109th United States Congress

The One Hundred Ninth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives, from January 3, 2005 to January 3, 2007, during the fifth and sixth years of George W. Bush's presidency. House members were elected in the 2004 elections on November 2, 2004. Senators were elected in three classes in the 2000 elections on November 7, 2000, 2002 elections on November 5, 2002, or 2004 elections on November 2, 2004. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Twenty-second Census of the United States in 2000. Both chambers had a Republican majority, the same party as President Bush.

109th United States Congress
108th ←
→ 110th
Dennis Hastert 2
January 3, 2005 – January 3, 2007
Senate PresidentDick Cheney (R)
Senate President pro temTed Stevens (R)
House SpeakerDennis Hastert (R)
Members100 senators
435 members of the House
5 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityRepublican
House MajorityRepublican
Sessions
1st: January 4, 2005 – December 22, 2005
2nd: January 3, 2006 – December 8, 2006

Major events

Major legislation

Enacted

With Sen. Bill Frist (R-Tenn.) looking on, President George W. Bush signs into law S-3728, the North Korea Nonproliferation Act of 2006, Friday, Oct. 13, 2006, in the Oval Office
With Sen. Bill Frist (R-TN) looking on, President George W. Bush signs into law Pub.L. 109–353, the North Korea Nonproliferation Act of 2006, on October 13, 2006.

Proposed, but not enacted

More information: Complete index of Public and Private Laws for 109th Congress at U.S. Government Printing Office

Hearings

  • Congressional response to the NSA warrantless surveillance program (Senate Judiciary; House Intelligence; Democrats of the House Judiciary)

Party summary

Senate

109senate
Party standings in the Senate during the 109th Congress
  44 Democratic Senators
  1 Independent Senator, caucusing with Democrats
  55 Republican Senators

The party summary for the Senate remained the same during the entire 109th Congress. On January 16, 2006, Democrat Jon Corzine resigned, but Democrat Bob Menendez was appointed and took Corzine's seat the next day.

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic
(D)
Independent
(I)
Republican
(R)
End of the previous congress 48 1 51 100 0
Begin 44 1 55 100 0
End
Final voting share 44.0% 1.0% 55.0%
Beginning of the next congress 49 2 49 100 0

House of Representatives

Due to resignations and special elections, Republicans lost a net of three seats; Democrats gained one seat; three seats were left vacant; and one seat which was vacant at the beginning of the Congress was filled. All seats were filled though special elections. (See Changes in membership, below.)

Affiliation Party
(Shading shows control)
Total
Democratic Independent Republican Vacant
End of previous Congress 207 1 225 433 2
Begin 201 1 232 434 1
March 10, 2005 202 435 0
April 29, 2005 231 434 1
August 2, 2005 230 433 2
September 6, 2005 231 434 1
December 1, 2005 230 433 2
December 7, 2005 231 434 1
January 16, 2006 201 433 2
June 9, 2006 230 432 3
June 13, 2006 231 433 2
September 29, 2006 230 432 3
November 3, 2006 229 431 4
November 13, 2006 202 230 433 2
December 31, 2006 229 432 3
Final voting share 47.0% 53.0%
Non-voting members 4 1 0 5 0
Beginning of next Congress 233 0 202 435 0

Leadership

Section contents: Senate: Majority (R), Minority (D)House: Majority (R), Minority (D)

Senate

Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership

House of Representatives

Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership

Members

Senate

In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 2006; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 2008; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 2010.

Alabama

Alaska

Arizona

Arkansas

California

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

Georgia

Hawaii

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota

Ohio

Oklahoma

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota

Tennessee

Texas

Utah

Vermont

Virginia

Washington

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming

House of Representatives

109th US congress house of reps
Initial percentage of members of the House of Representatives from each party by state at the opening of the 109th Congress in January 2005

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Alabama

Alaska

Arizona

Arkansas

California

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

Georgia

Hawaii

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota

Ohio

Oklahoma

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota

Tennessee

Texas

Utah

Vermont

Virginia

Washington

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming

Non-voting members

Changes in membership

Members who came and left during this Congress.

Senate

State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
New Jersey
(1)
Jon Corzine (D) Corzine resigned to become Governor of New Jersey on January 17, 2006. Bob Menendez (D) January 18, 2006
Connecticut
(1)
Joseph Lieberman (D) Change of party affiliation Joseph Lieberman (ID) August 9, 2006

House of Representatives

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
California 5th None Representative Bob Matsui (D) died January 1, 2005 — before the end of the previous Congress. A special election was held March 8, 2005 Doris Matsui (D) March 10, 2005
Ohio 2nd Rob Portman (R) Resigned April 29, 2005 to become the United States Trade Representative. A special election was held August 2, 2005 Jean Schmidt (R) September 6, 2005[9]
California 48th Christopher Cox (R) Resigned August 2, 2005 to become chairman of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. A special election was held December 6, 2005 John Campbell (R) December 7, 2005[10]
California 50th Duke Cunningham (R) Resigned December 1, 2005 after pleading guilty to conspiracy for bribes and tax evasion. A special election was held June 6, 2006 Brian Bilbray (R) June 13, 2006[11]
New Jersey 13th Bob Menendez (D) Resigned January 16, 2006 to become a U.S. Senator. A special election was held November 7, 2006 Albio Sires (D) November 13, 2006[12]
Texas 22nd Tom DeLay (R) Resigned June 9, 2006 after a series of criminal indictments. A special election was held November 6, 2006 Shelley Sekula-Gibbs (R) November 13, 2006[13]
Florida 16th Mark Foley (R) Resigned September 29, 2006 after a teen sex scandal. Remained vacant until the next Congress.[14]
Ohio 18th Bob Ney (R) Resigned November 3, 2006 after pleading guilty to conspiracy.
Nevada 2nd Jim Gibbons (R) Resigned December 31, 2006 to become Governor of Nevada.

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (1 link), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

Caucuses

  • Anti-Value Added Tax Caucus
  • Afterschool Caucus
  • Americans Aboard Caucus
  • Armenian Caucus
  • Army Corps Reform Caucus
  • Appalachian Caucus
  • Bipartisan Disabilities Caucus
  • Biomedical Research Caucus
  • Building a Better America Caucus
  • Coalition for Autism Research and Education
  • Congressional 4-H Caucus
  • Congressional Addiction, Treatment and Recovery Caucus
  • Congressional Air Force Caucus
  • Congressional Arts Caucus
  • Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus
  • Congressional Assyrian Caucus
  • Congressional Automotive Caucus
  • Congressional Azerbaijan Caucus
  • Congressional Battlefield Caucus
  • Congressional Bike Caucus
  • Congressional Bipartisan Cerebral Palsy Caucus
  • Congressional Biotechnology Caucus
  • Congressional Black Caucus
  • Congressional Boating Caucus
  • Congressional Border Caucus
  • Congressional Bourbon Caucus
  • Congressional Brazil Caucus
  • Congressional Caucus for Bosnia
  • Congressional Caucus on Armenian Issues
  • Congressional Caucus on Central America
  • Congressional Caucus on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
  • Congressional Caucus on Global Road Safety
  • Congressional Caucus on Hellenic Issues
  • Congressional Caucus on India and Indian Americans
  • Congressional Caucus on Intellectual Property Promotion and Piracy Prevention
  • Congressional Caucus on the Judicial Branch
  • Congressional Caucus on Korea
  • Congressional Caucus on the Netherlands
  • Congressional Caucus on Sri Lanka and Sri Lankan Americans
  • Congressional Caucus on Uganda
  • Congressional Caucus on U.S.-Lebanon Relations
  • Congressional Caucus on Youth Sports
  • Congressional Caucus to Fight and Control Methamphetamine
  • Congressional Children's Caucus
  • Congressional China Caucus
  • Congressional Climate Caucus
  • Congressional Coastal Caucus
  • Congressional Coast Guard Caucus
  • Congressional Complementary and Alternative Medicine Caucus
  • Congressional Constitution Caucus
  • Congressional Correctional Officers Caucus
  • Congressional Croatian Caucus
  • Congressional Cystic Fibrosis Caucus
  • Congressional Diabetes Caucus
  • Congressional Dietary Supplement Caucus
  • Congressional Entertainment Industries Caucus
  • Congressional Ethiopian-American Caucus
  • Congressional E-911 Caucus
  • Congressional Farmer Cooperative Caucus
  • Congressional Financial and Economic Literacy Caucus
  • Congressional Fitness Caucus
  • Congressional Fire Services Caucus
  • Congressional Friends of Ireland Caucus
  • Congressional Friends of New Zealand Caucus
  • Congressional Food Safety Caucus
  • Congressional Former Mayors Caucus
  • Congressional French Caucus
  • Congressional Global Health Caucus
  • Congressional Gulf of Mexico Caucus
  • Congressional Hearing Health Caucus
  • Congressional High Tech Caucus
  • Congressional Hispanic Caucus
  • Congressional Horse Caucus
  • Congressional House Manufacturing Caucus
  • Congressional HUBZone Caucus
  • Congressional Human Rights Caucus
  • Congressional Humanities Caucus
  • Congressional International Religious Freedom Caucus
  • Congressional Immigration Reform Caucus
  • Congressional Insurance Caucus
  • Congressional Intelligent Transportation Systems Caucus
  • Congressional International Anti-Piracy Caucus
  • Congressional International Conservation Caucus
  • Congressional Internet Caucus
  • Congressional Iraqi Women's Caucus
  • Congressional Israel Allies Caucus
  • Congressional Kidney Caucus
  • Congressional Labor and Working Families Caucus
  • Congressional Life Science Caucus
  • Congressional Management Caucus
  • Congressional Manufacturing Caucus
  • Congressional Medical Professionals Caucus
  • Congressional Mental Health Caucus
  • Congressional Mentoring Caucus
  • Congressional Mine Warfare Caucus
  • Congressional Mining Caucus
  • Congressional Missing and Exploited Children's Caucus
  • Congressional Mississippi River Caucus
  • Congressional Modeling and Simulation Caucus
  • Congressional Motorsports Caucus
  • Congressional Nursing Caucus
  • Congressional Organic Caucus
  • Congressional Out of Poverty Caucus
  • Congressional Pakistan Caucus
  • Congressional Pediatric & Adult Hydrocephalus Caucus
  • Congressional Port Security Caucus
  • Congressional Portuguese-American Caucus
  • Congressional Prayer Caucus
  • Congressional Progressive Caucus
  • Congressional Real Estate Caucus
  • Congressional Rural Caucus
  • Congressional Rural Housing Caucus
  • Congressional Savings and Ownership Caucus
  • Congressional Scouting Caucus
  • Congressional Second Amendment Caucus
  • Congressional Serbian Caucus
  • Congressional Shipbuilding Caucus
  • Congressional Singapore Caucus
  • Congressional Ski and Snowboard Caucus
  • Congressional Soccer Caucus
  • Congressional Songwriters Caucus
  • Congressional Spina Bifida Caucus
  • Congressional Sportsmen's Caucus
  • Congressional Steel Caucus
  • Congressional Stop DUI Caucus
  • Congressional Submarine Caucus
  • Congressional Taiwan Caucus
  • Congressional Travel & Tourism Caucus
  • Congressional TRIO Caucus
  • Congressional United Kingdom Caucus
  • Congressional Victim's Rights Caucus
  • Congressional Vision Caucus
  • Congressional Waterways Caucus
  • Congressional Western Caucus
  • Congressional Wine Caucus
  • Congressional Wildlife Refuge Caucus
  • Congresswomen's Caucus
  • Congressional Zoo and Aquarium Caucus
  • Economic Competitiveness Caucus (House/Senate)
  • Financial and Economic Literacy Caucus
  • Friends of Job Corps Congressional Caucus
  • Friends of Scotland Caucus (House)
  • Future of American Media Caucus
  • Historic Preservation Caucus
  • Hong Kong Caucus
  • House Baltic Caucus
  • House Democratic Caucus
  • House Sugar Caucus
  • House Oceans Caucus
  • House Organic Caucus
  • House Recycling Caucus
  • House Rural Education Caucus
  • Hudson River Caucus
  • Hungarian American Caucus
  • Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Caucus
  • India Caucus
  • Indonesia Caucus
  • International Conservation Caucus
  • International Workers Rights Caucus
  • Interstate 69 Caucus
  • Intelligent Transportation Caucus
  • Kenya Caucus
  • Law Enforcement Caucus
  • Liberty Caucus
  • National Guard and Reserve Components Caucus
  • National Landscape Conservation System Caucus
  • National Marine Sanctuary Caucus
  • National Service Congressional Caucus
  • Navy-Marine Corps Caucus
  • New Democrat Coalition
  • North America's Supercorridor Caucus
  • Northern Border Caucus
  • Northeast-Midwest Congressional Coalition
  • Nuclear Issues Caucus
  • Out of Iraq Caucus
  • Passenger Rail Caucus
  • Patriot Act Reform Caucus
  • Pell Grant Caucus
  • Physics Caucus
  • Ports Caucus
  • Public Broadcasting Caucus
  • Qatari-American Economic Strategic Defense, Cultural and Educational Partnership Caucus
  • Recording Arts and Sciences Congressional Caucus
  • Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Caucus
  • Research and Development Caucus
  • River of Trade Corridor Congressional Caucus
  • Senate Democratic Caucus
  • Sex and Violence in the Media Caucus
  • Shellfish Caucus
  • Silk Road Caucus
  • Special Operations Forces Caucus
  • State Maritime Academy Caucus
  • Sudan Caucus
  • TEX-21 Congressional Caucus
  • Unexploded Ordnance Caucus
  • U.S.-Afghan Caucus
  • U.S.-Mongolia Friendship Caucus
  • U.S.-New Zealand Congressional Caucus
  • Victory in Iraq Caucus
  • Youth Challenge Caucus
  • Zero Capital Gains Tax Caucus

Employees and legislative agency directors

Legislative branch agency directors

Senate

House of Representatives

See also: Rules of the House, Rule 2: "Other officers and officials"

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Shepard, Scott (December 10, 2006). "109th may be the real 'do nothing' Congress". Cox News Service. Atlanta, GA.
  2. ^ USA Today Editorial (December 11, 2006). "Our view on Congress wrapping up: 109th Congress' big success: Lowering the achievement bar". USA Today. MacLean, VA. Archived from the original on 2007-10-21.
  3. ^ Cochran, John (2006-05-12). "'Do-Nothing Congress' Raises Critics' Ire". This Week with George Stephanopoulos. ABC.
  4. ^ "The Cafferty File: Do-Nothing Congress". The Situation Room with Wolf Blitzer. 2006-12-04. CNN.cnn.com
  5. ^ "Goodbye To The Do-Nothing Congress". Face The Nation. 2006-12-10. CBS.cbsnews.com
  6. ^ Dobbs, Lou (August 2, 2006). "Five-weeks off for 'do-nothing Congress'". CNN. Retrieved 2006-11-12.
  7. ^ Mann, T.brookings.edu; Ornstein, N. (2006). "OUP USA". N.Y., N.Y.: OUP USA. Archived from the original on 2007-09-01.
  8. ^ a b c d e The Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (DFL) is affiliated with the United States Democratic Party.
  9. ^ Ohio 2nd: A primary election was held on June 14, 2005. A runoff election was held on August 2, 2005. Jean Schmidt won and took her seat the next month. See Ohio 2nd congressional district election, 2005.
  10. ^ California 48th: A primary election was held on October 4, 2005. A runoff election was held on December 6, 2005. John Campbell won and took his seat the next day.See California 48th Congressional District Election, 2005.
  11. ^ California 50th: A primary election was held on April 11, 2006. A runoff election was held on June 6, 2006. Brian Bilbray won and took his seat one week later.See California 50th congressional district special election, 2006.
  12. ^ New Jersey 13th: An election was held to fill the unexpired term at the November 7, 2006 General Election. Sires was sworn in on November 13. See New Jersey 13th congressional district special election, 2006.
  13. ^ An election was held to fill the unexpired term at the November 7, 2006 General Election. Sekula-Gibbs took her seat on November 13.
  14. ^ 2 Election Winners to Fill Vacancies" Archived 2007-10-10 at the Wayback Machine, via wtopnews.com

External links

14 Women

14 Women is a 2007 documentary film directed by Mary Lambert and narrated by Annette Bening. The film released on June 14, 2007, and focuses on several female Senators serving in the 109th United States Congress.

2005 State of the Union Address

The 2005 State of the Union Address was delivered by United States President George W. Bush on Wednesday, February 2, 2005, in Washington, D.C. to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate).

2006 State of the Union Address

The 2006 State of the Union Address was delivered by United States President George W. Bush at 9 p.m. EST (0200 UTC) on Tuesday, January 31, 2006 to a joint session of the U.S. Congress. The address outlined the President's legislative proposals for the upcoming year and referenced the budget deficit, health care reform, the War on Terror, the Occupation of Iraq, Iran's nuclear program, the rising price of gasoline and the transfer to independent sources of alternative energy, illegal immigration, Hurricane Katrina and the federal response to natural disasters, Avian influenza (H5N1) outbreak, the Abramoff scandal and corruption within the government, the NSA spying controversy, the successful nomination of Supreme Court Justice Samuel Alito, and the Administration's proposed ban on same-sex marriage.

Newly elected Governor of Virginia Tim Kaine gave the Democratic response in English and Mayor of Los Angeles Antonio Villaraigosa did so in Spanish.

BALANCE Act

The Benefit Authors without Limiting Advancement or Net Consumer Expectations (BALANCE) Act of 2003 was a bill that would've amended Title 17 of the United States Code, "to safeguard the rights and expectations of consumers who lawfully obtain digital entertainment." The bill was proposed in the 108th Congress as H.R. 1066 by Congresswoman Zoe Lofgren (D-CA). In the 109th Congress, the bill was reintroduced and is numbered H.R. 4536. It has not been introduced into the 110th Congress.

Class Action Fairness Act of 2005

The U.S. Class Action Fairness Act of 2005, 28 U.S.C. Sections 1332(d), 1453, and 1711–1715, expanded subject-matter jurisdiction over many large class-action lawsuits and mass actions taken in the United States.

The bill was the first major piece of legislation of the second term of the Bush Administration. Business groups and tort reform supporters had lobbied for the legislation, arguing that it was needed to prevent class-action lawsuit abuse. President George W. Bush had vowed to support this legislation.

The Act permits federal courts to preside over certain class actions in diversity jurisdiction where the aggregate amount in controversy exceeds $5 million; where the class comprises at least 100 plaintiffs; and where there is at least "minimal diversity" between the parties (i.e., at least one plaintiff class member is diverse from at least one defendant). The court, however, may decline jurisdiction under certain circumstances, and is required to decline jurisdiction in certain others. The Act also directs the Courts to give greater scrutiny to class action settlements, especially those involving corporations.

Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005

The Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005 (CMEA) is federal legislation enacted in the United States on March 9, 2006, to regulate, among other things, retail over-the-counter sales of following products because of their use in the manufacture of illegal drugs:

ephedrine

pseudoephedrine

phenylpropanolamine (no longer OTC due to a proposed increased risk of stroke in younger women)Retail provisions of the CMEA include daily sales limits and 30-day purchase limits, placement of product out of direct customer access, sales logbooks, customer ID verification, employee training, and self-certification of regulated sellers. The CMEA is found as Title VII of the USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 (H.R. 3199). The last provisions of the law took effect on 30 September 2006.

Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006

The Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act (CIRA, S. 2611) was a United States Senate bill introduced in the 109th Congress (2005–2006) by Sen. Arlen Specter [PA] on April 7, 2006. Co-sponsors, who signed on the same day, were Sen. Chuck Hagel [NE], Sen. Mel Martínez [FL], Sen. John McCain [AZ], Sen. Ted Kennedy [MA], Sen. Lindsey Graham [SC], and Sen. Sam Brownback [KS].

The bill dealt with immigration reform. It proposed to increase some security along the southern United States border with Mexico, allow long-term illegal immigrants to gain legal status, and to increase the number of guest workers over and above those already present in the U.S. through a new "blue card" visa program. The sponsor of the Bill, Senator Arlen Specter, introduced it on April 7, 2006. It was passed on May 25, 2006, by a vote of 62-36. Cloture was invoked, which limited debate to a 30-hour period. The parallel House Bill H.R. 4437 would have dealt with immigration differently. Neither bill became law because the two Houses were not able to reach an agreement to go to a conference committee. The end of the 109th Congress (January 3, 2007) marked the defeat of both bills.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton Pregnant and Parenting Student Services Act

The Elizabeth Cady Stanton Pregnant and Parenting Student Services Act would establish a pilot program to provide $10 million annually for 200 grants to encourage institutions of higher education to establish and operate a pregnant and parenting student services office. The on-campus office would serve parenting students, prospective student parents who are pregnant or imminently anticipating an adoption, and students who are placing or have placed a child for adoption. It is named in honor of the prominent suffragist, Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

Family Entertainment and Copyright Act

The Family Entertainment and Copyright Act, Pub. L. 109-9, 119 Stat. 218 (April 27, 2005), is a federal legislative act regarding copyright that became law in the United States in 2005. The Act consists of two subparts: the Artist's Rights and Theft Prevention Act of 2005, which increases penalties for copyright infringement, and the Family Home Movie Act of 2005, which permits the development of technology to "sanitize" potentially offensive DVD and VOD content.

The Family Entertainment and Copyright Act was introduced into the United States Senate (of the 109th United States Congress) on January 25, 2005 by Senator Orrin Hatch (R - Utah), and was signed into law by President George W. Bush on April 27, 2005.

The act provides theater owners and employees with both civil and criminal immunity for questioning suspected violators or detaining them while police are summoned.

Iran Freedom and Support Act

The Iran Freedom Support Act (Pub.L. 109–293, 120 Stat. 1344, H.R. 6198, enacted September 30, 2006) is an Act of Congress that appropriated $10 million and directed the President of the United States to spend that money in support of "pro-democracy groups" opposed to the Iranian government. Opponents claimed the bill was a first step towards a US-led invasion of the country.In response to the passage of the bill, President George W. Bush lauded the Congress "for demonstrating its bipartisan commitment to confronting the Iranian regime's repressive and destabilizing activities."

Jessica's Law

Jessica's Law is the informal name given to a 2005 Florida law, as well as laws in several other states, designed to protect potential victims and reduce a sexual offender's ability to re-offend. A version of Jessica's Law, known as the Jessica Lunsford Act, was introduced at the federal level in 2005 but was never enacted into law by Congress.

The name is also used by the media to designate all legislation and potential legislation in other states modeled after the Florida law. Forty-two states have introduced such legislation since Florida's law was passed.

The law is named after Jessica Lunsford, a young Florida girl who was sexually battered and murdered in February 2005 by John Couey, a previously convicted sex offender. Public outrage over this case spurred Florida officials to introduce this legislation. Among the key provisions of the law was classifying lewd or lascivious molestation on a person under the age of 12 as a life felony, and a mandatory minimum sentence of 25 years in prison and lifetime electronic monitoring of adults convicted of lewd or lascivious molestation against a victim less than 12 years old. The statute also requires that if an offender is sentenced to a term of years, he or she must be given lifetime probation following the imprisonment. In Florida, another charge, capital sexual battery is defined as: A person 18 years of age or older who commits sexual battery upon, or in an attempt to commit sexual battery injures the sexual organs of, a person less than 12 years of age commits a capital felony. The charge carries a mandatory life sentence.

List of United States Senators in the 109th Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 109th United States Congress listed by seniority, from January 3, 2005, to January 3, 2007.

Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), Vice President, U.S. Representative, Cabinet secretary, or governor of a state. The final factor is the population of his or her state.Senators who were sworn in during the middle of the two-year congressional term (up until the last senator who was not sworn in early after winning the November 2006 election) are listed at the end of the list with no number.

List of freshman class members of the 109th United States Congress

The 109th United States Congress began on January 4, 2005. There were nine new senators (two Democrats, seven Republicans) and 40 new representatives (16 Democrats, 24 Republicans) at the start of its first session.

Pension Protection Act of 2006

The Pension Protection Act of 2006 (Pub. L. 109–280), 120 Stat. 780, was signed into law by U.S. President George W. Bush on August 17, 2006.

Personal Responsibility in Food Consumption Act

The American Personal Responsibility in Food Consumption Act, also known as the Cheeseburger Bill, sought to protect producers and retailers of foods—such as McDonald's Corporation—from an increasing number of suits and class action suits by obese consumers. To date these suits have been turned down by the courts, sometimes in strong terms. The Act was passed by the U.S. House of Representatives in March 2005, and did receive a Senate vote. The Act states that food-producing or retailing corporations cannot be legally held responsible for obesity, heart disease, or other health-related issues caused by consumption of their food, save for situations where actual food quality or handling was held responsible for such issues.

The bill was reintroduced in 2005 by Florida Republican Congressman Ric Keller. Keller had taken the maximum level of PAC donations up to $300,000 for his personal campaign funding from restaurants including McDonald's, Wendy's, and Burger King. On October 19, 2005, it once again passed the House with a 306-120 vote although Keller actually missed the vote due to being rushed to the hospital after suffering a cardiac arrhythmia. Once again, it failed to achieve a Senate vote.Many state legislatures have considered their own versions of the bill.

SAFE Port Act

The Security and Accountability For Every Port Act of 2006 (or SAFE Port Act, Pub.L. 109–347) was an Act of Congress in the United States covering port security and to which an online gambling measure was added at the last moment. The House and Senate passed the conference report on September 30, 2006, and President Bush signed the Act into law on October 13, 2006.

Secure Fence Act of 2006

The Secure Fence Act of 2006 (Pub.L. 109–367), also labelled H.R. 6061, is an Act of the United States Congress which authorized and partially funded the construction of 700 miles (1,125 km) of physical fence/barriers along the Mexican border. It was signed into law on October 26, 2006, by U.S. President George W. Bush, stating "This bill will help protect the American people. This bill will make our borders more secure. It is an important step toward immigration reform."Bill H.R. 6061 was introduced in the House of Representatives on September 13, 2006, by Congressman Peter T. King, Republican of New York, passing 283–138 on September 14, 2006. It passed the Senate 80–19 on September 29, 2006.

Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act

Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act was the name of two similar bills that both passed through the United States House of Representatives and Senate, but were both vetoed by President George W. Bush and were not enacted into law.

Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006

The Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006 (Pub.L. 109–432, 120 Stat. 2922), includes a package of tax extenders, provisions affecting health savings accounts and other provisions in the United States.

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