1080p

1080p (1920×1080 px; also known as Full HD or FHD and BT.709) is a set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels down the screen vertically;[1] the p stands for progressive scan, i.e. non-interlaced. The term usually assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, implying a resolution of 2.1 megapixels. It is often marketed as full HD, to contrast 1080p with 720p resolution screens.

1080p video signals are supported by ATSC standards in the United States and DVB standards in Europe. Applications of the 1080p standard include television broadcasts, Blu-ray Discs, smartphones, Internet content such as YouTube videos and Netflix TV shows and movies, consumer-grade televisions and projectors, computer monitors and video game consoles. Small camcorders, smartphones and digital cameras can capture still and moving images in 1080p resolution.

Definitions of TV standards
TV standards through 1080p. The red-tinted image shows 576i or 576p resolution. The blue-tinted image shows 720p resolution, a HDTV level of resolution. The full-color image shows 1080p resolution.
Full hd logo
a 1080 logo

Broadcasting standards

Any screen device that advertises 1080p typically refers to the ability to accept 1080p signals in native resolution format, which means there are a true 1920 pixels in width and 1080 pixels in height, and the display is not over-scanning, under-scanning, or reinterpreting the signal to a lower resolution. The HD ready 1080p logo program, by DIGITALEUROPE, requires that certified TV sets support 1080p 24 fps, 1080p 50 fps, and 1080p 60 fps formats, among other requirements, with fps meaning frames per second. For live broadcast applications, a high-definition progressive scan format operating at 1080p at 50 or 60 frames per second is currently being evaluated as a future standard for moving picture acquisition. Although 24 frames per second is used for shooting the movies.[2][3] EBU has been endorsing 1080p50 as a future-proof production format because it improves resolution and requires no deinterlacing, allows broadcasting of standard 1080i25 and 720p50 signal alongside 1080p50 even in the current infrastructure and is compatible with DCI distribution formats.[4][5]

1080p50/p60 production format requires a whole new range of studio equipment including cameras, storage and editing systems,[6] and contribution links (such as Dual-link HD-SDI and 3G-SDI) as it has doubled the data rate of current 50 or 60 fields interlaced 1920x1080 from 1.485 Gbit/s to nominally 3 Gbit/s using uncompressed RGB encoding. Most current revisions of SMPTE 372M, SMPTE 424M and EBU Tech 3299 require YCbCr color space and 4:2:2 chroma subsampling for transmitting 1080p50 (nominally 2.08 Gbit/s) and 1080p60 signal. Studies from 2009 show that for digital broadcasts compressed with H.264/AVC, transmission bandwidth savings of interlaced video over fully progressive video are minimal even when using twice the frame rate; i.e., 1080p50 signal (50 progressive frames per second) actually produces the same bit rate as 1080i50 signal (25 interlaced frames or 50 sub-fields per second).[4][5][7]

ATSC

In the United States, the original ATSC standards for HDTV supported 1080p video, but only at the frame rates of 23.976, 24, 25, 29.97 and 30 frames per second (colloquially known as 1080p24, 1080p25 and 1080p30). In July 2008, the ATSC standards were amended to include H.264/MPEG-4 AVC compression and 1080p at 50, 59.94 and 60 frames per second (1080p50 and 1080p60). Such frame rates require H.264/AVC High Profile Level 4.2, while standard HDTV frame rates only require Level 4.0. This update is not expected to result in widespread availability of 1080p60 programming, since most of the existing digital receivers in use would only be able to decode the older, less-efficient MPEG-2 codec, and because there is a limited amount of bandwidth for subchannels.

DVB

In Europe, 1080p25 signals have been supported by the DVB suite of broadcasting standards. The 1080p50 format is considered to be a future-proof production format and, eventually, a future broadcasting format.[2] 1080p50 broadcasting should require the same bandwidth as 1080i50 signal and only 15–20% more than that of 720p50 signal due to increased compression efficiency,[4] though 1080p50 production requires more bandwidth or more efficient codecs such as JPEG 2000, high-bitrate MPEG-2, or H.264/AVC and HEVC.[5][8] In September 2009, ETSI and EBU, the maintainers of the DVB suite, added support for 1080p50 signal coded with MPEG-4 AVC High Profile Level 4.2 with Scalable Video Coding extensions or VC-1 Advanced Profile compression; DVB also supports 1080p encoded at ATSC frame rates of 23.976, 24, 29.97, 30, 59.94 and 60.[9][10]

EBU requires that legacy MPEG-4 AVC decoders should avoid crashing in the presence of SVC or 1080p50 (and higher resolution) packets.[9] SVC enables forward compatibility with 1080p50 and 1080p60 broadcasting for older MPEG-4 AVC receivers, so they will only recognize baseline SVC stream coded at a lower resolution or frame rate (such as 720p60 or 1080i60) and will gracefully ignore additional packets, while newer hardware will be able to decode full-resolution signal (such as 1080p60).

In June 2016, EBU announced the "Advanced 1080p" format[11] which will include UHD Phase A features such as high-dynamic-range video (using PQ and HLG) at 10 and 12 bit color and BT.2020 color gamut, and optional HFR 100, 120/1.001 and 120 Hz; an advanced 1080p video stream can be encoded alongside baseline HDTV or UHDTV signal using Scalable HEVC. The ITU-T BT.2100 standard that includes Advanced 1080p video was subsequently published in July 2016.

Resolutions

The following is a list of standard 1080p resolutions.

Standard Resolution Aspect ratio
1080p HD Widescreen 1920×1080 16:9
1080p SD 1440×1080 4:3
UltraWide HD 2560x1080 64:27
Super Ultrawide 3840x1080 32:9
Rec. 601 1620×1080 3:2
FullHD+ 2160×1080 2:1

Availability

Vector Video Standards8
This chart shows the most common display resolutions, 16:9 formats shown in blue.

Broadcasts

In the United States, 1080p over-the-air are currently being broadcast experimentally using ATSC 3.0 on NBC Affiliate WRAL-TV in North Carolina, with select stations in the US announcing that there will be new ATSC 3.0 technology that will be transmitted with 1080p Broadcast television, such as Fox Affiliate WJW-TV in Cleveland.[12][13] All other broadcast television stations do not broadcast at 1080p as ATSC 3.0 is currently in experimentation and in test trials while all major broadcast networks use either 720p60 or 1080i60 encoded with MPEG-2. While converting to ATSC 3.0 is voluntary, there is no word when any of the major networks will consider airing at 1080p in the foreseeable future. However, satellite services (e.g., DirecTV, XstreamHD and Dish Network) utilize the 1080p/24-30 format with MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 encoding for pay-per-view movies that are downloaded in advance via satellite or on-demand via broadband. At this time, no pay service channel such as USA, HDNET, etc. nor premium movie channel such as HBO, etc., stream their services live to their distributors (MVPD) in this format because many MVPDs, especially DBS and cable, do not have sufficient bandwidth to provide the format streaming live to their subscribers without negatively impacting their current services.

For material that originates from a progressive scanned 24 frame/s source (such as film), MPEG-2 lets the video be coded as 1080p24, irrespective of the final output format. These progressively-coded frames are tagged with metadata (literally, fields of the PICTURE header) instructing a decoder how to perform a 3:2 pulldown to interlace them. While the formal output of the MPEG-2 decoding process from such stations is 1080i60, the actual content is coded as 1080p24 and can be viewed as such (using a process known as inverse telecine) since no information is lost even when the broadcaster performs the 3:2 pulldown.[14]

In June 2016, Germany commenced terrestrial broadcasts of eight 1080p50 high-definition channels, using DVB-T2 protocol with HEVC encoding; a total of 40 channels will be available by March 2017.[15]

Blu-ray Disc

Blu-ray Discs are able to hold 1080p HD content, and most movies released on Blu-ray Disc produce a full 1080p HD picture when the player is connected to a 1080p HDTV via an HDMI cable. The Blu-ray Disc video specification allows encoding of 1080p23.976, 1080p24, 1080i50, and 1080i59.94. Generally this type of video runs at 30 to 40 megabits per second, compared to the 3.5 megabits per second for conventional standard definition broadcasts.[16]

Smartphones

Smartphones with 1080p FullHD display have been available on the market since 2012. As of late-2014, it is the standard for mid-range to high-end smartphones and many of the flagship devices of 2014 used even higher resolutions, either Quad HD (1440p) or Ultra HD (2160p) resolutions.

Internet content

Several websites, including YouTube, allow videos to be uploaded in the 1080p format. YouTube streams 1080p content at approximately 4 megabits per second[17] compared to Blu-ray's 30 to 40 megabits per second. Digital distribution services also deliver 1080p content, such as movies available on Blu-ray Disc or from broadcast sources. This can include distribution services like peer-to-peer websites and public or private tracking networks. Netflix has been offering high quality 1080p content in the US and other countries through select internet providers since 2013.[18]

Consumer televisions and projectors

As of 2012, most consumer televisions being sold provide 1080p inputs, mainly via HDMI, and support full high-definition resolutions. 1080p resolution is available in all types of television, including plasma, LCD, DLP front and rear projection and LCD projection. For displaying film-based 1080i60 signals, a scheme called 3:2 pulldown reversal (reverse telecine) is beginning to appear in some newer 1080p displays, which can produce a true 1080p quality image from film-based 1080i60 programs. Similarly, 25fps content broadcast at 1080i50 may be deinterlaced to 1080p content with no loss of quality or resolution.

AV equipment manufacturers have adopted the term Full HD to mean a set can display all available HD resolutions up to 1080p. The term is misleading, however, because it does not guarantee the set is capable of rendering digital video at all frame rates encoded in source files with 1920 X 1080 pixel resolution. Most notably, a "Full HD" set is not guaranteed to support the 1080p24 format, leading to consumer confusion.[19][20][21] DigitalEurope (formerly EICTA) maintains the HD ready 1080p logo program that requires the certified TV sets to support 1080p24, 1080p50, and 1080p60, without overscan/underscan and picture distortion.

Computer monitors

Most widescreen cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors can natively display 1080p content. For example, widescreen WUXGA monitors support 1920x1200 resolution, which can display a pixel for pixel reproduction of the 1080p (1920×1080) format. Additionally, many 23, 24, and 27-inch (690 mm) widescreen LCD monitors use 1920×1200 as their native resolution; 30 inch displays can display beyond 1080p at up to 2560×1600 (1600p). Many 27" monitors have native resolutions of 2560×1440 and hence operate at 1440p.

Video game consoles

Video game consoles such as Sony's PlayStation 3 and PlayStation 4, Microsoft's Xbox, Xbox 360 and Xbox One and Nintendo's Wii U and Switch in docked mode, as well as microconsoles like OUYA, GameStick and Nvidia Shield can display upscaled games and video content in 1080p, although the vast majority of games are rendered at lower resolutions.[22] For all of the consoles, this is done through HDMI connections (in the case of the Xbox 360, HDMI is only available on consoles manufactured after June 2007). Additionally, the upscaled 1080p video is available on the PS3 and PS4, Xbox 360 and Xbox One, Nintendo Switch, and Wii U via an analog component/D-Terminal (YPBPR) connection, as well as the VGA connection on the Xbox 360. On the PlayStation 3, developers must provide specific resolution support at the software level as there is no hardware upscaling support, whereas on the Xbox 360 games can be upscaled using a built in hardware scaler chip. However, most games on both consoles do not run at a native 1080p resolution.

The Wii U, PS3, PS4, Xbox One, and Xbox 360 provide 1080p video services. Sony provides both the PlayStation Store VOD service and Blu-ray Disc playback.[23][24] Microsoft provides the Zune Video Marketplace for "instant on" 1080p video content but does not have Blu-ray disc playback capability. It does however support the now-defunct HD DVD disc standard via the Xbox 360 HD DVD Player add-on. Both consoles also offer support for streaming 1080p content in various formats over home network from other computers, and also via USB connection to external storage devices.

  • ^† Due to potential copyright issues, when an analog component connection is used, only system menus and gameplay are available in 1080p; video content is displayed at a lower resolution or in 1080i.
  • ^‡ While 1080p analog component output is supported by the consoles, some display hardware will only accept component connections up to 1080i.

Cameras

Many cameras—professional and consumer still, action and video cameras, including DSLR cameras—and other devices with built-in cameras such as laptops, smartphones and tablet computers, can capture 1080p24, 1080p25, 1080p30 or 1080p60 video, often encoding it in progressive segmented frame format.

See also

References

  1. ^ Robert Silva (2 September 2018). "720p vs 1080p – A Comparison". Lifewire.com. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  2. ^ a b "EBU R115-2005: Future high definition television systems" (PDF). EBU. May 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 May 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2009.
  3. ^ "Tech 3299: High Definition (HD) Image Formats for Television Production" (PDF). EBU. December 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 December 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
  4. ^ a b c "IBC 2011: 10 things you need to know about... 1080p/50" (PDF). EBU. September 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  5. ^ a b c "Technical Report 14: What follows HDTV? A status report on 1080p/50 and '4k'" (PDF). EBU. June 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-13.
  6. ^ "Interoperability and File-based production for HDTV: How far away is 1080p/50,60 from mainstream production?" (PDF). EBU. Retrieved 31 October 2010.
  7. ^ HDTV, ATD, archived from the original (FAQ) on July 27, 2009
  8. ^ "Technical Report 008: HDTV Contribution Codecs" (PDF). EBU. March 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
  9. ^ a b EBU (March 2009). "EBU – TECH 3333: HDTV Receiver Requirements" (PDF). EBU. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 April 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2009.
  10. ^ "ETSI TS 101 154 V1.9.1". Archived from the original on 20 May 2009. Retrieved 18 May 2009.
  11. ^ EBU TR 037 – Video System Requirements for UHDTV and an Advanced 1080p television format
  12. ^ "WRAL Launches ATSC 3.0 Service". TVNewsCheck. Retrieved 29 June 2016.Jessell, Henry (April 2, 2015). "Cleveland To Be Site Of Next-Gen Test Station". TVNewsCheck. Retrieved April 2, 2015.
  13. ^ Jessell, Henry (April 2, 2015). "Cleveland To Be Site Of Next-Gen Test Station". TVNewsCheck. Retrieved April 2, 2015.
  14. ^ "Force Film, IVTC, and Deinterlacing – what is DVD2AVI trying to tell you and what can you do about it". Doom9.org. 18 April 2003. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  15. ^ "DVB-T2 to launch in Germany with 40 channels". 6 June 2016.
  16. ^ Blu-ray Disc Association (May 2005). "White paper, Blu-ray Disc Format, 2.B Audio Visual Application Format Specifications for BD-ROM" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 October 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2009.
  17. ^ Ou, George (2009-11-13). "YouTube Will Support 1080p 3.7 Mbps Next Week". digital society.org. Archived from the original on 2014-09-03. Retrieved 2014-08-28.
  18. ^ Lawler, Richard (2013-01-08). "Netflix launches 'Super HD' and 3D streaming – but only through certain ISPs". Engadget.com. Retrieved 2014-02-10.
  19. ^ White, Charlie (Jan 8, 2007). "Full HD and HD1080: What's the Diff?". Gizmodo. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  20. ^ Twist, Jo (March 21, 2005). "Confusion over high-definition TV". BBC News. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  21. ^ "HDTV Formats" (Information Paper). Technical Report. Geneva: EBU TECHNICAL. 005: 13. February 2010.
  22. ^ Gilbert, Ben. "Wii U is 1080p; has HDMI out, internal flash memory, SD and USB storage support". WiiUDaily. WiiUDaily. Archived from the original on 2012-12-13. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
  23. ^ Movies & TV, PlayStation, archived from the original on June 27, 2009
  24. ^ Blu-ray Disc Movies, PlayStation, archived from the original on January 26, 2010

External links

1080i

1080i (also known as Full HD or BT.709) is an abbreviation referring to a combination of frame resolution and scan type, used in high-definition television (HDTV) and high-definition video. The number "1080" refers to the number of horizontal lines on the screen. The "i" is an abbreviation for "interlaced"; this indicates that only the odd lines, then the even lines of each frame (each image called a video field) are drawn alternately, so that only half the number of actual image frames are used to produce video. A related display resolution is 1080p, which also has 1080 lines of resolution; the "p" refers to progressive scan, which indicates that the lines of resolution for each frame are "drawn" in on the screen sequence.

The term assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9 (a rectangular TV that is wider than it is tall), so the 1080 lines of vertical resolution implies 1920 columns of horizontal resolution, or 1920 pixels × 1080 lines. A 1920 pixels × 1080 lines screen has a total of 2.1 megapixels (2.1 million pixels) and a temporal resolution of 50 or 60 interlaced fields per second. This format is used in the SMPTE 292M standard.

The choice of 1080 lines originates with Charles Poynton, who in the early 1990s pushed for "square pixels" to be used in HD video formats.

2K resolution

2K resolution is a generic term for display devices or content having horizontal resolution of approximately 2,000 pixels. Digital Cinema Initiatives (DCI) defines 2K resolution standard as 2048×1080.In the movie projection industry, DCI is the dominant standard for 2K output.

4K resolution

4K resolution, also called 4K, refers to a horizontal display resolution of approximately 4,000 pixels. Digital television and digital cinematography commonly use several different 4K resolutions. In television and consumer media, 3840 × 2160 (4K UHD) is the dominant 4K standard. In the movie projection industry, 4096 × 2160 (DCI 4K) is the dominant 4K standard.

The 4K television market share increased as prices fell dramatically during 2014 and 2015. By 2020, more than half of U.S. households are expected to have 4K-capable TVs, a much faster adoption rate than that of Full HD (1080p).

Allwinner Technology

Allwinner Technology is a fabless semiconductor company that designs mixed-signal systems on a chip (SoC). The company is headquartered in Zhuhai, Guangdong, China. It has a sales and technical support office in Shenzhen, Guangdong, and logistics operations in Hong Kong.

Since its founding in 2007, Allwinner has released over fifteen SoC processors for use in Android-based tablets, as well as in smartphones, over-the-air OTT boxes, video camera systems, car DVRs, and car media players.

Amazon Video

Prime Video is an Internet video on demand service that is developed, owned, and operated by Amazon. It offers television shows and films for rent or purchase and Prime Video, a selection of Amazon Studios original content and licensed acquisitions included in the Amazon's Prime subscription. In the UK, US, Germany, and Austria, access to Prime Video is also available through a video-only membership, which does not require a full Prime subscription. In countries like France and Italy, Rent or Buy and Prime Video are not available on the Amazon website and Prime Video content is only accessible through a dedicated website. In some countries Amazon Video additionally offers Amazon Channels, which allows viewers to subscribe to other suppliers' content, including HBO in the United States.Launched on September 7, 2006 as Amazon Unbox in the United States, the service grew with its expanding library, and added the Prime Video membership with the development of Prime. It was then renamed as Amazon Instant Video on Demand. After acquiring the local streaming and DVD-by-mail service LoveFilm in 2011, Prime Video was added to Prime in the United Kingdom, Germany and Austria in 2014, a move that angered some Prime UK members as the bundling was non-negotiable with a 61% increase in subscription fee.In the UK, Germany, and Austria, Prime Video has been available on a monthly subscription of £5.99 or €7.99 per month, continuing the plan of LoveFilm Instant. The service was previously available in Norway, Denmark and Sweden in 2012, but was discontinued in 2013. On April 18, 2016, Amazon split Prime Video from Amazon Prime in the US for $8.99 per month. The service also hosts Amazon Original content alongside titles on Video as well.

On December 14, 2016, Amazon Video launched worldwide (except for Mainland China, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Syria) expanding its reach beyond US, UK, Germany, Austria, and Japan. Among the new territories, the service was included with Prime in Belgium, Canada, France, India, Italy, Spain, Poland, and Brazil, while for all other countries – for instance Bulgaria, it was made available for a monthly promotional price of $/€2.99 per month for the first six months and $/€5.99 per month thereafter.

HD ready

The HD ready is a certification program introduced in 2005 by EICTA (European Information, Communications and Consumer Electronics Technology Industry Associations), now DIGITALEUROPE. HD ready minimum native resolution is 720 rows in widescreen ratio.

There are currently four different labels: "HD ready", "HD TV", "HD ready 1080p", "HD TV 1080p". The logos are awarded to television equipment capable of certain features.

In the United States, a similar "HD Ready" term usually refers to any display that is capable of accepting and displaying a high-definition signal at either 720p, 1080i or 1080p using a component video or digital input, but does not have a built-in HD-capable tuner.

HTC One series

HTC One is a series of Android and Windows Phone smartphones designed and manufactured by HTC. All products in the One series were designed to be touchscreen-based and slate-sized, and to initially run the Android mobile operating system (Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich or subsequent Android releases) with the HTC Sense graphical user interface. The one exception to this is the HTC One (M8), which came in a Windows Phone variant in addition to several Android variants. From 2010 to 2013, all HTC products starting from the HTC Sensation XE to the HTC One Mini were equipped with a Beats Audio equalizer. Later HTC devices beginning with the HTC One Max no longer ship with Beats Audio following the buyback of HTC's stake in Beats Electronics.

High-definition television

High-definition television (HDTV) is a television system providing an image resolution that is of substantially higher resolution than that of standard-definition television. This can be either analog or digital. HDTV is the current standard video format used in most broadcasts: terrestrial broadcast television, cable television, satellite television, Blu-rays, and streaming video.

HDTV may be transmitted in various formats:

720p (HD ready): 1280×720p: 923,600 pixels (~0.92 MP) per frame

1080i (full HD) : 1920×1080i: 1,036,800 pixels (~1.04 MP) per field or 2,073,600 pixels (~2.07 MP) per frame

1080p (full HD): 1920×1080p: 2,073,600 pixels (~2.07 megapixels) per frame

Some countries also use a non-standard CEA resolution, such as 1440×1080i: 777,600 pixels (~0.78 MP) per field or 1,555,200 pixels (~1.56 MP) per frameThe letter "p" here stands for progressive scan, while "i" indicates interlaced.

When transmitted at two megapixels per frame, HDTV provides about five times as many pixels as SD (standard-definition television). The increased resolution provides for a clearer, more detailed picture. In addition, progressive scan and higher frame rates result in a picture with less flicker and better rendering of fast motion. HDTV as is known today first started official broadcasting in 1989 in Japan, under the MUSE/Hi-Vision analog system. HDTV was widely adopted worldwide in the late 2000s.

High-definition video

High-definition video is video of higher resolution and quality than standard-definition. While there is no standardized meaning for high-definition, generally any video image with considerably more than 480 vertical lines (North America) or 576 vertical lines (Europe) is considered high-definition. 480 scan lines is generally the minimum even though the majority of systems greatly exceed that. Images of standard resolution captured at rates faster than normal (60 frames/second North America, 50 fps Europe), by a high-speed camera may be considered high-definition in some contexts. Some television series shot on high-definition video are made to look as if they have been shot on film, a technique which is often known as filmizing.

I.MX

The i.MX range is a family of Freescale Semiconductor (now part of NXP) proprietary microcontrollers for multimedia applications based on the ARM architecture and focused on low-power consumption. The i.MX application processors are SoCs (System-on-Chip), that integrate many processing units into one die, like the main CPU, a video processing unit and a graphics processing unit for instance. The i.MX products are qualified for automotive, industrial and consumer markets. Most of them are guaranteed for a production lifetime of 10 to 15 years.Many devices use i.MX processors, such as Ford Sync, Kobo eReader, Amazon Kindle, Zune (except for Zune HD), Sony Reader, Onyx Boox readers/tablets, SolidRun SOM's (including CuBox), some Logitech Harmony remote controls and Squeezebox radio, some Toshiba Gigabeat mp4 players. The i.MX range was previously known as the "DragonBall MX" family, the fifth generation of DragonBall microcontrollers. i.MX originally stood for "innovative Multimedia eXtension".

The i.MX solutions consist of hardware (processors and development boards) and software optimized for the processor.

LG Corporation

LG Corporation (Hangul: 주식회사 LG), formerly Lucky-Goldstar (Korean: Leogki Geumseong; Hangul: 럭키금성; Hanja: 樂喜金星), is a South Korean multinational conglomerate corporation. It is the fourth-largest chaebol in South Korea. It is headquartered in the LG Twin Towers building in Yeouido-dong, Yeongdeungpo District, Seoul. LG makes electronics, chemicals, and telecom products and operates subsidiaries such as LG Electronics, Zenith, LG Display, LG Uplus, LG Innotek and LG Chem in over 80 countries.

Moto G6

Moto G6 (stylized by Motorola as moto g6) is a series of Android smartphones developed by Motorola Mobility, a subsidiary of Lenovo; it is the sixth generation of the Moto G family. There are three models, g6, g6 plus and g6 play. Only the g6 and g6 Play will be available in the United States.

Nikon D5100

The Nikon D5100 is a 16.2-megapixel DX-format DSLR F-mount camera announced by Nikon on April 5, 2011. It features the same 16.2-megapixel CMOS sensor as the D7000 with 14-bit depth, while delivering Full HD 1080p video mode at either 24, 25 or 30fps. The D5100 is the first Nikon DSLR to offer 1080p video at a choice of frame rates; previous Nikon DSLRs that recorded 1080p only did so at 24 fps. It replaces the D5000 and was replaced by the D5200.

Roku

Roku players, branded simply as Roku ( ROH-koo), are a series of digital media players manufactured by Roku, Inc. Roku partners provide over-the-top content in the form of channels. The name comes from the Japanese word 六 (roku) meaning "six" and was named so because it was the sixth company that Anthony Wood (founder and CEO since 2002) started. A Roku streaming device receives data (the video stream) via a wired or Wi-Fi connection from an Internet router. The data is output via an audio cable, video cable, or an HDMI connector directly on some of the device models.

Programming and content for the devices are available from a wide variety of global providers.

Samsung ATIV SE

The ATIV SE is a smartphone manufactured by Samsung which runs Windows Phone 8. It's an LTE device with a 5-inch 1080p AMOLED display, a 2.3 GHz quad-core CPU (presumably the Qualcomm Snapdragon 800), 2GB RAM, 16GB expandable storage memory, a pair of 13MP rear and 2MP front cameras with 1080p video recording, and a 2600mAh battery. It includes some OEM apps in addition to the default Windows Phone apps such as Channel Surf for Smart TVs, Samsung Link for sharing content across devices, and ATIV Beam for sending files to Android devices.

Samsung Galaxy Note series

Samsung Galaxy Note is a series of high-end Android-based smartphones and tablets developed and marketed by Samsung Electronics. The line is primarily oriented towards pen computing; all Galaxy Note models ship with a stylus pen and incorporate a pressure-sensitive Wacom digitizer. All Galaxy Note models also include software features that are oriented towards the stylus and the devices' large screens, such as note-taking and digital scrapbooking apps, and split-screen multitasking.

The Galaxy Note smartphones have been considered the first commercially successful examples of "phablets"—a class of smartphone with large screens that are intended to straddle the functionality of a traditional tablet with that of a phone. Samsung sold over 50 million Galaxy Note devices between September 2011 and October 2013. 10 million units of the Galaxy Note 3 have been sold within its first 2 months, 30 million were of the Note II, while the original Galaxy Note sold around 10 million units worldwide.

Sony Alpha 58

The Sony α58, Sony Alpha 58 also known as Sony A58 (model name SLT-A58) is a mid-range single-lens reflex digital camera from Sony's Alpha SLT camera line, introduced in 2013.

VideoCore

VideoCore is a low-power mobile multimedia processor originally developed by Alphamosaic Ltd and now owned by Broadcom. Its two-dimensional DSP architecture makes it flexible and efficient enough to decode (as well as encode) a number of multimedia codecs in software while maintaining low power usage. The semiconductor intellectual property core (SIP core) has been found so far only on Broadcom SoCs.

WiDi

Wireless Display (WiDi) was technology developed by Intel that enabled users to stream music, movies, photos, videos and apps without wires from a compatible computer to a compatible HDTV or through the use of an adapter with other HDTVs or monitors. Intel WiDi supported HD 1080p video quality, 5.1 surround sound, and low latency for interacting with applications sent to the TV from a PC.

Using the Intel WiDi Widget users could perform different functions simultaneously on their PC and TV such as checking email on the PC while streaming a movie to the TV from the same device.WiDi was discontinued in 2015 in favour of Miracast, a standard developed by the Wi-Fi Alliance and natively supported by Windows 8.1 and later.

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