10th edition of Systema Naturae

The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature. In it, Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature for animals, something he had already done for plants in his 1753 publication of Species Plantarum.

Linnaeus1758-title-page
Title page of the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

Starting point

Before 1758, most biological catalogues had used polynomial names for the taxa included, including earlier editions of Systema Naturae. The first work to consistently apply binomial nomenclature across the animal kingdom was the 10th edition of Systema Naturae. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature therefore chose 1 January 1758 as the "starting point" for zoological nomenclature, and asserted that the 10th edition of Systema Naturae was to be treated as if published on that date.[1] Names published before that date are unavailable, even if they would otherwise satisfy the rules. The only work which takes priority over the 10th edition is Carl Alexander Clerck's Svenska Spindlar or Aranei Suecici, which was published in 1757, but is also to be treated as if published on January 1, 1758.[1]

Revisions

Carl von Linné
An oil painting of Carl Linnaeus by Alexander Roslin in 1775

During Linnaeus' lifetime, Systema Naturae was under continuous revision. Progress was incorporated into new and ever-expanding editions; for example, in his 1st edition (1735), whales and manatees were originally classified as species of fish (as was thought to be the case then), but in the 10th edition they were moved into the mammal class.[2]

Animals

The Animal Kingdom (as described by Linnaeus): Animals enjoy sensation by means of a living organization, animated by a medullary substance; perception by nerves; and motion by the exertion of the will. They have members for the different purposes of life; organs for their different senses; and faculties (or powers) for the application of their different perceptions. They all originate from an egg. Their external and internal structure; their comparative anatomy, habits, instincts, and various relations to each other, are detailed in authors who prosessedly treat on their subjects. [3]

The list has been broken down into the original six classes Linnaeus described for animals; Mammalia, Aves, Amphibia, Pisces, Insecta, & Vermes. These classes were ultimately created by studying the internal anatomy, as seen in his key:[3]

  • Heart with 2 auricles, 2 ventricles. Warm, red blood
  • Heart with 1 auricle, 1 ventricle. Cold, red blood
  • Heart with 1 auricle, 0 ventricles. Cold, pus-like blood

By current standards Pisces and Vermes are informal groupings, Insecta also contained arachnids and crustaceans, and one order of Amphibia comprised sharks, lampreys, and sturgeons.

Mammalia

Barbary Macaque
The Barbary macaque was included in the 10th edition as Simia sylvanus.

Linnaeus described mammals as: Animals that suckle their young by means of lactiferous teats. In external and internal structure they resemble man: most of them are quadrupeds; and with man, their natural enemy, inhabit the surface of the Earth. The largest, though fewest in number, inhabit the ocean. [3]

Linnaeus divided the mammals based upon the number, situation, and structure of their teeth, into the following orders and genera:

Aves

Snowy Owl Barrow Alaska
The snowy owl was included in the 10th edition as Strix scandiaca.

Linnaeus described birds as: A beautiful and cheerful portion of created nature consisting of animals having a body covered with feathers and down; protracted and naked jaws (the beak), two wings formed for flight, and two feet. They are areal, vocal, swift and light, and destitute of external ears, lips, teeth, scrotum, womb, bladder, epiglottis, corpus callosum and its arch, and diaphragm.[3]

Linnaeus divided the birds based upon the characters of the bill and feet, into the following 6 orders and 63 genera:

Amphibia

European Common Frog Rana temporaria
The common frog was included in the 10th edition as Rana temporaria.

Linnaeus described his "Amphibia" (comprising reptiles and amphibians) as: Animals that are distinguished by a body cold and generally naked; stern and expressive countenance; harsh voice; mostly lurid color; filthy odor; a few are furnished with a horrid poison; all have cartilaginous bones, slow circulation, exquisite sight and hearing, large pulmonary vessels, lobate liver, oblong thick stomach, and cystic, hepatic, and pancreatic ducts: they are deficient in diaphragm, do not transpire (sweat), can live a long time without food, are tenacious of life, and have the power of reproducing parts which have been destroyed or lost; some undergo a metamorphosis; some cast (shed) their skin; some appear to live promiscuously on land or in the water, and some are torpid during the winter. [3]

Linnaeus divided the amphibians based upon the limb structures and the way they breathed, into the following orders and genera:[4]

Pisces

Blennius ocellaris Messina
The butterfly blenny was included in the 10th edition as Blennius ocellatus.

Linnaeus described fish as: Always inhabiting the waters; are swift in their motion and voracious in their appetites. They breathe by means of gills, which are generally united by a bony arch; swim by means of radiate fins, and are mostly covered over with cartilaginous scales. Besides they parts they have in common with other animals, they are furnished with a nictitant membrane, and most of them with a swim-bladder, by the contraction or dilatation of which, they can raise or sink themselves in their element at pleasure. [3]

Linnaeus divided the fishes based upon the position of the ventral and pectoral fins, into the following orders and genera:[3]

Insecta

Daphnia pulex
Crustaceans such as the water flea Monoculus pulex (now Daphnia pulex) were included in Linnaeus' Insecta.
Magicicada septendecim female (Brood X) - journal.pone.0000892.g003A
Linnaeus gave the name Cicada septendecim to an insect whose adult appears once in 17 years.

Linnaeus described his "Insecta" (comprising all arthropods, including insects, crustaceans, arachnids and others) as: A very numerous and various class consisting of small animals, breathing through lateral spiracles, armed on all sides with a bony skin, or covered with hair; furnished with many feet, and moveable antennae (or horns), which project from the head, and are the probable instruments of sensation. [5]

Linnaeus divided the insects based upon the form of the wings, into the following orders and genera:[6]

Vermes

Kalamar
The common cuttlefish was named Sepia officinalis in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae.

Linnaeus described his "Vermes" as: Animals of slow motion, soft substance, able to increase their bulk and restore parts which have been destroyed, extremely tenacious of life, and the inhabitants of moist places. Many of them are without a distinct head, and most of them without feet. They are principally distinguished by their tentacles (or feelers). By the Ancients they were not improperly called imperfect animals, as being destitute of ears, nose, head, eyes and legs; and are therefore totally distinct from Insects. [7]

Linnaeus divided the "Vermes" based upon the structure of the body, into the following orders and genera:[7]

Plants

The second volume, published in 1759, detailed the kingdom Plantae, in which Linnaeus included true plants, as well as fungi, algae and lichens. In addition to repeating the species he had previously listed in his Species Plantarum (1753), and those published in the intervening period, Linnaeus described several hundred new plant species. The species from Species Plantarum were numbered sequentially, while the new species were labelled with letters.[8] Many were sent to Linnaeus by his correspondents overseas, including Johannes Burman and David de Gorter in South Africa, Patrick Browne, Philip Miller and John Ellis in America, Jean-François Séguier, Carlo Allioni and Casimir Christoph Schmidel in the Alps, Gorter and Johann Ernst Hebenstreit in the Orient, and François Boissier de Sauvages de Lacroix, Gerard and Barnadet Gabriel across Europe.[9]

New plant species described in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae include:

Allionia incarnata flower 1
Allionia incarnata was one of the two new species in the new genus Allionia introduced in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae.

References

  1. ^ a b "Article 3". International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (4th ed.). 1999. ISBN 0-85301-006-4.
  2. ^ "Systema Naturae - an epoch-making book". Linné on line. Uppsala Universitet. 2008. Retrieved August 30, 2010.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Carl von Linné, translated by William Turton (1806). Volume 1. A general system of nature: through the three grand kingdoms of animals, vegetables, and minerals, systematically divided into their several classes, orders, genera, species, and varieties. London: Lackington, Allen, and Co.
  4. ^ Kenneth Kitchell, Jr. & Harold A. Dundee (1994). "A trilogy on the herpetology of Linnaeus's Systema Naturae X" (PDF). Smithsonian Herpetological Information Service. 100: 1–61.
  5. ^ Carl von Linné, translated by William Turton (1806). Volume 2: Insects. A general system of nature: through the three grand kingdoms of animals, vegetables, and minerals, systematically divided into their several classes, orders, genera, species, and varieties. London: Lackington, Allen, and Co.
  6. ^ Mary P. Winsor (1976). "The development of Linnaean insect classification". Taxon. 25 (1): 57–67. JSTOR 1220406.
  7. ^ a b Carl von Linné, translated by William Turton (1806). Volume 4: Worms. A general system of nature: through the three grand kingdoms of animals, vegetables, and minerals, systematically divided into their several classes, orders, genera, species, and varieties. London: Lackington, Allen, and Co.
  8. ^ Bernard R. Baum (1968). "The problem of typifying certain names in Linnaeus's Systema Naturae ed. 10". Taxon. 17 (5): 507–513. JSTOR 1216048.
  9. ^ Carl Linnaeus (1759). "Volume 2. Regnum Vegetabile". Systema Naturae (10th ed.). Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius.

External links

Abraxas grossulariata

Abraxas grossulariata is a moth of the family Geometridae, native to the Palaearctic ecozone and North America. Its distinctive speckled colouration has given it a common name of magpie moth. The caterpillar is similarly coloured to the adult, and may be found feeding on the leaves of shrubs such as gooseberry and blackcurrant. The species was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae.

Amphibia in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus described the Amphibia as:

Animals that are distinguished by a body cold and generally naked; stern and expressive countenance; harsh voice; mostly lurid color; filthy odor; a few are furnished with a horrid poison; all have cartilaginous bones, slow circulation, exquisite sight and hearing, large pulmonary vessels, lobate liver, oblong thick stomach, and cystic, hepatic, and pancreatic ducts: they are deficient in diaphragm, do not transpire (sweat), can live a long time without food, are tenatious of life, and have the power of reproducing parts which have been destroyed or lost; some undergo a metamorphosis; some cast (shed) their skin; some appear to live promiscuously on land or in the water, and some are torpid during the winter.

Linnaean characteristics

Heart: 1 auricle, 1 ventricle. Cold, dark red blood

Lungs: breathes uncertainly

Jaw: incumbent

Penis: (frequently) double

Eggs: (usually) membranaceous

Organs of Sense: tongue, nostrils, eyes, ears

Covering: a naked skin

Supports: various, in some none. Creeps in warm places and hissesLinnaeus often regarded reptiles within the amphibian class because living in Sweden, he often noticed that the local reptiles (examples include the common adder and grass snake) would hunt and be active in the water.

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Linnaeus included several species of fishes (that do not belong the superclass Osteichthyes) into the amphibian class. It was not until later on that he would merge them into the Fish class and give them their own new order "Chondropterygious", defining them as species with cartilaginous gills.

Linnaeus divided the amphibians based upon the limb structures and the way they breathed.

Angerona prunaria

Angerona is a monotypic moth genus in the family Geometridae erected by Philogène Auguste Joseph Duponchel in 1829. Its only species, Angerona prunaria, the orange moth, was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae.

Aptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". Wingless arthropods were brought together under the name Aptera.

Aves in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae published in 1758, the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus described 554 species of bird and gave each a binomial name.

Linnaeus first included birds in the 6th edition of his Systema Naturae which was published in 1748. In it he listed 260 species arranged into 51 genera and six orders. The entries for each species were very brief; he did not include a description but instead provided a citation to an earlier publication, often to his own Fauna suecica which was published in 1746. Linnaeus generally followed the classification scheme introduced by the English parson and naturalist John Ray which grouped species based on the characteristics of their bill and feet.The 10th edition appeared in 1758 and was the first in which Linnaeus consistently used his binomial system of nomenclature. He increased the number of birds to 554 species which filled 116 pages compared with only 17 in the 6th edition. For each species he included both a brief description and also citations to earlier publications. He maintained 6 orders as in the 6th edition but renamed Scolopaces to Grallae. He rearranged some of the genera, dropping several and adding others to bring the total to 63.The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature chose 1 January 1758 as the "starting point" for zoological nomenclature, and asserted that the 10th edition of Systema Naturae was to be treated as if published on that date. In 2016 the list of birds of the world maintained by Frank Gill and David Donsker on behalf of the International Ornithologists' Union included 448 species for which Linnaeus's description in the 10th edition is cited as the authority. Of the species 101 have been retained in their original genus and 347 have been moved to a different genus. In addition, there are five species on Linnaeus's 1758 list that are now considered as subspecies. Of Linnaeus's 63 genera, only Tantalus and Colymbus are not now used.In the 12th edition of his Systema Naturae published in 1766, Linnaeus described many additional birds that had not been included in the 10th edition. The 12th edition included 931 bird species divided into 6 orders and 78 genera. The 12th edition is cited as the authority for 257 modern species of which only 25 have been retained in their original genus. There are now believed to be around 10,000 extant species.Linnaeus described the class Aves as:

A beautiful and cheerful portion of created nature consisting of animals having a body covered with feathers and down; protracted and naked jaws (the beak), two wings formed for flight, and two feet. They are aereal, vocal, swift and light, and destitute of external ears, lips, teeth, scrotum, womb, bladder, epiglottis, corpus callosum and its arch, and diaphragm.

Linnaean Characteristics

Heart: 2 auricles, 2 ventricles. Warm, dark red blood

Lungs: respires alternately

Jaw: incombent, naked, extended, without teeth

Eggs: covered with a calcareous shell

Organs of Sense: tongue, nostrils, eyes, and ears without auricles

Covering: incumbent, imbricate feathers

Supports: 2 feet, 2 wings; and a heart-shaped rump. Flies in the Air & SingsIn the list below, the binomial name is that used by Linnaeus.

Chrysoteuchia culmella

Chrysoteuchia culmella, the garden grass-veneer, is a species of moth of the family Crambidae. It was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae. It is found in Europe.

The wingspan is 18–24 mm. The moth flies from June to July depending on the location.

The larvae feed on various grasses.

Coleoptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". Insects with hardened wing covers (beetles, earwigs and orthopteroid insects) were brought together under the name Coleoptera.

Dendrolimus pini

Dendrolimus pini, the pine-tree lappet, is a moth of the family Lasiocampidae. The species was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae. It is found in most of Europe ranging to eastern Asia.

The wingspan is 45–70 mm. The moth flies from June to August depending on the location.

The larvae feed on Pinus sylvestris, but also other Pinus species, Picea abies and Abies alba.

Diptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". Insects with simply two wings (true flies) were brought together under the name Diptera.

Hemiptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". True bugs and thrips were brought together under the name Hemiptera.

Hymenoptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". Insects with membranous wings, including bees, wasps and ants were brought together under the name Hymenoptera.

Insecta in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". He described the Insecta as:

A very numerous and various class consisting of small animals, breathing through lateral spiracles, armed on all sides with a bony skin, or covered with hair; furnished with many feet, and moveable antennae (or horns), which project from the head, and are the probable instruments of sensation.

Linnaean Characteristics

Heart: 1 auricle, 0 ventricles. Cold, pus-like blood.

Spiracles: lateral pores

Jaw: lateral

Penis: penetrates

Organs of Sense: tongue, eyes, antennae on head, no brain, no ears, no nostrils

Covering: a bony coat of mail

Supports: feet, and in some, wings. Skips on dry ground and buzzes

Lepidoptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". Butterflies and moths were brought together under the name Lepidoptera. Linnaeus divided the group into three genera – Papilio, Sphinx and Phalaena. The first two, together with the seven subdivisions of the third, are now used as the basis for nine superfamily names: Papilionoidea, Sphingoidea, Bombycoidea, Noctuoidea, Geometroidea, Torticoidea, Pyraloidea, Tineoidea and Alucitoidea.

Macrothylacia rubi

Macrothylacia rubi, the fox moth, is a lepidopteran belonging to the family Lasiocampidae. It was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae.

Mammalia in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

The Mammalia in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae forms one of six classes of animals in Carl Linnaeus's tenth reformed edition written in Latin.

The following explanations are based on William Turton's translations who rearranged and corrected earlier editions published by Johann Friedrich Gmelin, Johan Christian Fabricius and Carl Ludwig Willdenow:

Animals that suckle their young by means of lactiferous teats. In external and internal structure they resemble man: most of them are quadrupeds; and with man, their natural enemy, inhabit the surface of the Earth. The largest, though fewest in number, inhabit the ocean.

Linnaeus divided the mammals based upon the number, situation, and structure of their teeth; mammals have the following characteristics: Heart: two auricles, 2 ventricles. Warm, dark red blood; Lungs: respires alternately; Jaw: incombent, covered. Teeth usually within jaw; Teats: lactiferous; Organs of sense: tongue, nostrils, eyes, ears, and papillae of the skin; Covering: hair, which is scanty in warm climates, hardly any on aquatics; Supports: four feet, except in aquatics; and in most a tail. Walks on the Earth and speaks.Oldfield Thomas scrutinized Linnaeus's chapter on mammals in 1911 and attempted to find missing type species and type localities.

Neuroptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". Insects with net-veined wings were brought together under the name Neuroptera.

Pisces in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus described the Pisces as:

Always inhabiting the waters; are swift in their motion and voracious in their appetites. They breathe by means of gills, which are generally united by a bony arch; swim by means of radiate fins, and are mostly covered over with cartilaginous scales. Besides the parts they have in common with other animals, they are furnished with a nictitant membrane, and most of them with a swim-bladder, by the contraction or dilatation of which, they can raise or sink themselves in their element at pleasure.

Linnaean Characteristics

Heart: 1 auricle, 1 ventricle. Cold, dark red blood

Gills: external

Jaw: incumbent

Penis: (usually) none

Eggs: without whites

Organs of Sense: tongue, nostrils?, eyes, ears

Covering: imbricate scales

Supports: fins. Swims in the Water & Smacks.

Sphinx (genus)

Sphinx is a genus of moths in the family Sphingidae. The genus was erected by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae.

Vermes in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In 1758, in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, the Swedish scientist and taxonomist Carl Linnaeus described the class "Vermes" as:

Animals of slow motion, soft substance, able to increase their bulk and restore parts which have been destroyed, extremely tenatious of life, and the inhabitants of moist places. Many of them are without a distinct head, and most of them without feet. They are principally distinguished by their tentacles (or feelers). By the Ancients they were not improperly called imperfect animals, as being destitute of ears, nose, head, eyes and legs; and are therefore totally distinct from Insects.

Linnaean Characteristics

Heart: 1 auricle, 0 ventricles. Cold, pus-like blood.

Spiracles: obscure

Jaw: various

Penis: frequently hermaphrodites

Organs of Sense: tentacles (generally), eyes, no brain, no ears, no nostrils

Covering: calcareous or none, except spines

Supports: no feet, no fins. Crawls in moist places & are muteThe class Vermes, as Linnaeus conceived it, was a rather diverse and mismatched grouping of animals; basically it served as a wastebasket taxon for any invertebrate species that was not an arthropod. With the advent of the scientific understanding of evolution, it became clear that many of the animals in these groups were not in fact closely related, and so the class Vermes was dropped for several (at least 30) phyla.

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