110 film

110 is a cartridge-based film format used in still photography. It was introduced by Kodak in 1972. 110 is essentially a miniaturised version of Kodak's earlier 126 film format. Each frame is 13 mm × 17 mm (0.51 in × 0.67 in), with one registration hole. There were 24 frames per cartridge that occasionally enabled the user to capture an extra image due to production variations.

The film is fully housed in a plastic cartridge, which also registers the image when the film is advanced. There is a continuous backing paper, and the frame number and film type are visible through a window at the rear of the cartridge. The film does not need to be rewound and is very simple to load and unload. It is pre-exposed with frame lines and numbers, a feature intended to make it easier and more efficient for photofinishers to print.

Unlike later competing formats, such as disc and APS film, processed 110 negatives are returned in strips, without the original cartridge.

Disc-110-135 Film Comparison
Comparison of Disc, 100, and 135 image size.
Pocketfilm
110 film cartridge (shown from front and from rear.)

History

The 110 cartridge was introduced by Kodak in 1972 with Kodak Pocket Instamatic cameras with Kodachrome-X, Ektachrome-X, Kodacolor II, and Verichrome Pan film.[1] The new pocket-sized cameras became immediately popular, and soon displaced competing subminiature cameras, such as the Minolta 16 series, from the market. The 110 film width is 16 mm. A four frame strip measures 111 mm.

The 16 mm film width allowed Kodachrome film in 110 size to be processed on the existing processing machines that processed movie films in the Standard 8 mm film and 16 mm film sizes.

Fujifilm stopped manufacturing 110 format film in September 2009.[2] Lomography re-commenced 110 film production in 2011.[3] and currently offers 110 Black and White(Orca), Colour negative(Tiger), Color slide film(Peacock) and a red-scale color negative film(Lobster.)[4]

Estes Industries has long marketed several model rockets, the most notable being the Astrocam, with a simple 110 camera in the nose; the shutter is triggered when the nose cone separates from the rocket body.

Design and technical issues

110-film-negative
Negative strip of 110 film (with pencil for scale). The strip shown measures 111 mm × 16 mm (4.37 in × 0.63 in)
110 film cartridge with speed tab modification
A 110 cartridge of ISO 400 film. The arrow indicates the modification made so that sophisticated cameras detect the proper film speed
110 format negative closeup of frame Ericht at Blairgowrie
Closeup of part of a 110 negative seen through a film scanner.

Although the format is most closely associated with cheaply produced, low-cost cameras, Canon, Minolta, Minox, Pentax, Rollei, Voigtländer, and others, as well as Kodak, offered sophisticated, expensive 110 cameras, with excellent multi-element focusing lenses and precise, electronically controlled exposure systems. Such cameras are capable of making high-quality images on 110 film. Some of these cameras are quite small and still hold appeal to subminiature-photography enthusiasts.

The small negative size of 110 film makes it difficult to enlarge successfully. For these reasons, the 110 format is associated with prints that are often rather grainy and unsharp. This has led to the misconception that the cartridge itself is incapable of holding film flat enough for making high-quality negatives.

The 110 cartridge, as specified by Kodak, has a plastic tab on one end. Camera designers had the option of using this tab to sense film speed, enabling sophisticated cameras to switch between high- and low-speed film. A short tab indicated high-speed film, and a long tab indicated low-speed film. Kodak left it to the film manufacturer to decide which film speeds were high or low. Only a few cameras took advantage of this feature: Rollei A110, Canon 110 ED 20, Minolta 110 Zoom SLR Mark I/II, Minox 110S, Voigtlander Vitoret 110 EL, Pentax Auto 110.

Some manufacturers would vary the low speed ASA setting and then change it in later models. For example, Minox 110S low speed was 64 ASA (Kodachrome then being made for 110) and high 400 ASA: but Canon 110 ED has 80 ASA only, with the 110 ED 20 having 80 and 400 ASA. [5]

The last 110 film that Kodak produced was ISO 400 speed packed in a cartridge that senses as "low" speed.[6] As shown in the photograph to the right, these cartridges can be modified by hand so that they signal the proper speed to the camera.

Film types

110 film small-format slides, with box, plastic holder, slide adapter and pocket viewer
Three mini slides from 110 film, along with the box they came in from the lab, the plastic slide holder that was inside the box, a standard-format slide adapter, and a battery-powered pocket slide viewer for the mini slides.
110 film negative strip
Negative strip

Although the format is commonly associated with print film, Kodak also produced Kodachrome 64 slide film in 110 cartridges until 1982.[7][8] In 2012 Lomography re-introduced slide film for 110 with their Peacock 200 ASA model.[3] However, since not all 110 cameras have a settable ASA dial (low or high, depending on presence of a notch in the cassette), a ND filter has to be used over the lens or the exposure compensation dial has to be used where available. Otherwise, over-exposure by a factor of x2 will result, leading to over-exposed images.

Along with standard-sized slides that fit into standard projectors, 110 slide film could also be processed into smaller format slides. The latter requires special Pocket Carousel projectors.[7] or the Leica 110 projector. The sub-miniature slides are mounted in small mounts, or for Kodachrome mounted in 35mm-sized mounts with a 110 frame. There are also mount adapters available that allow the small mounts to be projected in a common 35mm projector. These adapters were not entirely satisfactory however, as to project the smaller slide at a size comparable to that from 35mm the projector had to be moved further from the screen, resulting in a dimmer image. Dedicated 110 projectors overcame this by using a brighter lamp.

Kodak's Verichrome Pan was the only 110 black and white film produced until 2012, when Lomography manufactured their new Black and White Orca film at 100 ISO speed. This speed is supported by most 110 cameras. As of 2017, this film is still in production.[9]

See also

References

  1. International standard: ISO 13450
  1. ^ Magazines, Hearst (1 June 1972). "Popular Mechanics". Hearst Magazines. Retrieved 18 May 2018 – via Google Books.
  2. ^ "Sayonara 110 – Fujifilm discontinues 110 colour negative film". Archived from the original on 2009-10-07. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
  3. ^ a b "110 Film – Lomography Shop". Archived from the original on 2013-07-03. Retrieved 2013-06-30.
  4. ^ "110 Film". Shop.lomography.com. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  5. ^ Instructional Manuals: Canon 110 and Minox 110S
  6. ^ "110 Pocket Instamatic film in the Frugal Photographer catalog". Frugalphotographer.store. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  7. ^ a b Marcus, Ted R., APS, 110, "Disc," and Formats du Jour, Ted Marcus' Virtual Light Table. Article copyright date 2006, retrieved 2006-11-09.
  8. ^ Marcus, Ted R., Europe Through the Front Door, Ted Marcus' Virtual Light Table. Article copyright date 2004, retrieved 2006-11-09.
  9. ^ "Lomography – The Home Of Creative Analogue Photography & Cameras". Archived from the original on 2013-07-03. Retrieved 2013-06-30.

External links

110 (number)

110 (one hundred [and] ten) is the natural number following 109 and preceding 111.

127 film

127 was a roll film format for still photography introduced by Kodak in 1912.

The film itself is 46 mm wide, placing it between 35 mm and 120 "medium format" films in terms of size. The image format normally used is a square 4 cm × 4 cm. However, rectangular 4 cm × 3 cm and 4 cm × 6 cm are also standard.

127 enjoyed mainstream popularity until its usage began to decline from the 1960s onwards in the face of newer, cartridge-based films. However, as of 2017 it survives as a niche format and is still in production.

Astrocam

The Astrocam 110 (or Astrocam) is a model rocket with a built-in camera for taking aerial photographs.

The Astrocam was introduced in the 1979 Catalog by its manufacturer Estes and it can be flown with B6-4 and C6-7 model rocket motors (see Model rocket motor classification). The Astrocam was available as kit, or as ready-to-fly model. Both versions use the Estes Delta II launch body. The camera uses 110 film and is mounted in the nose cone of the rocket with the aperture perpendicular to the main axis of the rocket. A mirror held in a hood is used like a periscope to enable the camera to look forward. The camera needs to be manually advanced and "cocked" by pulling a string attached to spring-loaded shutter taut. When the nose cone is placed on the rocket body, the string is placed between the nose cone and the body so that when the ejection charge of the engine expels the nose cone, the string is released causing one frame of film to be exposed. Since the rocket is not steerable, the photographer can not determine what the camera will photograph.

Stock models of the Astrocam were intended to take their photographs after the rocket had begun to descend after reaching apogee. However, in the Winter 1993 issue of the Estes Educator News magazine, two sets of instructions (Lookdown Astrocam, and the Lookdown Astrocam MK11) were included describing how the camera could be converted to look back down the length of the rocket before reaching apogee, or upon a staging event. Estes catalogs showed some of the photographs from these modified rockets, but never produced a version designed to look down, or be capable of being switched at will.

A version of the Astrocam called the Astrocam 110 is also available, and the Estes Snapshot is very similar as well. [1] A modern version of the Astrocam is the Oracle, which shoots video. A newer video version, called the Astrovision, is also available.

Box camera

A box camera is a simple type of camera, the most common form being a cardboard or plastic box with a lens in one end and film at the other. They were very popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The lenses are often single element designs meniscus fixed focus lens, or in better quality box cameras a doublet lens with minimal (if any) possible adjustments to the aperture or shutter speeds. Because of the inability to adjust focus, the small lens aperture and the low sensitivity of the sensitive materials available, these cameras work best in brightly lit day-lit scenes when the subject is within the hyperfocal distance for the lens and of subjects that move little during the exposure. Eventually, box cameras with photographic flash, shutter and aperture adjustment were introduced, allowing indoor photos.

C-22 process

Introduced by Kodak in the 1950s, C-22 is an obsolete process for developing colour film, superseded by the C-41 process in 1972 for the launch of 110 film and in 1973 for all other formats.

The development of the film material is carried out at temperatures of around 75°F (24°C), making the process incompatible with the more modern C-41 process, which uses a temperature of 100°F (38°C).

The most common film requiring this process is Kodacolor-X.

David E. Stone

David E. Stone (born December 11, 1947) is an American sound editor. He won an Academy Award for the film Bram Stoker's Dracula for Best Sound Editing during the 65th Academy Awards, he shared his Oscar with Tom C. McCarthy.He has over 110 film credits from 1975 to 2004. Including many direct to video animated films in the 1990s, as well as animated specials in the 1970s and the 1980s.

Film format

A film format is a technical definition of a set of standard characteristics regarding image capture on photographic film, for either stills or filmmaking. It can also apply to projected film, either slides or movies. The primary characteristic of a film format is its size and shape.

In the case of motion picture film, the format may also include audio parameters (though often not). Other characteristics usually include the film gauge, pulldown method, lens anamorphosis (or lack thereof), and film gate or projector aperture dimensions, all of which need to be defined for photography as well as projection, as they may differ.

François Périer

François Périer, (10 November 1919 – 29 June 2002), born François Pillu in Paris, was a French actor.

He made over 110 film and TV appearances between 1938 and 1996. He was also prominent in the theatre. Among his most notable parts was that of Hugo in the first production of Jean-Paul Sartre's Les Mains Sales in 1948. He was the narrator of the French-language version of Fantasia.

Instamatic

For the film formats associated with the Instamatic and Pocket Instamatic camera ranges, see 126 film and 110 film respectively.

The Instamatic is a series of inexpensive, easy-to-load 126 and 110 cameras made by Kodak beginning in 1963. The Instamatic was immensely successful, introducing a generation to low-cost photography and spawning numerous imitators.

During its heyday, the range was so ubiquitous that the Instamatic name is still frequently used (erroneously) to refer to any inexpensive point-and-shoot camera. (It is also frequently used incorrectly to describe Kodak's line of instant-picture cameras, the Kodamatic series.)

The Instamatic name was also used by Kodak on some Super 8-based home-cine cameras.

Kodacolor (still photography)

For other uses of the "Kodacolor" brand, see Kodacolor (disambiguation).

In still photography, Kodak's Kodacolor brand has been associated with various color negative films (i.e., films that produce negatives for making color prints on paper) since 1942. Kodak claims that Kodacolor was "the world's first true color negative film". More accurately, it was the first color negative film intended for making paper prints: in 1939, Agfa had introduced a 35 mm Agfacolor negative film for use by the German motion picture industry, in which the negative was used only for making positive projection prints on 35 mm film. There have been several varieties of Kodacolor negative film, including Kodacolor-X, Kodacolor VR and Kodacolor Gold.

The name "Kodacolor" was originally used for a very different lenticular color home movie system, introduced in 1928 and retired after Kodachrome film made it obsolete in 1935.

Lens mount

A lens mount is an interface – mechanical and often also electrical – between a photographic camera body and a lens. It is confined to cameras where the body allows interchangeable lenses, most usually the rangefinder camera, single lens reflex type or any movie camera of 16 mm or higher gauge. Lens mounts are also used to connect optical components in instrumentation that may not involve a camera, such as the modular components used in optical laboratory prototyping which join via C-mount or T-mount elements.

List of Minolta products

List of products manufactured by electronics company Minolta.

List of Pentax products

The following is a partial list of products manufactured under the Pentax brand.

Lomography

Lomography is a commercial trademark of Lomographische AG, which their creators associate to a photographic image style and a film camera movement and community facilitated by The Lomographic Society International.

The Lomographic Society International was founded in 1992 by a group of Viennese students after they discovered the LCA, a camera created by LOMO PLC of Saint Petersburg, Russia. Lomography started as an art movement through which the students put on exhibitions of photos within Vienna; the art movement then developed into a commercial enterprise. Since 1995, Lomography has been the sole distributor of the LC-A camera outside the former Soviet Union, and has moved into producing their own range of analog cameras, films and accessories.

Matthias Habich

Matthias Habich (born 12 January 1940) is a German actor who appeared in more than 110 film and television productions since 1965.

Habich was born in Danzig (present-day Gdańsk) and lives in Paris. In the 2001 film Enemy at the Gates about Stalingrad, he played the part of General (later Field Marshal) Friedrich Paulus. In the 2004 film Downfall, he portrayed Werner Haase.

Minolta 110 Zoom SLR

The Minolta 110 Zoom SLR is a 110 format single-lens reflex (SLR) camera produced by Minolta of Japan between 1976 and 1979. It was the first SLR in 110 format. It had an unusual, flattened shape. Other 110 SLRs were shaped like SLRs in larger formats, but the 110 Zoom SLR took the flat format of the typical 110 pocket camera and added a larger lens and prism hump to it. 1979's replacement, the Minolta 110 Zoom SLR Mark II, had a more conventional shape.

The 110 Zoom SLR provided aperture priority autoexposure; fully manual exposure was not available. Light metering was with a CdS meter mounted on the front of the camera. An exposure compensation dial allowed the photographer to compensate for unusual lighting situations; it also allowed the use of film speeds other than the ISO 100 and 400 auto-selected by the cartridge tab, by applying the appropriate compensation factor.

The lens was a fixed 25–50 mm f/4.5-16 manual focus zoom with macro focusing down to 11 in (280 mm). This gave a field of view range approximately equivalent to a 50–100 mm zoom lens on a 35 mm format camera. There was a built-in, pop out lens shade. The filter thread diameter was 40.5 mm. Minolta sold UV, yellow and 1B filters.

Available shutter speeds were 1/1000 second through 10 seconds, with a 1/150 second X-sync speed and support for bulb exposure. There was no built-in flash, but a hot shoe on the top allowed an external flash to be attached. A tripod socket was provided.

Minox

Minox (pronounced MEE-noks) is a manufacturer of cameras, known especially for its subminiature camera.

The first product to carry the Minox name was a subminiature camera, conceived in 1922, and finally invented and produced in 1936, by Baltic German Walter Zapp. The Latvian factory VEF (Valsts elektrotehniskā fabrika) manufactured the camera from 1937 to 1943. After World War II, the camera was redesigned and production resumed in Germany in 1948. Walter Zapp originally envisioned the Minox to be a camera for everyone requiring only little photographic knowledge. Yet in part due to its high manufacturing costs the Minox became more well known as a must-have luxury item. From the start the Minox also gained wide notoriety as a spy camera.

Minox branched out into 35 mm film format and 110 film format cameras in 1974 and 1976, respectively. Minox continues to operate today, producing or branding optical and photographic equipment.

Olympus Pen F

The Olympus Pen F, Pen FT and Pen FV were very similar half-frame 35 mm single-lens reflex (SLR) cameras with interchangeable lenses produced by Olympus of Japan between 1963-1966 (Pen F), 1966-1972 (Pen FT) and 1967-1970 (Pen FV).

The original Pen F had a double-stroke film advance and a distinctive logo rendered in a gothic font. The later Pen FT added a single-stroke film advance, and an uncoupled, integrated light meter, which used a system of exposure numbers rather than f-stops. The exposure numbers were added to the aperture rings of later Pen F lenses; the rings could be pulled out and rotated to show conventional f-stops instead. A side-effect of the FT's light meter was a dimmer viewfinder. The Pen FV was essentially a Pen FT with the light meter deleted and the F's brighter viewfinder reinstated.

Half frame meant that the camera used an 18×24 mm vertical (portrait) format, producing twice the pictures on a roll of 135 film as the regular 36×24 mm format. The smaller image format also allowed for a smaller camera and lenses, making the Pen F system one of the smallest SLR systems ever made; the Pentax Auto 110 was smaller, but with a much more limited range of lenses and accessories, and smaller 110 film.

These cameras were somewhat exceptional since they used a rotary focal-plane shutter, rather than the two-curtain focal-plane shutter commonly used in other SLRs. Since this one-piece shutter opens fully before it starts to close, it can synchronize to electronic flash at all shutter speeds.

Pen-F series cameras are occasionally modified to mount standard motion picture camera lenses for use as film test cameras with 35mm motion picture films. The Pen-F frame size is close to the 35mm motion picture Super 35 frame.

Pentax Auto 110

The Pentax Auto 110 and Pentax Auto 110 Super are single-lens reflex cameras made by Asahi Pentax that use Kodak's 110 film cartridge. The Auto 110 was introduced with three interchangeable lenses in 1978. Three more lenses were introduced in 1981, and then the Super model was released in 1982. The camera system was sold until 1985. The complete system is sometimes known as the Pentax System 10, apparently for its official Pentax name, although most Pentax advertising only uses the camera name or Pentax-110. This model represented the only complete ultraminiature SLR system manufactured for the 110 film format, although several fixed-lens 110 SLRs were sold. The camera system also claims to be the smallest interchangeable-lens SLR system ever created.

The cameras and lenses were very small (the camera fits in the palm of a hand easily) and were made to professional SLR standards of quality.

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