112th United States Congress

The One Hundred Twelfth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, from January 3, 2011, until January 3, 2013. It convened in Washington, D.C. on January 3, 2011, and ended on January 3, 2013, 17 days before the end of the presidential term to which Barack Obama was elected in 2008. Senators elected to regular terms in 2006 completed those terms in this Congress. This Congress included the last House of Representatives elected from congressional districts that were apportioned based on the 2000 census.

In the 2010 midterm elections, the Republican Party won the majority in the House of Representatives. While the Democrats kept their Senate majority, it was reduced from the previous Congress.[3]

This was the first Congress in which the House and Senate were controlled by different parties since the 107th Congress (2001–2003), and the first Congress to begin that way since the 99th Congress (1985–1987). It was also the first Congress since the 36th Congress, over 150 years, in which the Republican Party held the House but not the Senate. In this Congress, the House of Representatives had the largest number of Republican members, 242, since the 80th Congress (1947–1949).[4] This was the first, and thus far only, Congress since the 79th (1945-1947) that did not include a member of the Kennedy family.

112th United States Congress
111th ←
→ 113th
United States Capitol west front edit2
January 3, 2011 – January 3, 2013
Senate PresidentJoe Biden (D)
Senate President pro temDaniel Inouye (D)
until December 17, 2012
Patrick Leahy (D)
from December 17, 2012
House SpeakerJohn Boehner (R)
Members100 senators
435 members of the House
6 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityDemocratic
House MajorityRepublican
1st: January 5, 2011[1] – January 3, 2012[2]
2nd: January 3, 2012[2] – January 3, 2013

Major events

2011 State of the Union
President Obama delivered the 2011 State of the Union Address on January 25, 2011
Barack Obama with Gabrielle Giffords at the 2012 State of the Union 01-24-12
After delivering the 2012 State of the Union Address on January 24, 2012, President Obama embraces Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords, who had been shot the previous year.

Potential government shutdown

A failure to pass a 2011 federal budget nearly led to a shutdown of non-essential government services on April 9, 2011, with the furlough of 800,000 government employees appearing imminent.[9] President Obama met Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid and House Speaker John Boehner in the days preceding the deadline but was unable to come to an agreement to pass a budget. A one-week budget was proposed to avoid a government shutdown and allow more time for negotiations; however, proposals from both parties could not be accommodated. Obama said he would veto a proposed Republican budget over Republican social spending cuts. This was also backed by Senate Democrats who objected to such cuts as that of Planned Parenthood.[10][11][12] However, an agreement was reached between the two parties for a one-week budget to allow for more time to negotiate after Republicans dropped their stance on the Planned Parenthood issue.[11] The two parties ultimately agreed on a 2011 federal budget the following week.

There were many reactions to the possible shutdown with some saying the economy could be hurt during a fragile recovery[13] and others saying the lack of an unnecessary bureaucracy would not be noticed.[14] There was also criticism that while senators and representatives would continue to get paid others such as the police and military personnel would either not be paid for their work or have their payments deferred.[15]

Debt limit crisis

President Obama & John Boehner debt ceiling negotiations
Speaker Boehner meeting with President Obama at the White House during the 2011 debt ceiling crisis

On August 2, 2011, the United States public debt was projected to reach its statutory maximum. Without an increase in that limit the U.S. Treasury would be unable to borrow money to pay its bills. Although previous statutory increases have been routine, conservative members of the House refused to allow an increase without drastically reducing government spending. Over several weeks and months, negotiators from both parties, both houses, and the White House worked to forge a compromise. The compromise bill, the Budget Control Act of 2011, was enacted on August 2.

Major legislation



See also: Active Legislation, 112th Congress, via senate.gov

Party summary

Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section, below.


Final Senate Membership
     51 Democrats      47 Republicans
     2 Independents, caucusing with Democrats
(shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent Republican
End of previous Congress 56 2 42 100 0
Begin 51 2 47 100 0
May 3, 2011 46 99 1
May 9, 2011 47 100 0
December 17, 2012 50 99 1
December 26, 2012 51 100 0
January 1, 2013 46 99 1
January 2, 2013 47 100 0
Final voting share 53% 47%
Beginning of the next Congress 53 2 45 100 0

House of Representatives

Final House Membership
     191 Democrats      240 Republicans
     4 Vacant
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Republican
End of previous Congress 255 179 434 1
Begin 193 242 435 0
February 9, 2011 241 434 1
February 28, 2011 192 433 2
May 9, 2011 240 432 3
May 24, 2011 193 433 2
June 21, 2011 192 432 3
July 12, 2011 193 433 2
August 3, 2011 192 432 3
September 13, 2011 242 434 1
January 25, 2012 191 433 2
January 31, 2012 192 434 1
March 6, 2012 191 433 2
March 20, 2012 190 432 3
June 12, 2012 191 433 2
July 7, 2012 241 432 3
July 31, 2012 240 431 4
August 15, 2012 190 430 5
November 13, 2012 192 241 433 2
November 15, 2012 193 434 1
November 21, 2012 192 433 2
December 3, 2012 191 432 3
January 2, 2013 240 431 4
Final voting share 44.3% 55.7%
Non-voting members 6 0 6 0
Beginning of next Congress 200 233 433 2


Section contents: Senate: Majority (D), Minority (R)House: Majority (R), Minority (D)


Daniel Inouye Official Photo 2009
Daniel Inouye (D)
(until December 17, 2012)
Patrick Leahy (D)
(from December 17, 2012)

Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership

House of Representatives

Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership


For the first time in the history of Congress, over half its members were millionaires as of 2012; Democrats had a median net worth of $1.04 million, while the Republicans median was "almost exactly" $1.00 million.[21][22] In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 2012; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 2014; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 2016.


112th United States Congress Senators
Party membership by state
  2 Democrats
  1 Democrat and 1 Republican
  2 Republicans
   1 Independent (caucuses with Democrats) and 1 Democrat
Senate Majority Leaders
Harry Reid official portrait 2009 crop
Democratic Leader
Harry Reid
Richard Durbin official photo
Democratic Whip
Dick Durbin
Harry Reid official portrait 2009 crop
Richard Durbin official photo
Senate Minority Leaders
Mitch McConnell official portrait 112th Congress
Republican Leader
Mitch McConnell
Jon Kyl, official 109th Congress photo
Republican Whip
Jon Kyl
Mitch McConnell official portrait 112th Congress
Jon Kyl, official 109th Congress photo

House of Representatives

112th US Congress House of Reps
Percentage of members from each party by state, ranging from dark blue (most Democratic) to dark red (most Republican).
112th US House
Members' party membership by district.
112th Congress Freshmen Class
Freshman class of the House of Representatives, January 2011
House Majority Leaders
Eric Cantor, official portrait, 112th Congress
Republican Leader
Eric Cantor
Kevin McCarthy2
Republican Whip
Kevin McCarthy
Eric Cantor, official portrait, 112th Congress
Kevin McCarthy2
House Minority Leaders
Speaker Nancy Pelosi
Democratic Leader
Nancy Pelosi
Steny Hoyer, official photo as Whip
Democratic Whip
Steny Hoyer
Speaker Nancy Pelosi
Steny Hoyer, official photo as Whip

Changes in membership


Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[a]
John Ensign
Resigned May 3, 2011 due to an Ethics Committee investigation.[27]
A successor was appointed April 27, 2011 to serve the remainder of the term that ends with this Congress.
Dean Heller
May 9, 2011[29]
Daniel Inouye
Died December 17, 2012 [30]
A successor was appointed December 26, 2012 to serve until a special election was held to finish the term ending January 3, 2017.
Brian Schatz
December 27, 2012
South Carolina
Jim DeMint
Resigned January 1, 2013, to run the Heritage Foundation[31]
A successor was appointed January 2, 2013 to serve until a special election was held to finish the term ending January 3, 2017.
Tim Scott
January 2, 2013[32]

House of Representatives

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[a]
New York 26th Christopher Lee
Resigned February 9, 2011, due to a personal scandal.[33]
A special election was held May 24, 2011.[34]
Kathy Hochul
June 1, 2011
California 36th Jane Harman
Resigned February 28, 2011 to become the head of the Woodrow Wilson Center.[35]
A special election was held July 12, 2011.[36]
Janice Hahn
July 19, 2011
Nevada 2nd Dean Heller
Resigned May 9, 2011, when appointed to the Senate.[28]
A special election was held September 13, 2011.[37]
Mark Amodei
September 15, 2011
New York 9th Anthony Weiner
Resigned June 21, 2011, due to a personal scandal.[38]
A special election was held September 13, 2011.[39]
Bob Turner
September 15, 2011
Oregon 1st David Wu
Resigned August 3, 2011, due to a personal scandal.
A special election was held January 31, 2012.[40]
Suzanne Bonamici
February 7, 2012
Arizona 8th Gabrielle Giffords
Resigned January 25, 2012, to focus on recovery from 2011 Tucson Shooting.[41]
A special election was held June 12, 2012.[42]
Ron Barber
June 19, 2012
New Jersey 10th Donald M. Payne
Died March 6, 2012.[43]
A special election was held November 6, 2012.[44]
Donald Payne Jr.
November 15, 2012[24]
Washington 1st Jay Inslee
Resigned March 20, 2012 to focus on gubernatorial campaign.[45]
A special election was held November 6, 2012.[46]
Suzan DelBene
November 13, 2012[23]
Michigan 11th Thaddeus McCotter
Resigned July 6, 2012 due to personal reasons.[47]
A special election was held November 6, 2012.[48]
David Curson
November 13, 2012[23]
Kentucky 4th Geoff Davis
Resigned July 31, 2012 due to personal reasons.[49]
A special election was held November 6, 2012[50]
Thomas Massie
November 13, 2012[23]
California 18th Dennis Cardoza
Resigned August 15, 2012 due to personal reasons.[51] Vacant until the next Congress
Illinois 2nd Jesse Jackson Jr.
Resigned November 21, 2012, due to a personal scandal.
California 51st Bob Filner
Resigned December 3, 2012 to become Mayor of San Diego.
South Carolina 1st Tim Scott
Resigned January 2, 2013 when appointed to the US Senate.[25]


[ Section contents: Senate, House, Joint ]


House of Representatives

Joint appointments


  • Anti-Value Added Tax Caucus
  • Afterschool Caucus
  • Americans Aboard Caucus
  • Armenian Caucus
  • Army Corps Reform Caucus
  • Appalachian Caucus
  • Bipartisan Disabilities Caucus
  • Biomedical Research Caucus
  • Building a Better America Caucus
  • Coalition for Autism Research and Education
  • Congressional 4-H Caucus
  • Congressional Academic Medicine Caucus
  • Congressional Addiction, Treatment and Recovery Caucus
  • Congressional Adult Literacy Caucus
  • Congressional Afghan Caucus
  • Congressional Air Force Caucus
  • Congressional Anti-Terrorism Caucus
  • Congressional Arts Caucus
  • Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus
  • Congressional Assyrian Caucus
  • Congressional Automotive Caucus
  • Congressional Azerbaijan Caucus
  • Congressional Baby Caucus
  • Congressional Battlefield Caucus
  • Congressional Bicameral Arthritis Caucus
  • Congressional Bicameral High-Speed & Intercity Passenger Rail Caucus
  • Congressional Bike Caucus
  • Congressional Bipartisan Cerebral Palsy Caucus
  • Congressional Biomass Caucus
  • Congressional Biotechnology Caucus
  • Congressional Black Caucus
  • Congressional Boating Caucus
  • Congressional Border Caucus
  • Congressional Bourbon Caucus
  • Congressional Brazil Caucus
  • Congressional Career and Technical Education Caucus
  • Congressional Caucus on Armenian Issues
  • Congressional Caucus on Central America
  • Congressional Caucus for Competitiveness in Entertainment Technology
  • Congressional Caucus on CPAs and Accountants
  • Congressional Caucus on Effective Foreign Assistance
  • Congressional Caucus on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
  • Congressional Caucus on Foster Youth
  • Congressional Caucus on Hellenic Issues
  • Congressional Caucus on India and Indian Americans
  • Congressional Caucus on Intellectual Property Promotion and Piracy Prevention
  • Congressional Caucus on the Judicial Branch
  • Congressional Caucus on Korea
  • Congressional Caucus on Macedonia and Macedonian-Americans
  • Congressional Caucus on Malaria and Neglected Tropical Diseases
  • Congressional Caucus on the Netherlands
  • Congressional Caucus on Prescription Drug Abuse
  • Congressional Caucus on Sri Lanka and Sri Lankan Americans
  • Congressional Caucus on Uganda
  • Congressional Caucus on U.S.-Lebanon Relations
  • Congressional Caucus on Women in the Military
  • Congressional Caucus on Youth Sports
  • Congressional Caucus to End Bullying
  • Congressional Caucus to Fight and Control Methamphetamine
  • Congressional Chesapeake Bay Watershed Caucus
  • Congressional Chicken Caucus
  • Congressional Childhood Cancer Caucus
  • Congressional Children's Caucus
  • Congressional China Caucus
  • Congressional Climate Caucus
  • Congressional Coal Caucus
  • Congressional Coast Guard Caucus
  • Congressional Coastal Caucus
  • Congressional Coastal Communities Caucus
  • Congressional Complementary and Alternative Medicine Caucus
  • Congressional Congenital Heart Caucus
  • Congressional Constitution Caucus
  • Congressional Correctional Officers Caucus
  • Congressional Cranberry Caucus
  • Congressional Croatian Caucus
  • Congressional Crohn’s & Colitis Caucus
  • Congressional Cystic Fibrosis Caucus
  • Congressional Czech Caucus
  • Congressional Diabetes Caucus
  • Congressional Dietary Supplement Caucus
  • Congressional Directed Energy Caucus
  • Congressional Dyslexia Caucus
  • Congressional Electromagnetic Pulse Caucus
  • Congressional Emergency Medical Services Caucus
  • Congressional Energy Savings Performance Caucus
  • Congressional Entertainment Industries Caucus
  • Congressional Explosive Ordnance Disposal Caucus
  • Congressional E-911 Caucus
  • Congressional Farmer Cooperative Caucus
  • Congressional Financial and Economic Literacy Caucus
  • Congressional Fire Services Caucus
  • Congressional Fitness Caucus
  • Congressional Food Safety Caucus
  • Congressional Former Mayors Caucus
  • Congressional Fragile X Caucus
  • Congressional Fraternal Caucus
  • Congressional French Caucus
  • Congressional Friends of Ireland Caucus
  • Congressional Friends of Jordan Caucus
  • Congressional Global Health Caucus
  • Congressional Green Schools Caucus
  • Congressional Gulf of Mexico Caucus
  • Congressional Hearing Health Caucus
  • Congressional High Tech Caucus
  • Congressional Hispanic Caucus
  • Congressional HIV/AIDS Caucus
  • Congressional Home Health Caucus
  • Congressional Homelessness Caucus
  • Congressional Horse Caucus
  • Congressional House Manufacturing Caucus
  • Congressional HUBZone Caucus
  • Congressional Human Rights Caucus
  • Congressional Humanities Caucus
  • Congressional Immigration Reform Caucus
  • Congressional Insurance Caucus
  • Congressional Intelligent Transportation Systems Caucus
  • Congressional International Anti-Piracy Caucus
  • Congressional International Conservation Caucus
  • Congressional International Religious Freedom Caucus
  • Congressional Internet Caucus
  • Congressional Invisible Wounds Caucus
  • Congressional Iraqi Women's Caucus
  • Congressional Israel Allies Caucus
  • Congressional Joint Strike Fighter Caucus
  • Congressional Kidney Caucus
  • Congressional Labor and Working Families Caucus
  • Congressional Life Science Caucus
  • Congressional Lupus Caucus
  • Congressional Management Caucus
  • Congressional Manufacturing Caucus
  • Congressional Military Family Caucus
  • Congressional Media Fairness Caucus
  • Congressional Medical Professionals Caucus
  • Congressional Men's Health Caucus
  • Congressional Mental Health Caucus
  • Congressional Mentoring Caucus
  • Congressional Military Family Caucus
  • Congressional Mine Warfare Caucus
  • Congressional Mining Caucus
  • Congressional Mississippi River Caucus
  • Congressional Missing and Exploited Children's Caucus
  • Congressional Modeling and Simulation Caucus
  • Congressional Moldova Caucus
  • Congressional Motorsports Caucus
  • Congressional Multiple Sclerosis Caucus
  • Congressional Natural Gas Caucus
  • Congressional Native American Caucus
  • Congressional Nepal Caucus
  • Congressional Nursing Caucus
  • Congressional Olympic and Paralympic Caucus
  • Congressional Organic Caucus
  • Congressional Out of Poverty Caucus
  • Congressional Pakistan Caucus
  • Congressional Prayer Caucus
  • Congressional Pollinator Protection Caucus
  • Congressional Ports-to-Plains Caucus
  • Congressional Port Security Caucus
  • Congressional Progressive Caucus
  • Congressional Real Estate Caucus
  • Congressional Rock and Roll Caucus
  • Congressional Rural Caucus
  • Congressional Rural Housing Caucus
  • Congressional Savings and Ownership Caucus
  • Congressional Scouting Caucus
  • Congressional Second Amendment Caucus
  • Congressional Serbian Caucus
  • Congressional Shipbuilding Caucus
  • Congressional Singapore Caucus
  • Congressional Ski and Snowboard Caucus
  • Congressional Smart Contracting Caucus
  • Congressional Soccer Caucus
  • Congressional Social Work Caucus
  • Congressional Songwriters’ Caucus
  • Congressional Spina Bifida Caucus
  • Congressional Sportsmen's Caucus
  • Congressional Steel Caucus
  • Congressional Stop DUI Caucus
  • Congressional Submarine Caucus
  • Congressional Taiwan Caucus
  • Congressional Tibet Caucus
  • Congressional Travel & Tourism Caucus
  • Congressional TRIO Caucus
  • Congressional United Kingdom Caucus
  • Congressional Urban Caucus
  • Congressional Unmanned Systems Caucus
  • Congressional Victim's Rights Caucus
  • Congressional Vision Caucus
  • Congressional Waterways Caucus
  • Congressional Western Caucus
  • Congressional Wildlife Refuge Caucus
  • Congressional Wine Caucus
  • Congresswomen's Caucus
  • Congressional Zoo and Aquarium Caucus
  • Diversity and Innovation Caucus
  • Economic Competitiveness Caucus (House/Senate)
  • Financial and Economic Literacy Caucus
  • Friends of Job Corps Congressional Caucus
  • Friends of Scotland Caucus (House/Senate)
  • Friends of Norway Caucus
  • Friends of Switzerland Caucus
  • Future of American Media Caucus
  • GOP Doctors Caucus
  • Historic Preservation Caucus
  • Hong Kong Caucus
  • House Baltic Caucus
  • House Congressional Sovereignty Caucus
  • House Democratic Caucus
  • House Oceans Caucus
  • House Organic Caucus
  • House Recycling Caucus
  • House Rural Education Caucus
  • House Small Brewers Caucus
  • House Sugar Caucus
  • Hudson River Caucus
  • Hungarian American Caucus
  • Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Caucus
  • German-American Caucus
  • Kenya Caucus
  • Latino-Jewish Congressional Caucus
  • Law Enforcement Caucus
  • LGBT Equality Caucus
  • Liberty Caucus
  • Multiple Sclerosis Caucus
  • National Guard and Reserve Components Caucus
  • National Landscape Conservation System Caucus
  • National Marine Sanctuary Caucus
  • National Service Congressional Caucus
  • Navy-Marine Corps Caucus
  • New Democrat Coalition
  • North America's Supercorridor Caucus
  • Northern Border Caucus
  • Northeast-Midwest Congressional Coalition
  • Nuclear Issues Caucus
  • Out of Iraq Caucus
  • Passenger Rail Caucus
  • Patriot Act Reform Caucus
  • Pell Grant Caucus
  • Physics Caucus
  • Populist Caucus
  • Ports Caucus
  • Public Broadcasting Caucus
  • Public Service Caucus
  • Qatari-American Economic Strategic Defense, Cultural and Educational Partnership Caucus
  • Rare Disease Caucus
  • Recording Arts and Sciences Congressional Caucus
  • Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Caucus
  • Research and Development Caucus
  • River of Trade Corridor Congressional Caucus
  • Senate Democratic Caucus
  • Sex and Violence in the Media Caucus
  • Silk Road Caucus
  • Special Operations Forces Caucus
  • State Maritime Academy Caucus
  • Sudan Caucus
  • Sustainable Energy and Environment Coalition
  • Tea Party Caucus
  • TEX-21 Congressional Caucus
  • Unexploded Ordnance Caucus
  • U.S.-Afghan Caucus
  • U.S.-Mongolia Friendship Caucus
  • U.S.-New Zealand Congressional Caucus
  • Victory in Iraq Caucus
  • Wounded to Work Congressional Caucus
  • Youth Challenge Caucus
  • Zero Capital Gains Tax Caucus

Employees and legislative agency directors

Legislative branch agency directors


House of Representatives

See also


Membership lists


  1. ^ a b This is the date the member was seated or an oath administered, not necessarily the same date her/his service began.


  1. ^ Pub.L. 111–289
  2. ^ a b Senate Calendar for January 20, 2012.
  3. ^ Zeleny, Jeff (November 2, 2010). "G.O.P. Captures House, but Not Senate". New York Times. Retrieved November 3, 2010.
  4. ^ Abramowitz, Alan (December 12, 2010). "Get ready for the most conservative Congress ever". Salon.com. Retrieved July 13, 2012.
  5. ^ Yadron, Danny (January 6, 2011). "House Reads Constitution, Gets Civics Lesson". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
  6. ^ "Odyssey Dawn: Phase One Of Libya Military Intervention". The Epoch Times. March 19, 2011. Archived from the original on February 23, 2015.
  7. ^ "US troops complete their withdrawal from Iraq". Herald Sun. Australia. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
  8. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer (January 24, 2013). "Senator Unveils Bill to Limit Semiautomatic Arms". The New York Times. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
  9. ^ Rowley, James (April 7, 2011). "U.S. Government Shutdown Threatens 800,000 People As Obama Seeks Solution". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
  10. ^ "US budget talks remain deadlocked". Al Jazeera. April 8, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
  11. ^ a b Davis, Julie Hirschfeld; Faler, Brian (April 9, 2011). "Wrangle Over U.S. Budget Compromise Defines Next Two Years' Fiscal Debate". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
  12. ^ "Pres. Obama and Congressional Leaders Reach Budget Deal". CSPAN. April 8, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
  13. ^ Dodge, Catherine; Goldman, Julianna (April 8, 2011). "Long Government Shutdown Would Harm U.S. Economy, Hit Washington Hardest". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
  14. ^ "Editorial: Government shutdown survival guide". The Washington Times. April 7, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
  15. ^ Goldman, Julianna (April 7, 2011). "Boehner Gets Paid While Soldiers Wait When Congress Shuts Down Government". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Members of Congress 'shouldn’t be getting paid, just like federal employees shouldn't be getting paid' during a shutdown, Boehner said today on ABC’s 'Good Morning America'
  16. ^ "U.S. Senate, Democratic Committees". Archived from the original on May 4, 2011. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  17. ^ "U.S. Senate Conference Secretaries". Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  18. ^ a b c "U.S. Senate, Democratic Steering and Outreach Committee". Archived from the original on August 6, 2011. Retrieved August 10, 2011.
  19. ^ Office of the Speaker of the House (December 2, 2010). "Pelosi Announces Steering and Policy Committee Members". PR Newswire. Retrieved February 17, 2011.
  20. ^ "Congressman Capuano's Update". FN Online. February 3, 2011. Archived from the original on July 26, 2011. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
  21. ^ "Millionaires' Club: For First Time, Most Lawmakers are Worth $1 Million-Plus". OpenSecrets Blog. The Center for Responsive Politics. January 9, 2014. Retrieved January 12, 2014.
  22. ^ "Half of US Congressional politicians are millionaires". BBC News. January 10, 2014. Retrieved January 12, 2014.
  23. ^ a b c d e f "House Floor Activities: Legislative Day of November 13, 2012". Washington, D.C.: Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved February 3, 2019.
  24. ^ a b "House Floor Activities: Legislative Day of November 15, 2012". Washington, D.C.: Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved February 3, 2019.
  25. ^ a b 2012 Congressional Record, Vol. 158, Page H7467 (December 30, 2012)
  26. ^ Access Denied. NationalJournal.com. Retrieved on August 16, 2013.
  27. ^ "Nevada Sen. John Ensign announces resignation". Politico. April 21, 2011.
  28. ^ a b Murray, Mark (April 27, 2011). "Sandoval appoints Heller to fill Ensign seat". NBC News.
  29. ^ Heller in transition: One foot in House, one foot in Senate | Las Vegas Review-Journal. Lvrj.com (May 3, 2011). Retrieved on August 16, 2013.
  30. ^ "Sen. Daniel Inouye dies of respiratory complications". MSN News. Associated Press. December 17, 2012.
  31. ^ "South Carolina Republican US Sen. Jim DeMint resigning to take over at Heritage Foundation". The Washington Post. December 6, 2012. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
  32. ^ Scott's appointment took effect January 2, 2013, upon his resignation from the House of Representatives; he took the oath of office on January 3, 2013.[1]
  33. ^ "Lee Resigns After Photos Surface". Political Wire. February 9, 2011. Archived from the original on February 12, 2011. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
  34. ^ "Governor Cuomo Signs Bill to Ensure Military Voters are Treated Fairly in Special Elections, Calls Special Election in 26th Congressional District". Governor of New York's Press Office. March 9, 2011. Retrieved March 9, 2011.
  35. ^ Allen, Mike; Cohen, Richard E. (February 7, 2011). "Rep. Jane Harman to resign from House". Politico.com. Retrieved February 17, 2011.
  36. ^ "Governor Brown Issues Proclamation Declaring Special Election for 36th Congressional District". Governor of California Press Release. March 14, 2011. Archived from the original on June 2, 2011. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
  37. ^ "Sandoval Sets Fall Special to Fill Heller's Seat". Roll Call. April 29, 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
  38. ^ Camia, Catalina (June 20, 2011). "Anthony Weiner Officially Steps Down Tuesday". USA Today. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
  39. ^ "Governor Cuomo Sets Special Elections for September 13 to Coincide with Statewide Primary Day". Governor of New York's Press Office. July 1, 2011. Retrieved July 1, 2011.
  40. ^ Freking, Kevin (August 4, 2011). "Wu notifies governor, speaker of resignation". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
  41. ^ "Giffords resigns House seat to focus on recovery". Associated Press. January 25, 2012.
  42. ^ Nowicki, Dan (January 27, 2012). "Brewer sets Giffords seat election dates". AZCentral.com. The Arizona Republic. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
  43. ^ "U.S. Representative Donald Payne dead at 77". New Jersey Real. March 6, 2012.
  44. ^ Livingston, Abby (March 30, 2012). "New Jersey: Special Election Dates For Payne Seat Set". Roll Call. Retrieved March 31, 2012.
  45. ^ "Inslee resigning House seat for governor's race". Politico.com. March 10, 2012.
  46. ^ Cornfield, Jerry (March 29, 2012). "Gregoire: Election in works to replace Inslee". HeraldNet. The Daily Herald. Retrieved March 31, 2012.
  47. ^ "Rep. Thaddeus McCotter resigns from Congress". Abcnews.com. July 6, 2012.
  48. ^ Toeplitz, Shira (July 10, 2012). "Michigan: Governor Calls Special Election for Thaddeus McCotter Seat". Retrieved July 11, 2012.
  49. ^ "Statement from congressman geoff davis". July 31, 2012. Archived from the original on August 2, 2012. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
  50. ^ Associated Press (August 17, 2012). "Beshear calls special election to replace Davis".
  51. ^ Doyle, Michael (August 14, 2012). "Capitol Alert: Rep. Dennis Cardoza announces resignation". Archived from the original on August 15, 2012. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  52. ^ S.Res. 5, 112th Congress
  53. ^ a b c d H.Res. 1, Electing officers of the House of Representatives, 112th Congress
  54. ^ "VIDEO: Speaker Boehner Swears In Father Patrick J. Conroy as House Chaplain". May 25, 2011. Archived from the original on September 30, 2011. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  55. ^ Matthew A. Wasniewski (Matt) - Congressional Staffer Salary Data. Legistorm.com. Retrieved on August 16, 2013.
  56. ^ Sergeant at Arms-United States House of Representatives
  57. ^ See: Rules of the House: "Other officers and officials" Archived June 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine

Further reading

External links

2011 California's 36th congressional district special election

A 2011 special election filled the vacancy in California's 36th congressional district after the resignation of incumbent Jane Harman on February 28, 2011; Harman vacated her seat in the U.S. House of Representatives to become head of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.The special primary election occurred on May 17, 2011. Democrat Janice Hahn received the highest number of votes, with Republican Craig Huey taking second place. Because no candidate received more than 50 percent of the vote in the primary, a special general election was held on July 12, 2011, between the top two vote recipients. The runoff election was won by Janice Hahn.

2011 Nevada's 2nd congressional district special election

On September 13, 2011, a special election was held in Nevada's 2nd congressional district to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of Republican Dean Heller, who was appointed to the United States Senate.The race was called for Mark Amodei by the Associated Press just after 10 p.m. local time with 44% of precincts reporting and Amodei leading Marshall 57% to 37%. Amodei easily won the election by a margin of 58% to 36%.

2011 New York's 9th congressional district special election

A 2011 special election in New York's 9th congressional district was held on September 13, 2011 to fill a seat in the U.S. Congress for New York's 9th congressional district, after Representative Anthony Weiner resigned from this seat on June 21, 2011 due to his sexting scandal. Democratic Party nominee David Weprin, a member of the New York State Assembly, faced Republican and Conservative Party nominee Bob Turner, a businessman who unsuccessfully sought the seat in 2010.

The district with over 300,000 registered voters was expected to be eliminated during the 2012 redistricting. It is strongly Democratic, where registered Democrats out number Republican by a 3-to-1 ratio.Around midnight on September 14, the Associated Press called the race for Republican Bob Turner with 70% of precincts reporting and Turner leading Weprin 53 to 47. Turner is the first Republican Congressman to represent this district in 88 years. The last Republican to represent the district was Andrew Petersen who was elected in the Harding landslide of 1920.

2011 State of the Union Address

The 2011 State of the Union Address was a speech given by President Barack Obama at 9 p.m. EST on January 25, 2011, in the chamber of the United States House of Representatives. In this joint session Obama outlined his “vision for an America that’s more determined, more competitive, better positioned for the future—an America where we out-innovate, we out-educate, we out-build the rest of the world; where we take responsibility for our deficits; where we reform our government to meet the demands of a new age.”

2012 Arizona's 8th congressional district special election

A 2012 special election in Arizona's 8th congressional district was held on June 12, with primary elections held on April 17, to fill a seat in the United States House of Representatives for Arizona's 8th congressional district until the 112th United States Congress ends on January 3, 2013. The election was caused by the resignation of Representative Gabrielle Giffords on January 25, 2012, to concentrate on recovering from her injuries from the 2011 Tucson shooting. The seat was won by Ron Barber, a former aide to Giffords who was wounded in the attempt on her life.

2012 Michigan's 11th congressional district special election

The 2012 special election in Michigan's 11th congressional district was a special election that took place in Michigan on November 6, 2012, to replace Republican United States Congressman Thaddeus McCotter, who resigned after a failed presidential campaign and a series of scandals. Former autoworker David Curson, the Democratic nominee, narrowly defeated Republican nominee Kerry Bentivolio, a reindeer farmer, to win the seat for the last few months of McCotter's term.

2012 New Jersey's 10th congressional district special election

The 2012 special election in New Jersey's 10th congressional district was a special election that took place in New Jersey on November 6, 2012, following the death of Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives Donald M. Payne. Payne's son, Donald Payne Jr., won the Democratic Party primary that was held on June 5, 2012. He also won the Democratic primary (held the same day) for the full term beginning in January 2013.

2012 Oregon's 1st congressional district special election

A 2012 special election in Oregon's 1st congressional district was held on January 31, 2012 to fill a seat in the U.S. Congress for Oregon's 1st congressional district, following the resignation of Representative David Wu. Primary elections were held on November 8, 2011, with the Democrats selecting state senator Suzanne Bonamici and the Republicans selecting businessman Rob Cornilles.Bonamici was declared the winner almost as soon as the ballot deadline expired at 8 pm PST. She carried every county in the district except Yamhill County, which Cornilles won by a seven-point margin.

2012 State of the Union Address

The 2012 State of the Union Address was a speech given by President Barack Obama, from 9 p.m. to 10:17 p.m. EST on Tuesday, January 24, 2012, in the chamber of the United States House of Representatives. In his speech, he focused on education reform, repairing America's infrastructure with money not used on the Iraq War, and creating new energy sources in America.

American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012

The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (ATRA; Pub.L. 112–240, H.R. 8, 126 Stat. 2313, enacted January 2, 2013) was passed by the United States Congress on January 1, 2013, and was signed into law by US President Barack Obama the next day.

The Act centers on a partial resolution to the US fiscal cliff by addressing the expiration of certain provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 and the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003 (known together as the "Bush tax cuts"), which had been temporarily extended by the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010. The Act also addressed the activation of the Budget Control Act of 2011's budget sequestration provisions.

A compromise measure, the Act gives permanence to the lower rate of much of the Bush tax cuts, while retaining the higher tax rate at upper income levels that became effective on January 1 due to the expiration of the Bush tax cuts. It also establishes caps on tax deductions and credits for those at upper income levels. It does not tackle federal spending levels to a great extent, rather leaving that for further negotiations and legislation. The American Taxpayer Relief Act passed by a wide majority in the Senate, with both Democrats and Republicans supporting it, while most of the House Republicans opposed it.

Budget Control Act of 2011

The Budget Control Act of 2011 (Pub.L. 112–25, S. 365, 125 Stat. 240, enacted August 2, 2011) is a federal statute enacted by the 112th United States Congress and signed into law by US President Barack Obama on August 2, 2011. The Act brought conclusion to the 2011 US debt-ceiling crisis.

The law involves the introduction of several complex mechanisms, such as creation of the Congressional Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction (sometimes called the "super committee"), options for a balanced budget amendment, and automatic budget sequestration.

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012

The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012 (Pub.L. 112–74, H.R. 2055, 125 Stat. 785, enacted December 23, 2011) is an act passed by the 112th United States Congress.

Copyright bills in the 112th United States Congress

There were different but similar copyright bills in the 112th United States Congress: The Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) in the House of Representatives and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA) in the Senate. A typical route for legislation like this is to pass some version in both houses (so called companion bills), then refer the two bills to a conference committee, which would produce a single bill likely to pass both houses.

These bills were motivated by concerns of copyright holders that their copyright protection in being undermined by the illegal dissemination of copyrighted information via the Internet. Opponents of the proposed legislation say that the proposed remedies are far worse than the problem they are intended to solve.

Fracturing Responsibility and Awareness of Chemicals Act

The Fracturing Responsibility and Awareness of Chemicals Act (H.R. 1084, S. 587, dubbed as the FRAC Act) is a legislative proposal in the United States Congress to define hydraulic fracturing as a federally regulated activity under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The proposed act would require the energy industry to disclose the chemical additives used in the hydraulic fracturing fluid. The gas industry opposes the legislation.The bill was introduced to both houses of the 111th United States Congress on June 9, 2009. The House bill was introduced by representatives Diana DeGette, D-Colo., Maurice Hinchey D-N.Y., and Jared Polis, D-Colo. The Senate version was introduced by senators Bob Casey, D-Pa., and Chuck Schumer, D-N.Y. The bill was re-introduced to both houses of the 112th United States Congress on March 15, 2011, by representative Diana DeGette and senator Bob Casey.

List of United States senators in the 112th Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 112th United States Congress listed by seniority from January 3, 2011, to January 3, 2013. It is a historical listing and will contain people who have not served the entire two-year Congress should anyone resign, die, or be expelled.

Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a governor of a state. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.Senators who were sworn in during the middle of the two-year Congress (up until the last senator who was not sworn in early after winning the November 2012 election) are listed at the end of the list with no number.

In the 112th Congress, Tom Harkin is the most senior junior senator, and Jeanne Shaheen is the most junior senior senator.

List of acts of the 112th United States Congress

The acts of the 112th United States Congress includes all Acts of Congress and ratified treaties by the 112th United States Congress, which lasts from January 3, 2011 to January 3, 2013.

Acts include public and private laws, which are enacted after being passed by Congress and signed by the President, however if the President vetos a bill it can still be enacted by a two-thirds vote in both houses. The Senate alone considers treaties, which are ratified by a two-thirds vote.

The 112th Congress, due to its stark polarisation and divided nature of a Democratic Senate and Republican House, passed a record low number of acts; 283 to the 906 passed by the 80th United States Congress, which was historically known as the "Do-nothing Congress". It was the least productive Congress since records began.

List of freshman class members of the 112th United States Congress

The 112th United States Congress began January 3, 2011. There were 13 new senators (one Democrat, 12 Republicans) and 94 new representatives (nine Democrats, 85 Republicans) at the start of its first session.This freshmen was overwhelmingly Republican, resulting in an even larger prevalence of Republican freshmen than during the Republican Revolution of 1994, with approximately 23% of the 47 elected Republican senators and 33% of the 242 elected Republican representatives being first-timers.

No Taxpayer Funding for Abortion Act

The No Taxpayer Funding for Abortion Act (H.R. 3) is a bill that was introduced to the 112th Congress of the United States in the House of Representatives by Rep. Chris Smith (R-New Jersey) and Dan Lipinski (D-Illinois). The bill's stated purpose is "[t]o prohibit taxpayer funded abortions and to provide for conscience protections, and for other purposes." In large measure, it would render permanent the restrictions on federal funding of abortion in the United States laid out in the Hyde Amendment. The bill passed the House of Representatives on May 4, 2011 by a vote of 251-175. The House of Representatives passed similar legislation in 2014, 2015, and 2017.

Research Works Act

The Research Works Act, 102 H.R. 3699, was a bill that was introduced in the United States House of Representatives at the 112th United States Congress on December 16, 2011, by Representative Darrell Issa (R-CA) and co-sponsored by Carolyn B. Maloney (D-NY). The bill contained provisions to prohibit open-access mandates for federally funded research and effectively revert the United States' National Institutes of Health Public Access Policy, which requires taxpayer-funded research to be freely accessible online. If enacted, it would have also severely restricted the sharing of scientific data. The bill was referred to the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, of which Issa is the chair. Similar bills were introduced in 2008 and 2009 but have not been enacted since.On February 27, 2012 Elsevier, a major publisher, announced that it was withdrawing support for the Act. Later that day, Issa and Maloney issued a statement saying that they would not push for legislative action on the bill.

United States Congresses (and year convened)


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