10 BC

Year 10 BC was either a common year starting on Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday or a leap year starting on Tuesday or Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar (the sources differ, see leap year error for further information) and a common year starting on Sunday of the Proleptic Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Maximus and Antonius (or, less frequently, year 744 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 10 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Millennium: 1st millennium BC
10 BC in various calendars
Gregorian calendar10 BC
Ab urbe condita744
Ancient Greek era192nd Olympiad, year 3
Assyrian calendar4741
Balinese saka calendarN/A
Bengali calendar−602
Berber calendar941
Buddhist calendar535
Burmese calendar−647
Byzantine calendar5499–5500
Chinese calendar庚戌(Metal Dog)
2687 or 2627
    — to —
辛亥年 (Metal Pig)
2688 or 2628
Coptic calendar−293 – −292
Discordian calendar1157
Ethiopian calendar−17 – −16
Hebrew calendar3751–3752
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat47–48
 - Shaka SamvatN/A
 - Kali Yuga3091–3092
Holocene calendar9991
Iranian calendar631 BP – 630 BP
Islamic calendar650 BH – 649 BH
Javanese calendarN/A
Julian calendar10 BC
Korean calendar2324
Minguo calendar1921 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−1477
Seleucid era302/303 AG
Thai solar calendar533–534
Tibetan calendar阳金狗年
(male Iron-Dog)
117 or −264 or −1036
    — to —
(female Iron-Pig)
118 or −263 or −1035


By place

Roman Empire


10s BC

This article concerns the period 19 BC – 10 BC.


Amanirenas (also spelled Amanirena) was a queen of the Meroitic Kingdom of Kush.

Her full name and title was Amnirense qore li kdwe li ("Ameniras, Qore and Kandake").Said among locals to have meant (" Amani is her name ") and the term kandake, pronounced kandaka means queen or strong female ruler .

She reigned from about 40 BC to 10 BC. She is one of the most famous kandakes, because of her role leading Kushite armies against the Romans in a war that lasted five years, from 27 BC to 22 BC. After an initial victory when the Kushites attacked Roman Egypt, they were driven out of Egypt by Gaius Petronius and the Romans established a new frontier at Hiere Sycaminos (Maharraqa). Amanirenas was described as brave, and blind in one eye.

Meroitic inscriptions give Amanirenas the title of qore as well as kandake suggesting that she was a ruling queen. She is usually considered to be the queen referred to as "Candace" in Strabo's account of the Meroitic war against the Roman Empire. Her name is associated with those of Teriteqas and Akinidad, but the precise relationship between these three is not clear in the historical record.


Amanishakheto was a Kandake of Kush. She seems to have reigned from 10 BC to 1 AD, although most dates of Kushite history before the Middle Ages are very uncertain.

In Meroitic hieroglyphs her name is written "Amanikasheto" (Mniskhte or (Am)niskhete). In Meroitic cursive she is referred to as Amaniskheto qor kd(ke) which means Amanishakheto, Qore and Kandake ("Ruler and Queen").Amanishakheto is known from several monuments. She is mentioned in the Amun-temple of Kawa, on a stela from Meroe, and in inscriptions of a palace building found at Wad ban Naqa, from a stela found at Qasr Ibrim, another stela from Naqa and her pyramid at Meroe (Beg. no. N6).Amanishakheto is best known for a collection of jewelry found in her pyramid in 1834 by Italian treasure hunter Giuseppe Ferlini, who destroyed the pyramid in search of its burial goods. These pieces are now in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin and in the Egyptian Museum of Munich.


The Anartes a.k.a. Anarti, Anartii or Anartoi were Celtic tribes, or, in the case of those sub-groups of Anartes which penetrated the ancient region of Dacia (roughly mod. Romania), Celts culturally assimilated by the Dacians.Ptolemy's Geographia locates the Anartoi in Dacia. Some groups of Anartes occupied parts of modern Slovakia and southeastern Poland.The Dacian town of Docidava was situated in the territory of the Anartes, according to Pârvan.The Anartophracti (or Anartofraktoi) are mentioned by Ptolemy. This tribe's name appears to be compound Latin-Greek name and may be related to the Anartoi resident in Dacia, Czarnecki argues. The Anartofraktoi were a northern Dacian tribe, according to Braune or mixed Dacian-Celtic, according to Pârvan.In ancient sources, the earliest mention of the Anartes is in the Elogium of Tusculum (10 BC).In De Bello Gallico, an account of his own campaigns in the Gallic Wars (58-51 BC), Julius Caesar wrote (VI.25.1): "The Hercynian Forest begins in the territories of the Helvetii, Nemeti and Rauraci and stretches, for a distance of 9 days' journey for a fast traveler, along the Danube as far as the borders of the Daci and the Anartes".

Around AD 172, the Anartes refused to assist the Romans in their war against the Marcomanni. To punish them, the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius ordered the deportation of (all?) the Anartes from their native homelands to the Roman province of Pannonia Inferior, a movement which took place not later than AD 180.

Antonia Tryphaena

Antonia Tryphaena also known as Tryphaena of Thrace or Tryphaena (her name in Greek: η Άντωνία Τρύφαινα or Τρυφαίνη, 10 BC – 55) was a Princess of the Bosporan, Pontus, Cilicia, Cappadocia and a Roman Client Queen of Thrace.

Aqua Claudia

Aqua Claudia, ("the Claudian water") was an ancient Roman aqueduct that, like the Anio Novus, was begun by Emperor Caligula (12–41 AD) in 38 AD and finished by Emperor Claudius (10 BC – 54 AD) in 52 AD.Together with Aqua Anio Vetus, Aqua Anio Novus, and Aqua Marcia, it is regarded as one of the "four great aqueducts of Rome".


Claudius (; Latin: Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54) was Roman emperor from AD 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor. He was born at Lugdunum in Gaul, the first (and until Trajan, only) Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy. Because he was afflicted with a limp and slight deafness due to sickness at a young age, his family ostracized him and excluded him from public office until his consulship, shared with his nephew Caligula in 37.

Claudius' infirmity probably saved him from the fate of many other nobles during the purges of Tiberius's and Caligula's reigns; potential enemies did not see him as a serious threat. His survival led to his being declared Emperor by the Praetorian Guard after Caligula's assassination, at which point he was the last man of his family. Despite his lack of experience, Claudius proved to be an able and efficient administrator. He was also an ambitious builder, constructing many new roads, aqueducts, and canals across the Empire. During his reign the Empire began the conquest of Britain (if the earlier invasions of Britain by Caesar and Caligula's aborted attempts are not counted).

Having a personal interest in law, he presided at public trials, and issued up to twenty edicts a day. He was seen as vulnerable throughout his reign, particularly by elements of the nobility. Claudius was constantly forced to shore up his position; this resulted in the deaths of many senators. These events damaged his reputation among the ancient writers, though more recent historians have revised this opinion. Many authors contend that he was murdered by his own wife. After his death in 54 (at the age of 63), his grand-nephew, step-son, and adopted son Nero succeeded him as Emperor. His 13-year reign (slightly longer than Nero's) would not be surpassed by any successors until that of Domitian, who reigned for 15 years.

He was a descendant of the Octavii Rufi (through Gaius Octavius), Julii Caesares (through Julia Minor and Julia Antonia), and the Claudii Nerones (through Nero Claudius Drusus). He was a step-grandson (through his father Drusus) and great-nephew (through his mother Antonia Minor) of Augustus. He was a nephew of Tiberius through his father, Tiberius' brother. Through his brother Germanicus, Claudius was an uncle of Caligula and a great uncle of Nero. Through his mother Antonia Minor he was a grandson of Mark Antony.

Erato of Armenia

Erato also known as Queen Erato (flourished second half of 1st century BC & first half of 1st century, died sometime after 12) was a princess of the Kingdom of Armenia and member of the Artaxiad Dynasty. She served as Roman client queen of Armenia from 10 BC until 2 BC with her brother-husband King Tigranes IV. After living in political exile for a number of years, she co-ruled as Roman client queen of Armenia from 6 until 12 with the Herodian Prince Tigranes V, her distant paternal relative. As a queen of Armenia, she may be viewed as one of the last hereditary rulers of her nation.

Greco-Buddhist art

Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1,000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, and the Islamic conquests of the 7th century AD. Greco-Buddhist art is characterized by the strong idealistic realism and sensuous description of Hellenistic art and the first representations of the Buddha in human form, which have helped define the artistic (and particularly, sculptural) canon for Buddhist art throughout the Asian continent up to the present. It is also a strong example of cultural syncretism between eastern and western traditions.

The origins of Greco-Buddhist art are to be found in the Hellenistic Greco-Bactrian kingdom (250–130 BC), located in today’s Afghanistan, from which Hellenistic culture radiated into the Indian subcontinent with the establishment of the Indo-Greek kingdom (180–10 BC). Under the Indo-Greeks and then the Kushans, the interaction of Greek and Buddhist culture flourished in the area of Gandhara, in today’s northern Pakistan, before spreading further into India, influencing the art of Mathura, and then the Hindu art of the Gupta empire, which was to extend to the rest of South-East Asia. The influence of Greco-Buddhist art also spread northward towards Central Asia, strongly affecting the art of the Tarim Basin, and ultimately the arts of China, Korea, and Japan.

List of state leaders in the 1st century BC

State leaders in the 1nd century BC – State leaders in the 1st century bc– State leaders by yearThis is a list of state leaders in the 1st century BC (1oo years ago–1 BC).

Nero Claudius Drusus

Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus (January 14, 38 BC – summer of 9 BC), born Decimus Claudius Drusus, also called Drusus Claudius Nero, Drusus, Drusus I, Nero Drusus, or Drusus the Elder was a Roman politician and military commander. He was a patrician Claudian on his legal father's side but his maternal grandmother was from a plebeian family. He was the son of Livia Drusilla and the legal stepson of her second husband, the Emperor Augustus. He was also brother of the Emperor Tiberius, father to both the Emperor Claudius and general Germanicus, paternal grandfather of the Emperor Caligula, and maternal great-grandfather of the Emperor Nero.

He launched the first major Roman campaigns across the Rhine and began the conquest of Germania, becoming the first Roman general to reach the Weser and Elbe rivers. In 12 BC, Drusus led a successful campaign into Germania, subjugating the Sicambri. Later that year he led a naval expedition against Germanic tribes along the North Sea coast, conquering the Batavi and the Frisii, and defeating the Chauci near the mouth of the Weser. In 11 BC, he conquered the Usipetes and the Marsi, extending Roman control to the Upper Weser. In 10 BC, he launched a campaign against the Chatti and the resurgent Sicambri, subjugating both. The following year, while serving as consul, he conquered the Mattiaci and defeated the Marcomanni and the Cherusci, the latter near the Elbe. However, Drusus died later that year, depriving Rome of one of its best generals.

Octavia the Younger

Octavia the Younger (69–11 BC), also known as Octavia Minor or simply Octavia, was the elder sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus (known also as Octavian), the half-sister of Octavia the Elder, and the fourth wife of Mark Antony. She was also the great-grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, maternal grandmother of the Emperor Claudius, and paternal great-grandmother and maternal great-great-grandmother of the Emperor Nero.

One of the most prominent women in Roman history, Octavia was respected and admired by contemporaries for her loyalty, nobility and humanity, and for maintaining traditional Roman feminine virtues.

Publius Cornelius Dolabella (consul 10)

Publius Cornelius Dolabella (fl. 10–47 AD) was a Roman senator active during the Principate. He was consul in AD 10 with Gaius Junius Silanus as his colleague. Dolabella is known for having reconstructed the Arch of Dolabella (perhaps formerly the Porta Caelimontana) in Rome in AD 10, together with his co-consul Junius Silanus. Later, Nero used it for his aqueduct to the Caelian Hill.In 24 he was appointed proconsul of the province of Africa (modern Tunisia), supposedly pacified after ten years of insurgency. This turned out to be far from the case and Dolabella was pressed hard. Despite only having half the number of soldiers of his predecessor Dolabella conceived an effective strategy. He eventually forced the insurgents to battle, slew their leader, Tacfarinas, and brought the conflict to a final conclusion. He then initiated the conversion of the Tunisian grasslands to arable fields, which were to be the breadbasket of Rome for centuries to come.

Rab (town)

Rab (Italian: Arbe Latin: Arba) is a town (grad) on the island of Rab in Croatia. According to the 2011 census the total population of the town was 8,065, whereas only 437 lived in the titular settlement (naselje). Rab, the settlement, is located on a small peninsula on the southwestern side of the island.

The town has a long history that dates back to 360 BC when it was inhabited by the Illyrians. The island was the frontier between the regions of Liburnia and Dalmatia. From the third century BC to the sixth century AD Rab was part of the Roman Empire, and Emperor Augustus proclaimed it a municipium in 10 BC. It was the first town of Roman Dalmatia to be given the honorary title "felix".

The worst disaster in the town's history was an outbreak of the plague in 1456 that decimated the city's population.

There are many churches in the town. The largest is St. Mary the Blessed, which was built in the 13th century. The church of St. Justine is now a museum of sacred arts, while the chapel of St. Christopher (dedicated to the patron saint of the island) is nowadays called the Lapidarium. The four church bell towers became the symbol of the town and island. The oldest dates back to the eleventh century.

Saint Marinus, the Christian founder of San Marino, was a native of Rab who is said to have fled the island under Diocletian's persecution in AD 301.


Sirkap (Urdu and Punjabi: سر کپ) is the name of an archaeological site on the bank opposite to the city of Taxila, Punjab, Pakistan.

The city of Sirkap was built by the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius after he invaded ancient India around 180 BC. Demetrius founded in the northern and northwestern modern Pakistan an Indo-Greek kingdom that was to last until around 10 BC. Sirkap is also said to have been rebuilt by king Menander I.

The excavation of the old city was carried out under the supervision of Sir John Marshall by Hergrew from 1912–1930. In 1944 and 1945 further parts were excavated by Mortimer Wheeler and his colleagues.


Ten, TEN or 10 may refer to:

10, an even natural number following 9 and preceding 11

one of the years 10 BC, AD 10, 1910 and 2010

October, the tenth month of the year


The Trinovantes or Trinobantes were one of the Celtic tribes of pre-Roman Britain. Their territory was on the north side of the Thames estuary in current Essex and Suffolk, and included lands now located in Greater London. They were bordered to the north by the Iceni, and to the west by the Catuvellauni. Their name possibly derives from the Celtic intensive prefix "tri-" and a second element which was either "novio" - new, so meaning "very new" in the sense of "newcomers", but possibly with an applied sense of vigorous or lively ultimately meaning "the very vigorous people." Their capital was Camulodunum (modern Colchester), one proposed site of the legendary Camelot.

Shortly before Julius Caesar's invasion of Britain in 55 and 54 BC, the Trinovantes were considered the most powerful tribe in Britain. At this time their capital was probably at Braughing (in modern-day Hertfordshire). In some manuscripts of Caesar's Gallic War their king is referred to as Imanuentius, although in other manuscripts no name is given. Some time before Caesar's second expedition this king was overthrown by Cassivellaunus, who is usually assumed to have belonged to the Catuvellauni. His son, Mandubracius, fled to the protection of Caesar in Gaul. During his second expedition Caesar defeated Cassivellaunus and restored Mandubracius to the kingship, and Cassivellaunus undertook not to molest him again. Tribute was also agreed.

The next identifiable king of the Trinovantes, known from numismatic evidence, was Addedomarus, who took power c. 20-15 BC, and moved the tribe's capital to Camulodunum. For a brief period c. 10 BC Tasciovanus of the Catuvellauni issued coins from Camulodunum, suggesting that he conquered the Trinovantes, but he was soon forced to withdraw, perhaps as a result of pressure from the Romans, as his later coins no longer bear the mark "Rex", and Addedomarus was restored. Addedomarus was briefly succeeded by his son Dubnovellaunus c. 10–5 BC, but a few years later the tribe was finally conquered by either Tasciovanus or his son Cunobelinus. Addedomarus, Dubnovellaunus and possibly Mandubracius all appear in later, post-Roman and medieval British Celtic genealogies and legends as Aedd Mawr (Addedo the Great) Dyfnwal Moelmut (Dubnovellaunus the Bald and Silent) and Manawydan. The Welsh Triads recall Aedd Mawr as one of the founders of Britain.

The Trinovantes reappeared in history when they participated in Boudica's revolt against the Roman Empire in 60 AD. Their name was given to one of the civitates of Roman Britain, whose chief town was Caesaromagus (modern Chelmsford, Essex). The style of their rich burials (see facies of Aylesford) is of continental origin and evidence of their affiliation to the Belgic people.

Their name was re-used as Trinovantum, the supposed original name of London, by Geoffrey of Monmouth in his Historia Regum Britanniae, in which he claimed the name derived from Troi-novantum or "New Troy", connecting this with the legend that Britain was founded by Brutus and other refugees from the Trojan War.


Tryphon or Trypho (Greek: Τρύφων, gen.: Τρύφωνος) (ca. 60 BC-10 BC) was a Greek grammarian who lived and worked in Alexandria. He was a contemporary of Didymus Chalcenterus.

He wrote several specialized works on aspects of language and grammar, from which only a handful of fragments now survive. These included treatises on word-types, dialects, accentuation, pronunciation, and orthography, as well as a grammar (Τέχνη Γραμματική, Tékhne grammatiké) and a dictionary. The two extant works that bear his name, On Meters and On Tropes, may or may not be by him. He had a pupil named Abron.

Vonones II

Vonones II of Parthia (Persian: ونن دوم‎, Greek: Ονωνης,10 BC – 51 AD) was a Parthian prince who served as a King of Media Atropatene and briefly as King of the Parthian Empire.

Vonones II was the second born son of an unnamed Arsacid Parthian princess, related to Vonones I of Parthia, and her husband, Darius II of Media Atropatene. His known grandparents, on his father's side, were Artavasdes I of Media Atropatene and his wife, Athenais. Vonones II's elder brother was the Parthian King Artabanus III. Vonones II was the namesake of his maternal relative Vonones I, as he was born and raised in the Parthian Empire.

From about 11 until 51, Vonones II served as a King of Media Atropatene, a period about which little is known.

After the death of his nephew Gotarzes II, Vonones II was raised to the Parthian Kingship in 51. However, he died a few months into his reign, and was succeeded by his son, Vologases I. Tacitus wrote that Vonones II “knew neither success nor failure which have deserved to be remembered to him. It was a short and inglorious reign”.From a Greek concubine, Vonones II had 5 sons who held the thrones of Parthia and Armenia: Pacorus II, Vologases I, Osroes I, Tiridates I and Mithridates IV. His sons were born and raised during his Kingship of Media Atropatene.

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