were denied access to Iraq based on their citizenship, weapons inspectors were denied access to certain sites and observation cameras had been tampered with or covered over. Diplomatic consultations had been undertaken and Iraq had been warned of further measures if it did not comply.

The resolution, acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, condemned Iraq's continued violations of its obligations under the resolutions and demanded that the country fully and unconditionally co-operate with the Special Commission. In accordance with Resolution 1134, all countries were now required to impose a travel ban on Iraqi officials and members of the armed forces who were responsible for the instances of non-compliance. A list of individuals to which the ban would apply was also created. The restrictions would only end the day after the Special Commission reported that Iraq allowed the inspection teams immediate, unconditional and unrestricted access to any given site, equipment, information, transport or people.

William Warelwast

William Warelwast (died 1137), was a medieval Norman cleric and Bishop of Exeter in England. Warelwast was a native of Normandy, but little is known about his background before 1087, when he appears as a royal clerk for King William II of England. Most of his royal service to William was as a diplomatic envoy, as he was heavily involved in the king's dispute with Anselm, the Archbishop of Canterbury, which constituted the English theatre of the Investiture Controversy. He went several times to Rome as an emissary to the papacy on business related to Anselm, one of whose supporters, the medieval chronicler Eadmer, alleged that Warelwast bribed the pope and the papal officials to secure favourable outcomes for King William.

Possibly present at King William's death in a hunting accident, Warelwast served as a diplomat to the king's successor, Henry I. After the resolution of the Investiture Controversy, Warelwast was rewarded with the bishopric of Exeter in Devon, but he continued to serve Henry as a diplomat and royal judge. He began the construction of a new cathedral at Exeter, and he probably divided the diocese into archdeaconries. Warelwast went blind after 1120, and after his death in 1137 was succeeded by his nephew, Robert Warelwast.

William X, Duke of Aquitaine

William X (Guillém X in Occitan) (1099 – 9 April 1137), called the Saint, was Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, and Count of Poitou (as William VIII) from 1126 to 1137. He was the son of William IX by his second wife, Philippa of Toulouse.

William was born in Toulouse during the brief period when his parents ruled the capital. His birth is recorded in the Chronicle of Saint-Maixent for the year 1099: Willelmo comiti natus est filius, equivoce Guillelmus vocatus ("a son was born to Count William, named William like himself"). Later that same year, much to Philippa's ire, Duke William IX mortgaged Toulouse to Philippa's cousin, Bertrand of Toulouse, and then left on Crusade.

Philippa and her infant son William X were left in Poitiers. When Duke William IX returned from his unsuccessful crusade, he took up with Dangerose, the wife of a vassal, and set aside his rightful wife, Philippa. This caused strain between father and son, until 1121 when William X married Aenor de Châtellerault, a daughter of his father's mistress Dangerose by her first husband, Aimery.

William had three children with Aenor:

Eleanor, who later became heiress to the Duchy; and is best known to history as Eleanor of Aquitaine;

Petronilla, who married Raoul I of Vermandois;

William Aigret, who died at age 4 in 1130, about the time their mother Aenor de Châtellerault died.He possibly had one natural son, William. For a long time it was thought that he had another natural son called Joscelin and some biographies still erroneously state this fact, but Joscelin has been shown to be the brother of Adeliza of Louvain. The attribution of Joscelin as a son of William X has been caused by a mistaken reading of the Pipe Rolls pertaining to the reign of Henry II, where 'brother of the queen' has been taken as Queen Eleanor, when the queen in question is actually Adeliza of Louvain.

William administered his Aquitaine duchy as both a lover of the arts and a warrior. He became involved in conflicts with Normandy (which he raided in 1136, in alliance with Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou who claimed it in his wife's name) and for France.

Even inside his borders, William faced an alliance of the Lusignans and the Parthenays against him, an issue resolved with total destruction of the enemies. In international politics, William X initially supported antipope Anacletus II in the papal schism of 1130, opposite to Pope Innocent II, against the will of his own bishops. In 1134 Saint Bernard of Clairvaux convinced William to drop his support to Anacletus and join Innocent.

In 1137 William joined the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela, but died during the trip. On his deathbed, he expressed his wish to see king Louis VI of France as protector of his fifteen-year-old daughter Eleanor, and to find her a suitable husband. Louis VI naturally accepted this guardianship and married the heiress of Aquitaine to his own son, Louis VII.

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