|1099 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||1852|
|Balinese saka calendar||1020–1021|
|English Regnal year||12 Will. 2 – 13 Will. 2|
|Chinese calendar||戊寅年 (Earth Tiger)|
3795 or 3735
— to —
己卯年 (Earth Rabbit)
3796 or 3736
|- Vikram Samvat||1155–1156|
|- Shaka Samvat||1020–1021|
|- Kali Yuga||4199–4200|
|Japanese calendar||Jōtoku 3 / Kōwa 1|
|Minguo calendar||813 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||1410/1411 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1641–1642|
1225 or 844 or 72
— to —
1226 or 845 or 73
Events from the 1090s in England.1099 papal election
The papal election of 1099 (held 13 August) took place upon the death of Pope Urban II, the cardinal-electors with the consent of the lower Roman clergy chose Pope Paschal II as his successor.Battle of Ascalon
The Battle of Ascalon took place on 12 August 1099 shortly after the capture of Jerusalem, and is often considered the last action of the First Crusade. The crusader army led by Godfrey of Bouillon defeated and drove off a Fatimid army, securing the safety of Jerusalem.
The Crusaders completed their primary objective of capturing Jerusalem on 15 July 1099. In early August, they learned of the invasion of a 20,000-strong Fatimid army under vizier al-Afdal Shahanshah. Under Godfrey's command the 10,200-strong Crusader army took the offensive, leaving the city on 10 August to risk everything on a great battle against the approaching Muslims. The Crusaders marched barefoot, carrying the relic of the True Cross with them, accompanied by patriarch Arnulf of Chocques. The army marched south from Jerusalem, approaching the vicinity of Ascalon on the 11th and capturing Egyptian spies who revealed al-Afdal's dispositions and strength.
At dawn on 12 August, the Crusader army launched a surprise attack on the Fatimid army still sleeping in its camp outside the walls of Ascalon. The Fatimids failed to post enough guards, leaving only a part of their army capable of fighting. The Crusaders quickly defeated the half-ready Fatimid infantry, while the Fatimid cavalry barely fought at all. The battle was over in less than an hour. The Crusader knights reached the center of the camp, capturing the vizier's standard and personal baggage, including his sword. Some Fatimids fled into the trees and were killed by Crusader arrows and lances, while others begged for mercy at the Crusaders' feet and were butchered en masse. The terrified vizier fled by ship to Egypt, leaving the Crusaders to kill any survivors and gather up a vast amount of loot. Ibn al-Qalanisi estimated 12,700 Fatimid dead.
The first Muslim attempt to recapture Jerusalem ended in complete defeat, but Godfrey failed to exploit the victory to take Ascalon, whose Fatimid garrison was willing to surrender only to Raymond of Toulouse, a condition Godfrey would not accept. The Fatimid base in Ascalon remained a thorn in the side of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and would not fall until 1153.Crenarchaeota
The Crenarchaeota (Greek for "spring old quality" as specimens were originally isolated from geothermally heated sulfuric springs in Italy) (also known as Crenarchaea or eocytes) are archaea that have been classified as a phylum of the Archaea domain. Initially, the Crenarchaeota were thought to be sulfur-dependent extremophiles but recent studies have identified characteristic Crenarchaeota environmental rRNA indicating the organisms may be the most abundant archaea in the marine environment. Originally, they were separated from the other archaea based on rRNA sequences; other physiological features, such as lack of histones, have supported this division, although some crenarchaea were found to have histones. Until recently all cultured Crenarchaea had been thermophilic or hyperthermophilic organisms, some of which have the ability to grow at up to 113 °C. These organisms stain Gram negative and are morphologically diverse having rod, cocci, filamentous and oddly shaped cells.Donald III of Scotland
Donald III (Medieval Gaelic: Domnall mac Donnchada; Modern Gaelic: Dòmhnall mac Dhonnchaidh), and nicknamed "Donald the Fair" or "Donald the White" (Medieval Gaelic:"Domnall Bán", anglicised as Donald Bane/Bain or Donalbane/Donalbain), (c. 1032–1099) was King of Scots from 1093–1094 and 1094–1097.El Cid
Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (c. 1043 – 10 July 1099) was a Castilian nobleman and military leader in medieval Spain. The Moors called him El Cid (Spanish pronunciation: [el̟ˈθið]), which meant the Lord (probably from the original Arabic al-sayyid, السَّيِّد), and the Christians, El Campeador, which stood for "Outstanding Warrior" or "The one who stands out in the battlefield". He was born in Vivar del Cid, a town near the city of Burgos. After his death, he became Castile's celebrated national hero and the protagonist of the most significant medieval Spanish epic poem, El Cantar de Mio Cid.Born a member of the minor nobility, El Cid was brought up at the court of King Ferdinand the Great and served Ferdinand's son, Sancho II of León and Castile. He rose to become the commander and royal standard-bearer (armiger regis) of Castile upon Sancho's ascension in 1065. Rodrigo went on to lead the Castilian military campaigns against Sancho's brothers, Alfonso VI of León and García II of Galicia, as well as in the Muslim kingdoms in Al-Andalus. He became renowned for his military prowess in these campaigns, which helped expand Castilian territory at the expense of the Muslims and Sancho's brothers' kingdoms. When conspirators murdered Sancho in 1072, Rodrigo found himself in a difficult situation. Since Sancho was childless, the throne passed to his brother Alfonso, the same whom El Cid had helped remove from power. Although Rodrigo continued to serve the Castilian sovereign, he lost his ranking in the new court which treated him at arm's length and suspiciously. Finally, in 1081, he was ordered into exile.El Cid found work fighting for the Muslim rulers of Zaragoza, whom he defended from its traditional enemy, Aragon. While in exile, he regained his reputation as a strategist and formidable military leader. He repeatedly turned out victorious in battle against the Muslim rulers of Lérida and their Christian allies, as well as against a large Christian army under King Sancho Ramírez of Aragon. In 1086, an expeditionary army of North African Almoravids inflicted a severe defeat to Castile, compelling Alfonso to overcome the resentments he harboured against El Cid. The terms for the return to the Christian service must have been attractive enough since Rodrigo soon found himself fighting for his former Lord. Over the next several years, however, El Cid set his sights on the kingdom-city of Valencia, operating more or less independently of Alfonso while politically supporting the Banu Hud and other Muslim dynasties opposed to the Almoravids. He gradually increased his control over Valencia; the Islamic ruler, Yahya al-Qadir, became his tributary in 1092. When the Almoravids instigated an uprising that resulted in the death of al-Qadir, El Cid responded by laying siege to the city. Valencia finally fell in 1094, and El Cid established an independent principality on the Mediterranean coast of Spain. He ruled over a pluralistic society with the popular support of Christians and Muslims alike.El Cid's final years were spent fighting the Almoravid Berbers. He inflicted upon them their first major defeat in 1094, on the plains of Caurte, outside Valencia, and continued resisting them until his death. Although Rodrigo remained undefeated in Valencia, his only son, and heir, Diego Rodríguez died fighting against the Almoravids in the service of Alfonso in 1097. After El Cid's death in 1099, his wife, Jimena Díaz, succeeded him as ruler of Valencia, but she was eventually forced to surrender the principality to the Almoravids in 1102.
To this day, El Cid remains a Spanish popular folk-hero and national icon, with his life and deeds remembered in plays, films, folktales, songs, and even video games.First Crusade
The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.
Urban called for a military expedition to aid the Byzantine Empire, which had recently lost most of Anatolia to the Seljuq Turks.
The resulting military expedition of primarily Frankish nobles, known as the Princes' Crusade, not only re-captured Anatolia but went on to conquer the Holy Land (the Levant), which had fallen to Islamic expansion as early as the 7th century, and culminated in July 1099 in the re-conquest of Jerusalem and the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The expedition was a reaction to the appeal for military aid by Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos. Urban's convocation of the Council of Clermont was specifically dedicated to this purpose, proposing siege warfare against the recently occupied cities of Nicaea and Antioch, even though Urban's speech at Clermont in the testimony of witnesses writing after 1100 was phrased to allude to the re-conquest of Jerusalem and the Holy Land as additional goals.
The successful Princes' Crusade was preceded by the "people crusade", which was a popular movement
instigated by Peter the Hermit in the spring of 1096. Mobs of peasants and laymen travelled to Anatolia where they came up against the Turks, on the way attacking populations of Jews in the Rhineland. They were decisively defeated at the Battle of Civetot in October.
The Princes' Crusade, by contrast, was a well-organized military campaign, starting out in late summer of 1096 and arriving at Constantinople between November 1096 and April 1097.
The crusaders marched into Anatolia, capturing Nicaea in June 1097 and Antioch in June 1098. They arrived at Jerusalem in June 1099 and took the city by assault on 7 July 1099, massacring the defenders. A brief attempt by the Saracens to recapture Jerusalem was repulsed at the Battle of Ascalon.
During their conquests, the crusaders established the Latin Rite crusader states of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Tripoli, the Principality of Antioch, and the County of Edessa. This was contrary to the wishes of the Eastern Rite Byzantines, who wanted the land that the Muslims took from them returned, rather than occupied by Latin Catholics. After the retaking of Jerusalem, most of the crusaders returned home. This left the crusader kingdoms vulnerable to Muslim reconquest during the Second and Third Crusades.Form 1099
Form 1099 is one of several IRS tax forms (see the variants section) used in the United States to prepare and file an information return to report various types of income other than wages, salaries, and tips (for which Form W-2 is used instead). The term information return is used in contrast to the term tax return although the latter term is sometimes used colloquially to describe both kinds of returns.
The form is used to report payments to independent contractors, rental property income, income from interest and dividends, sales proceeds and other miscellaneous income. Blank 1099 forms and the related instructions can be downloaded from the IRS website.IPhone XS
iPhone XS and iPhone XS Max (stylized as iPhone Xs and iPhone Xs Max, Roman numeral "X" pronounced "ten") are smartphones designed, developed and marketed by Apple Inc. They are the twelfth-generation flagships of the iPhone, succeeding the iPhone X. They were announced on September 12, 2018 alongside the lower-priced iPhone XR at the Steve Jobs Theater in Apple Park, Cupertino by Apple CEO Tim Cook, with pre-orders beginning September 14, 2018 and official release on September 21, 2018.The XS Max is the first plus-sized iPhone in the new bezel-less form factor, as the 2017 iPhone X did not have a larger variant. Upon the release of the XS and XS Max, the X was discontinued, meaning that its shelf life of only 10 months was the shortest ever tenure as flagship device in the history of the iPhone. At release the XS and XS Max had starting prices of $999/$1099 in the US, £999/£1099 in the UK, €1149/€1249 in Europe, RMB8699/RMB9599 in China and Rs99900/Rs109900 in India.IRS tax forms
Internal Revenue Service (IRS) tax forms are forms used for taxpayers and tax-exempt organizations to report financial information to the Internal Revenue Service of the United States. They are used to report income, calculate taxes to be paid to the federal government, and disclose other information as required by the Internal Revenue Code (IRC). There are over 800 various forms and schedules. Other tax forms in the United States are filed with state and local governments.Independent contractor
An independent contractor is a natural person, business, or corporation that provides goods or services to another entity under terms specified in a contract or within a verbal agreement. Unlike an employee, an independent contractor does not work regularly for an employer but works as and when required, during which time they may be subject to law of agency. Independent contractors are usually paid on a freelance basis. Contractors often work through a limited company or franchise, which they themselves own, or may work through an umbrella company.
In the United States, any company or organization engaged in a trade or business that pays more than $600 to an independent contractor in one year is required to report this to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) as well as to the contractor, using Form 1099-MISC. This form is merely a report of the money paid; independent contractors do not have income taxes withheld like regular employees.Kingdom of Jerusalem
The (Latin) Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade. The kingdom lasted nearly two hundred years, from 1099 until 1291 when the last remaining possession, Acre, was destroyed by the Mamluks. Its history is divided into two distinct periods. The sometimes so-called First Kingdom of Jerusalem lasted from 1099 to 1187, when it was almost entirely overrun by Saladin. After the subsequent Third Crusade, the kingdom was re-established in Acre in 1192, and lasted until that city's destruction in 1291, except for a brief two decades in which Frederick II of Hohenstaufen reclaimed Jerusalem back into Christian hands after the Sixth Crusade. This second kingdom is sometimes called the Second Kingdom of Jerusalem or the Kingdom of Acre, after its new capital. Most of the crusaders who settled there were of French origin.Kōwa (Heian period)
Kowa (康和) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, "year name") after Jōtoku and before Chōji. This period spanned the years from August 1099 through February 1104. The reigning emperor was Horikawa-tennō (堀河天皇).Nanoarchaeota
Nanoarchaeota (Greek, "dwarf or tiny ancient one") are a phylum of the Archaea. This phylum currently has only one representative, Nanoarchaeum equitans.Orders, decorations, and medals of Russia
The State Award System of the Russian Federation has varied and distinct origins. The first being pre-1917 orders of the Russian Empire re-established after the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union, the second is from former Soviet orders that were slightly modified and retained post 1991, we also find many completely new awards resembling Imperial awards in basic design since the reintroduction of Russian heraldry.
Originally set up following the dissolution of the Soviet Union by Decision of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation № 2557-I of March 20, 1992, the statutes of all state awards was later ratified in Presidential Decree № 442 of March 2, 1994. The entire state awards' system of the Russian Federation was amended on September 7, 2010 by presidential decree № 1099, this all encompassing decree distanced modern Russian awards from their Soviet roots. Presidential Decree № 1631 of December 16, 2011 amended and finalized the order of precedence of all modern Russian awards. Awards can be revoked by the State Duma if the recipient is not deemed fit to receive the award.Pope Urban II
Pope Urban II (Latin: Urbanus II; c. 1035 – 29 July 1099), born Odo of Châtillon or Otho de Lagery, was Pope from 12 March 1088 to his death in 1099.
Urban II was a native of France. He was a descendant of a noble family in Châtillon-sur-Marne. Reims was the nearby cathedral school that Urban, at that time Eudes, began his studies at 1050.Before his papacy he was the abbot of Cluny and Bishop of Ostia under the name Eudes. As the Pope he would have to deal with many issues including the antipope Clement III, infighting of various christian nations, and the Muslim incursions into Europe. He is best known for initiating the First Crusade (1096–99) and setting up the modern-day Roman Curia in the manner of a royal ecclesiastical court to help run the Church. He promised forgiveness and pardon for all of the past sins of those who would fight to reclaim the holy land, and free the eastern churches. This pardon would also apply to those that would fight the Moors in Spain.Siege of Jerusalem (1099)
The Siege of Jerusalem took place from June 7 to July 15, 1099, during the First Crusade. The climax of the First Crusade, the successful siege saw the Crusaders take Jerusalem from the Fatimid Caliphate and laid the foundations for the Kingdom of Jerusalem.Thai Industrial Standard 1099-2548
Thai Industry Standard 1099-2548 (short TIS 1099) is a national standard assigning numerical codes to the administrative subdivisions of Thailand, published in 2005 by the Thai Industrial Standards Institute.USS Okala (ARST-2)
USS Okala (ARST-2) was a Laysan Island class salvage craft tender of the United States Navy.