111 Eighth Avenue

111 Eighth Avenue is a full-block Art Deco multi-use building located between Eighth and Ninth Avenues, and 15th and 16th Streets in the Chelsea neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City.

At 2.9 million square feet (270,000 m2), it is the city's fourth largest building in terms of floor area as of 2014. It was the largest building until 1963 when the 3.14-million-square-foot (292,000 m2) MetLife Building opened. The World Trade Center (which opened in 1970–71) and 55 Water Street 3.5 million square feet (330,000 m2), which opened in 1972, were also larger but the World Trade Center was destroyed in 2001. When the 3.5-million-square-foot (330,000 m2) One World Trade Center opened in 2014, 111 became the city's fourth largest building.

The building, which has been owned by Google since 2010, is one of the largest technology-owned office buildings in the world. It is also larger than Apple Park, Apple's 2.8 million square feet (260,000 m2) headquarters in Cupertino, California.

111 Eighth Avenue
Inland Terminal 1 Eighth Avenue
Eighth Avenue facade of 111 Eighth Avenue (2011)
Former names
  • Union Inland Terminal #1
  • Commerce Building
General information
Architectural styleArt Deco
LocationChelsea, Manhattan
Address111 Eighth Avenue
Town or cityNew York City, New York
CountryUnited States
Coordinates40°44′29″N 74°0′11″W / 40.74139°N 74.00306°WCoordinates: 40°44′29″N 74°0′11″W / 40.74139°N 74.00306°W
Current tenantsGoogle, Cornell Tech
Technical details
Floor count18[1]
Floor area2,900,000 square feet (270,000 m2)
Design and construction
ArchitectLusby Simpson[1]
Architecture firmAbbott, Merkt & Co.[1]

Port Authority Commerce Building/Union Inland Terminal #1

The building was designed by Lusby Simpson of Abbott, Merkt & Co. and completed in 1932.[1][2][2] The building had a multipurpose design when it opened in 1932 with the first floor and basement designated as "Union Inland Terminal #1" which was to be used to transport goods by truck to and from railroad lines and/or shipping piers. The second floor was the Commerce section designed for exhibitions and the upper floors were designed for manufacturing.[3][4] The Union Inland Terminal was built by the Port Authority to be a warehouse/union station to handle less than carload (LCL) shipments, consolidating the shipping functions of the Hudson River piers two blocks west of the building, the eight trunk railroads that operated a block west of the building and truck operations (an inland terminal by definition is a warehouse that is not immediately next to railroad lines/piers but is nearby and is used to relieve congestion at the transfer points).[3][4]

At its peak in the 1930s the Port Authority said it was handling more than half of the LCL freight operations south of 59th Street in Manhattan with more than 8,000 tons of goods passing through it each month. On one day alone in 1937 it was reported that 650 trucks had used the facility.[3][4] The railroads involved were the Pennsylvania Railroad; Lehigh Valley Railroad; Baltimore & Ohio; Erie Railroad; Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad; Central Railroad of New Jersey; New York Central Railroad; New York, New Haven & Hartford.[3][4] The building included four freight elevators that could carry fully loaded 20 ton trucks.[3][4] Because of the warehouse mission of the building it was able to avoid some of the setback rules that greatly reduced the buildable space available for the skyscrapers that mark the Manhattan skyline. As a result, the 15-story building with its football field size floors has more available rentable square footage than the 102-story Empire State Building which has 2.2 million square feet.[3][4] The construction occurred at a time of a massive projects built to deal with what at the time was street level freight railroad traffic on Manhattan's west side. Other projects in the neighborhood in the era included construction of the High Line and Starrett-Lehigh Building.

Port Authority Building

The initial plan had called for more inland freight operations to be erected in Manhattan. However the freight transportation changed and freight railroads played a dwindling importance in Manhattan. By 1947 its initial mission was pretty much abandoned and it became the Port Authority Building which remained the Port Authority's headquarters until the opening of the World Trade Center in 1970.[3][4]

Transition to the digital age

The massive building served a dwindling warehouse/backoffice outpost until 1998 when Taconic Investment Partners acquired it.[5]

Taconic began marketing it as a location to be used as a carrier hotel for the new booming internet business. This was coupled with the fashionable rise of the Chelsea neighborhood that surrounded it.[4]


111 Eighth Avenue
The Ninth Avenue façade featuring the Google corporate logo

In 2010, Google, which had previously leased space in the building,[6] contracted to purchase the entire 2,900,000-square-foot (270,000 m2) building, in a deal reported to be worth around $1.9 billion.[7][8]

The building's meet-me room in its carrier hotel was once the biggest in the city (the other big meet-me room is at 60 Hudson Street).[9]

111 8th Avenue is adjacent to trunk dark fiber lines stretching from Hudson Street and continuing up Ninth Avenue.[9] That line at the time was owned by Lexent Metro Connect. There was speculation at the time of the acquisition that Google would use its strategic location to launch a Google Fiber operation in New York City. The Google Fiber plan never came to pass and Google has denied it has any plans to bring it to New York City anytime in the near future, although in 2013 it did begin offering free Wi-Fi to its Chelsea neighbors. The Lexent dark fiber line has been acquired by Lightower Fiber Networks.[10]

In 2013 the first class of the newly created Cornell NYC Tech school began classes in the building, in space donated by Google. Classes continued in the building until the school moved to its new location on Roosevelt Island in 2017.[11] Despite the massive size of the acquisition, Google has still found itself having to rent space elsewhere because it has been unable to break the leases with some of its tenants, including Nike, Deutsch Inc., and Bank of New York.[12] After years of renting additional space across the street in the Chelsea Market, Google purchased that building in 2018.[13]

Notable tenants

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e Gustin, Sam (December 22, 2010). "Google Buys Giant New York Building for 1.9 Billion". Epicenter (blog of Wired). Retrieved May 2, 2012.
  2. ^ a b White, Norval & Willensky, Elliot (2000), AIA Guide to New York City (4th ed.), New York: Three Rivers Press, ISBN 978-0-8129-3107-5, p. 183.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Railroad Operated Pier Stations & Inland Freight Stations of Manhattan". Members.trainweb.com. Retrieved May 24, 2013.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "NYC Commercial Real Estate - Page 73". Wirednewyork.com. Retrieved May 24, 2013.
  5. ^ Holusha, John (October 24, 1999). "Commercial Property /111 Eighth Avenue; Developers Taking a Manhattan Formula to Chicago". The New York Times. Retrieved May 24, 2013.
  6. ^ Miller, Rich (January 19, 2010). "Google Leases More Space at 111 Eighth Ave". datacenterknowledge.com. Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved December 3, 2010.
  7. ^ Miller, Rich (December 3, 2010). "WSJ: Google Is Buying 111 8th Avenue". datacenterknowledge.com. Archived from the original on December 30, 2010. Retrieved December 3, 2010.
  8. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (December 2, 2010). "Google Signs Deal To Buy Manhattan Office Building". The New York Times. Retrieved December 3, 2010.
  9. ^ a b Optical Networks/WDM - Hui Pan, Editor - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
  10. ^ Alex Fitzpatrick (January 8, 2013). "Google Rolls Out Biggest Free Wi-Fi Network in New York City". Mashable.com. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
  11. ^ "Cornell Tech Campus Opens on Roosevelt Island" (Sept 12, 2017)
  12. ^ Geiger, Daniel. "Nike to Google: Just Drop Dead". The Commercial Observer. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
  13. ^ "Furthering our New York investment" (March 20, 2018)
  14. ^ "Cornell's NYC tech campus finds temporary home at Google". Cornell Chronicle. Cornell University.

External links

55 Water Street

55 Water Street is a 687-foot-tall (209 m) skyscraper in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City, on the East River. The 53-story, 3.5-million-square-foot (325,000 m2) structure was completed in 1972. Emery Roth & Sons designed the building, which is tied with 277 Park Avenue as the 69th-tallest building in New York City. When it was completed it was the largest office building in the world, and is still the largest in New York by floor area. In an arrangement with the Office of Lower Manhattan Development, it was built on a superblock created from four adjoining city blocks, suppressing the western part of Front Street.

Its closest competitors in square footage are the Met Life Building at 3,140,000 square feet (292,000 m2) and 111 Eighth Avenue at 2,900,000 square feet (270,000 m2). One World Trade Center has roughly the same square footage (3.5 million square feet). The now-destroyed World Trade Center was bigger when it opened in 1973.

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Android "Q" is the upcoming tenth major release and the 17th version of the Android mobile operating system. The first beta of Android Q was released on March 13, 2019 for all Google Pixel phones. The final release of Android Q is scheduled to be released in the third quarter of 2019.


BigQuery is a RESTful web service that enables interactive analysis of massively large datasets working in conjunction with Google Storage. It is a serverless Platform as a Service (PaaS) that may be used complementarily with MapReduce.

Chelsea Market

Chelsea Market is a food hall, shopping mall, office building and television production facility located in the Chelsea neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan, in New York City. It was built in the former National Biscuit Company (Nabisco) factory complex where the Oreo cookie was invented and produced.


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Commerce Building

Commerce Building may refer to:

Commerce Building (St. Paul, Minnesota), listed on the NRHP in Minnesota

Commerce Building (Everett, Washington), listed on the NRHP in Washington

Commerce Building, Washington, D.C., the Herbert C. Hoover Building, site of the National Aquarium

Commerce Building/Hancock Building, Miami, OK, listed on the NRHP in OK

Commerce Building, the former headquarters of the Port Authority of New York and New Jerser, formerly known as Union Inland Terminal #1 and now as 111 Eighth Avenue

Cornell Tech

Cornell Tech is a technology, business, law, and design campus located on Roosevelt Island in Manhattan, New York City. It is anchored by the Jacobs Technion-Cornell Institute, a joint academic venture between Cornell University and the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology.

Cornell Tech arose from an economic development initiative of Michael Bloomberg's mayoral administration in 2008. The initiative sought to attract another engineering school to the city in the hope that it would produce entrepreneurial engineers who would in turn start job-creating companies. Seven bids were submitted for the competition, with the administration ultimately selecting Cornell/Technion's bid. As proposed, Cornell Tech would create 28,000 jobs, including 8,000 for academic staff. It would also be able to create 600 companies, leading to $23 billion in economic benefits and an additional $1.4 billion in taxes, during its first three decades of operation.

Cornell Tech began operations in 2012 at a temporary site, the New York City offices of Google at 111 Eighth Avenue in the Chelsea neighborhood of Manhattan, while a permanent campus was under construction. The Roosevelt Island campus's 5-acre (2.0 ha) first phase opened on September 13, 2017. By 2037, the full campus is expected to span 12 acres (4.9 ha).

G Suite Marketplace

G Suite Marketplace (formerly Google Apps Marketplace) is a product of Google Inc. It is an online store for web applications that work with Google Apps (Gmail, Google Docs, Google Sites, Google Calendar, Google Contacts, etc.) and with third party software. Some Apps are free. Apps are based on Google APIs or on Google Apps Script.


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Google Behind the Screen

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Google Dataset Search

Google Dataset Search is a search engine from Google that helps researchers locate online data that is freely available for use. The company launched the service on September 5, 2018, and stated that the product was targeted at scientists and data journalists.

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Google Finance

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Google Fit

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Google Forms

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Forms features all of the collaboration and sharing features found in Docs, Sheets, and Slides.

Google Guice

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Guice allows implementation classes to be bound programmatically to an interface, then injected into constructors, methods or fields using an @Inject annotation. When more than one implementation of the same interface is needed, the user can create custom annotations that identify an implementation, then use that annotation when injecting it.

Being the first generic framework for dependency injection using Java annotations in 2008, Guice won the 18th Jolt Award for best Library, Framework, or Component.

Google The Thinking Factory

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The Googleplex is the corporate headquarters complex of Google and its parent company Alphabet Inc. It is located at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California, United States, near San Jose.

The original complex, with 2,000,000 square feet (190,000 m2) of office space, is the company's second largest square footage assemblage of Google buildings, after Google's 111 Eighth Avenue building in New York City, which the company bought in 2010. Once the 1,100,000-square-foot (100,000 m2) Bay View addition was completed in 2015, the Googleplex became the largest collection of Google buildings with 3,100,000 square feet (290,000 m2) of space."Googleplex" is a portmanteau of Google and complex (meaning a complex of buildings) and a reference to googolplex, the name given to the large number 10(10100), or 10googol.

Lexent Metro Connect

Lexent Metro Connect was a New York City based neutral telecommunications provider that owned, operated, built and maintained its own dark fiber network in New York, Northern New Jersey, and surrounding areas. Based in New York City, Lexent provided services in the boroughs of Manhattan, the Bronx, Queens, and Brooklyn, as well as in Northern New Jersey. It had 150 fiber route miles and served over 200 commercial buildings.The company was acquired by Lightower Fiber Networks in 2010.Lexent constructed and leased dark fiber networks for carriers, wireless service providers, service providers, financial and enterprise customers. Lexent also provided engineering and project management support to carriers looking to build telecommunications networks in New York as well as consultation on fiber networks in various metropolitan areas around the United States.

Lexent's dark fiber network provided connectivity between regional carrier hotels, central offices, and Enterprise Buildings. The network included four river crossings over the Hudson River, Harlem River and East River, and spanned over 100 route miles of metro fiber.

Taconic Investment Partners

Taconic Investment Partners is a real estate developer in New York City. They have been involved in projects such as Essex Crossing, American Bank Note Company Printing Plant, 111 Eighth Avenue (where they have their offices) and Coney Island.

Taconic was formed in 1998 by Charles R. Bendit and Paul E. Pariser. 111 Eighth Avenue was one of their first investments The firm became well known when they sold the building to Google for $2 billion in 2010.

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