Year 1126 (MCXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1126 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1126
Ab urbe condita1879
Armenian calendar575
Assyrian calendar5876
Balinese saka calendar1047–1048
Bengali calendar533
Berber calendar2076
English Regnal year26 Hen. 1 – 27 Hen. 1
Buddhist calendar1670
Burmese calendar488
Byzantine calendar6634–6635
Chinese calendar乙巳(Wood Snake)
3822 or 3762
    — to —
丙午年 (Fire Horse)
3823 or 3763
Coptic calendar842–843
Discordian calendar2292
Ethiopian calendar1118–1119
Hebrew calendar4886–4887
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1182–1183
 - Shaka Samvat1047–1048
 - Kali Yuga4226–4227
Holocene calendar11126
Igbo calendar126–127
Iranian calendar504–505
Islamic calendar519–520
Japanese calendarTenji 3 / Daiji 1
Javanese calendar1031–1032
Julian calendar1126
Korean calendar3459
Minguo calendar786 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−342
Seleucid era1437/1438 AG
Thai solar calendar1668–1669
Tibetan calendar阴木蛇年
(female Wood-Snake)
1252 or 871 or 99
    — to —
(male Fire-Horse)
1253 or 872 or 100


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  1. ^ Fletcher, R. A. (1987). "Reconquest and Crusade in Spain c. 1050-1150". Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. 5. 37: 31–47 [46]. JSTOR 3679149.
1120s in England

Events from the 1120s in England.

1126 in Ireland

Events from the year 1126 in Ireland.


Anvari (1126–1189), full name Awhad ad-Din 'Ali ibn Mohammad Khavarani or Awhad ad-Din 'Ali ibn Mahmud (Persian: اوحد الدین علی ابن محد انوری‎) was a Persian poet.

Anvarī was born in Abivard, Turkistan [now in Turkmenistan] and died in Balkh, Khorāsān [now in Afghanistan]. He studied science and literature at the collegiate institute in Toon (now Ferdows, Iran), becoming a famous astronomer as well as a poet.

Anvari's poems were collected in a Deewan, and contains panegyrics, eulogies, satire, and others. His elegy "Tears of Khorasan", translated into English in 1789, is considered to be one of the most beautiful poems in Persian literature. The Cambridge History of Iran calls Anvari "one of the greatest figures in Persian literature". Despite their beauty, his poems often required much help with interpretation, as they were often complex and difficult to understand.

Anvari's panegyric in honour of the Seljuk sultan Sultan Sanjar (1117–1157), ruler of Khorasan, won him royal favour, and allowed him to go on to enjoy the patronage of two of Sanjar's successors. However, when his prophecy of disasters in October 1185 failed, he fell out of favour with the kingship, and was forced into a life of scholarly service, eventually taking his own life in 1189.

Battle of Marj al-Saffar (1126)

The Battle of Marj al-Saffar was fought on January 25, 1126 between a Crusader army led by King Baldwin II of Jerusalem and the Seljuk Emirate of Damascus, which was ruled by Toghtekin. The Crusaders defeated the Muslim army in the field but failed in their objective to capture Damascus.


The bilateria , bilaterians, or triploblasts, are animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a head (anterior) and a tail (posterior) as well as a back (dorsal) and a belly (ventral); therefore they also have a left side and a right side.The bilateria are a major group of animals, including the majority of phyla but not sponges, ctenophores, placozoans, and cnidarians. For the most part, bilateral embryos are triploblastic, having three germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Nearly all are bilaterally symmetrical, or approximately so; the most notable exception is the echinoderms, which achieve near-radial symmetry as adults, but are bilaterally symmetrical as larvae.

Except for a few phyla (i.e. flatworms and gnathostomulids), bilaterians have complete digestive tracts with a separate mouth and anus. Some bilaterians lack body cavities (acoelomates, i.e. Platyhelminthes, Gastrotricha and Gnathostomulida), while others display primary body cavities (deriving from the blastocoel, as pseudocoeloms) or secondary cavities (that appear de novo, for example the coelom).

Composition of Mars

The composition of Mars covers the branch of the geology of Mars that describes the make-up of the planet Mars.

Daiji (era)

Daiji (大治) was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Tenji and before Tenshō. This period spanned the years from January 1126 through January 1131. The reigning emperor was Sutoku-tennō (崇徳天皇).

Ermengarde, Countess of Maine

Ermengarde or Erembourg of Maine, also known as Erembourg de la Flèche (died 1126), was Countess of Maine and the Lady of Château-du-Loir from 1110 to 1126. She was the daughter of Elias I, Count of Maine, and Mathilda of Château-du-Loire.

In 1109 she married the Angevin heir, Fulk V, called "Fulk the Younger", thereby finally bringing Maine under Angevin control. She gave birth to:

Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou (d. 1151)

Elias II, Count of Maine (d. 1151)

Matilda of Anjou (d. 1154), who married William Adelin, the son and heir to Henry I of England. After his death in the White Ship disaster of 1120, she became a nun and later Abbess of Fontevrault.

Sibylla of Anjou (d. 1165), married in 1121 to William Clito, and then (after an annulment in 1124) to Thierry, Count of FlandersShe died in 1126, on either 15 January or 12 October. After her death, Fulk the Younger left his lands to their son Geoffrey, and set out for the Holy Land, where he married Melisende, Queen of Jerusalem and became King of Jerusalem.

Eugene Merle Shoemaker

Eugene Merle Shoemaker (April 28, 1928 – July 18, 1997), also known as Gene Shoemaker, was an American geologist and one of the founders of the field of planetary science. He is best known for co-discovering the Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 with his wife Carolyn S. Shoemaker and David H. Levy. This comet hit Jupiter in July 1994: the impact was televised around the world.

Shoemaker was also well known for his studies of terrestrial craters, such as Barringer Meteor Crater in Arizona. Shoemaker was also the first director of the United States Geological Survey's Astrogeology Research Program.

Gao Qiu

Gao Qiu (died 1126) was a government official who lived during the Song dynasty of China and served in the court of Emperor Huizong. In the classical novel Water Margin, he is fictionalised as one of the primary antagonists and a nemesis of the protagonists, the 108 Stars of Destiny.


The LAV-25 (Light Armored Vehicle) is an eight-wheeled amphibious armored reconnaissance vehicle used by the United States Marine Corps, United States Army, and the Canadian Army. It was built by General Dynamics Land Systems Canada, developed from the Canadian built AVGP versions of the Swiss MOWAG Piranha 6x6 family of armored fighting vehicles.


Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury. In English, Mars carries a name of the Roman god of war, and is often referred to as the "Red Planet" because the reddish iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance that is distinctive among the astronomical bodies visible to the naked eye. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth.

The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars are likewise similar to those of Earth, as is the tilt that produces the seasons. Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano and second-highest known mountain in the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, one of the largest canyons in the Solar System. The smooth Borealis basin in the northern hemisphere covers 40% of the planet and may be a giant impact feature. Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos, which are small and irregularly shaped. These may be captured asteroids, similar to 5261 Eureka, a Mars trojan.

There are ongoing investigations assessing the past habitability potential of Mars, as well as the possibility of extant life. Future astrobiology missions are planned, including the Mars 2020 and ExoMars rovers. Liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressure, which is less than 1% of the Earth's, except at the lowest elevations for short periods. The two polar ice caps appear to be made largely of water. The volume of water ice in the south polar ice cap, if melted, would be sufficient to cover the entire planetary surface to a depth of 11 meters (36 ft). In November 2016, NASA reported finding a large amount of underground ice in the Utopia Planitia region of Mars. The volume of water detected has been estimated to be equivalent to the volume of water in Lake Superior.Mars can easily be seen from Earth with the naked eye, as can its reddish coloring. Its apparent magnitude reaches −2.94, which is surpassed only by Jupiter, Venus, the Moon, and the Sun. Optical ground-based telescopes are typically limited to resolving features about 300 kilometers (190 mi) across when Earth and Mars are closest because of Earth's atmosphere.

Milankovitch cycles

Milankovitch cycles describe the collective effects of changes in the Earth's movements on its climate over thousands of years. The term is named for Serbian geophysicist and astronomer Milutin Milanković. In the 1920s, he hypothesized that variations in eccentricity, axial tilt, and precession of the Earth's orbit resulted in cyclical variation in the solar radiation reaching the Earth, and that this orbital forcing strongly influenced climatic patterns on Earth.

Similar astronomical hypotheses had been advanced in the 19th century by Joseph Adhemar, James Croll and others, but verification was difficult because there was no reliably dated evidence, and because it was unclear which periods were important.

Now, materials on Earth that have been unchanged for millennia (obtained via ice, rock, and deep ocean cores) are being studied to indicate the history of Earth's climate. Though they are consistent with the Milankovitch hypothesis, there are still several observations that the hypothesis does not explain.

Pioneer Venus Multiprobe

The Pioneer Venus Multiprobe, also known as Pioneer Venus 2 or Pioneer 13 was a spacecraft launched in 1978 to explore Venus as part of NASA's Pioneer program. This part of the mission included a spacecraft Bus which was launched from Earth carrying one large and three smaller probes, which after separating penetrated the Venusian atmosphere at a different location, returning data as they descended into the planet's thick atmosphere. The entry occurred on December 9, 1978.

Pioneer Venus Orbiter

The Pioneer Venus Orbiter, also known as Pioneer Venus 1 or Pioneer 12, was a mission to Venus conducted by the United States as part of the Pioneer Venus project. Launched in May 1978 atop an Atlas-Centaur rocket, the spacecraft was inserted into an elliptical orbit around Venus on December 4, 1978. It returned data on Venus until October 1992.

Tenji (era)

Tenji (天治) was a Japanese era name (年号,, nengō,, lit. "year name") after Hōan and before Daiji. This period spanned the years from April 1124 through January 1126. The reigning emperor was Sutoku-tennō (崇徳天皇).

USS Snohomish County (LST-1126)

USS Snohomish County (LST-1126) was an LST-542-class tank landing ship built for the United States Navy during World War II. Named after Snohomish County, Washington, she was the only U.S. naval vessel to bear the name.

LST-1126 was laid down on 16 November 1944 at Seneca, Illinois by the Chicago Bridge & Iron Company; launched on 9 February 1945; and commissioned on 28 February 1945 with Lieutenant F. C. Helm, USNR, in command.

Urraca of León

Urraca (April 1079 – 8 March 1126) called the Reckless (la Temeraria), was Queen of León, Castile, and Galicia from 1109 until her death in childbirth. She claimed the imperial title as suo jure Empress of All the Spains and Empress of All Galicia.

Vikramaditya VI

Vikramaditya VI (r. 1076 – 1126 CE) became the Western Chalukya King after deposing his elder brother Someshvara II, a political move he made by gaining the support of Chalukya vassals during the Chola invasion of Chalukya territory. Vikramaditya's reign is marked with the abolishment of the Saka era and the start of the Chalukya-Vikrama era. He was the greatest of the Western Chalukya kings and had the longest reign in the dynasty. He earned the title Permadideva and Tribhuvanamalla (lit "lord of three worlds"). He had several queens who ably assisted him in administration. One of his queens, Chandala Devi, a princess from the Shilahara ruling family of Karad was called Abhinava Saraswati for her skills as an artist. Queen Kethala Devi administered the Siruguppa region and Savala Devi was in charge of an Agrahara in Naregal. According to the historian Kamath, Vikramaditya VI was a "great king who ruled over South India" and he finds a "pride of place in Karnataka history". More inscriptions in Kannada are attributed to Vikramaditya VI than any other king prior to the Vijayanagara era.Vikramaditya VI is noted for his patronage of art and letters. His court was adorned with famous Kannada and Sanskrit poets. In Kannada, his brother prince Kirtivarma wrote Govaidya on veterinary science and the poet Brahmashiva wrote Samayaparikshe ("Analysis of the doctrine", c. 1125) and received the title Kavi Chakravarti (lit, "Emperor among poets") Noted Sanskrit scholars such as Bilhana who earned the title Vidyapati ("pundit") came to his court from faraway Kashmir and wrote a panegyric on the life of his patron king in Vikramankadevacharita. The poet compared his rule to Ramarajya ("Rama's Kingdom"). Vijnaneshwara the noted jurist in his court wrote Mitakshara, a commentary on Yagnavalkya Smriti (on Hindu family law). Of the king he wrote "A King like Vikramarka is neither to be seen nor heard of". Vikramaditya VI is known to be a Shaiva by faith. His rule saw prolific temple building activity. Notable constructions include the Mallikarjuna temple, the Mahadeva temple the Kaitabheshvara temple and the Kalleshvara temple. According to historian Sen, the 50-year reign of Vikramaditya VI was overall a peaceful and prosperous one. Sen estimates at his peak Vikramaditya VI controlled a vast empire stretching from the Tumkur district and Cuddapah in the south to the Narmada river in the north, and up to the Khammam district and the Godavari district in the east and south-east.

Water on Mars

Almost all water on Mars today exists as ice, though it also exists in small quantities as vapor in the atmosphere, and occasionally as low-volume liquid brines in shallow Martian soil. The only place where water ice is visible at the surface is at the north polar ice cap. Abundant water ice is also present beneath the permanent carbon dioxide ice cap at the Martian south pole and in the shallow subsurface at more temperate conditions. More than 21 million km3 of ice have been detected at or near the surface of Mars, enough to cover the whole planet to a depth of 35 meters (115 ft). Even more ice is likely to be locked away in the deep subsurface.Some liquid water may occur transiently on the Martian surface today, but limited to traces of dissolved moisture from the atmosphere and thin films, which are challenging environments for known life. No large standing bodies of liquid water exist on the planet's surface, because the atmospheric pressure there averages just 600 pascals (0.087 psi), a figure slightly below the vapor pressure of water at its melting point; under average Martian conditions, pure water on the Martian surface would freeze or, if heated to above the melting point, would sublime to vapor. Before about 3.8 billion years ago, Mars may have had a denser atmosphere and higher surface temperatures, allowing vast amounts of liquid water on the surface, possibly including a large ocean that may have covered one-third of the planet. Water has also apparently flowed across the surface for short periods at various intervals more recently in Mars' history. On December 9, 2013, NASA reported that, based on evidence from the Curiosity rover studying Aeolis Palus, Gale Crater contained an ancient freshwater lake that could have been a hospitable environment for microbial life.Many lines of evidence indicate that water ice is abundant on Mars and it has played a significant role in the planet's geologic history. The present-day inventory of water on Mars can be estimated from spacecraft imagery, remote sensing techniques (spectroscopic measurements, radar, etc.), and surface investigations from landers and rovers. Geologic evidence of past water includes enormous outflow channels carved by floods, ancient river valley networks, deltas, and lakebeds; and the detection of rocks and minerals on the surface that could only have formed in liquid water. Numerous geomorphic features suggest the presence of ground ice (permafrost) and the movement of ice in glaciers, both in the recent past and present. Gullies and slope lineae along cliffs and crater walls suggest that flowing water continues to shape the surface of Mars, although to a far lesser degree than in the ancient past.

Although the surface of Mars was periodically wet and could have been hospitable to microbial life billions of years ago, the current environment at the surface is dry and subfreezing, probably presenting an insurmountable obstacle for living organisms. In addition, Mars lacks a thick atmosphere, ozone layer, and magnetic field, allowing solar and cosmic radiation to strike the surface unimpeded. The damaging effects of ionizing radiation on cellular structure is another one of the prime limiting factors on the survival of life on the surface. Therefore, the best potential locations for discovering life on Mars may be in subsurface environments. On November 22, 2016, NASA reported finding a large amount of underground ice on Mars; the volume of water detected is equivalent to the volume of water in Lake Superior. In July 2018, Italian scientists reported the discovery of a subglacial lake on Mars, 1.5 km (0.93 mi) below the southern polar ice cap, and extending sideways about 20 km (12 mi), the first known stable body of water on the planet.Understanding the extent and situation of water on Mars is vital to assess the planet’s potential for harboring life and for providing usable resources for future human exploration. For this reason, "Follow the Water" was the science theme of NASA's Mars Exploration Program (MEP) in the first decade of the 21st century. Discoveries by the 2001 Mars Odyssey, Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs), Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and Mars Phoenix lander have been instrumental in answering key questions about water's abundance and distribution on Mars. The ESA's Mars Express orbiter has also provided essential data in this quest. The Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, MRO, and Mars Science Lander Curiosity rover are still sending back data from Mars, and discoveries continue to be made.

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