Year 1068 (MLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1068 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1068
Ab urbe condita1821
Armenian calendar517
Assyrian calendar5818
Balinese saka calendar989–990
Bengali calendar475
Berber calendar2018
English Regnal yearWill. 1 – 3 Will. 1
Buddhist calendar1612
Burmese calendar430
Byzantine calendar6576–6577
Chinese calendar丁未(Fire Goat)
3764 or 3704
    — to —
戊申年 (Earth Monkey)
3765 or 3705
Coptic calendar784–785
Discordian calendar2234
Ethiopian calendar1060–1061
Hebrew calendar4828–4829
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1124–1125
 - Shaka Samvat989–990
 - Kali Yuga4168–4169
Holocene calendar11068
Igbo calendar68–69
Iranian calendar446–447
Islamic calendar460–461
Japanese calendarJiryaku 4
Javanese calendar972–973
Julian calendar1068
Korean calendar3401
Minguo calendar844 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−400
Seleucid era1379/1380 AG
Thai solar calendar1610–1611
Tibetan calendar阴火羊年
(female Fire-Goat)
1194 or 813 or 41
    — to —
(male Earth-Monkey)
1195 or 814 or 42
Romanos et Eudoxie
Emperor Romanos IV (left) and Empress Eudokia are crowned by Jesus Christ.


By place

Byzantine Empire





  • Spring – Emperor Yi Zong of the Western Xia (or Xi Xia) dies after a 19-year reign. He is succeeded by his 7-year-old son Hui Zong, who assumes the throne (until 1086).
  • May 22 – Emperor Go-Reizei dies after a 23-year reign, leaving no direct heirs to the throne. He is succeeded by his brother Go-Sanjō as the 71st emperor of Japan.

By topic





  1. ^ John Julius Norwich (1991). Byzantium: The Apogee – The Choice of Emperor, p. 344. ISBN 0-394-53779-3.
  2. ^ Brian Todd Carey (2012). Road to Manzikert – Byzantine and Islamic Warfare (527–1071), p. 133. ISBN 978-1-84884-215-1.
  3. ^ George Finlay (1854). History of the Byzantine and Greek Empires from 1057–1453, p. 34. William Blackwood & Sons.
1060s in England

Events from the 1060s in England.

Abu al-Salt

Abū al‐Ṣalt Umayya ibn ʿAbd al‐ʿAzīz ibn Abī al‐Ṣalt al‐Dānī al‐Andalusī (c. 1068—October 23, 1134), known in Latin as Albuzale, was an Andalusian-Arab polymath who wrote about pharmacology, geometry, Aristotelian physics, and astronomy. His works on astronomical instruments were read both in the Islamic world and Europe. He also worked as a physician, a teacher of alchemy, and wrote treatises on medicine, philosophy, music, and history. He became well known in Europe through translations of his works made in the Iberian Peninsula and in southern France. He is also credited with introducing Andalusian music to Tunis, which later led to the development of the Tunisian ma'luf.

Ali ibn Yusuf al-Ilaqi

Muḥammad ibn Yusuf al-Ilāqī was an eleventh-century Persian physician from Khorasan.Contrary to Carl Brockelmann's information (GAL 1:485; Suppl. 1:887), Sharaf al-Zamān Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī al-Īlāqī of Bākharz (in Khorasān, Iran), who was most probably active in Balkh (today's Afghanistan), was not a figure of the 6th/12th century. He did not die in 536/1141 (in the battle of the Qatwan steppe) but most probably around 460/1068 and should be counted among Avicenna's (d. 429/1037) direct students. Al-Ilāqī produced an epitome of the first book of the Canons of Medicine by Avicenna which was known under various titles: Kitāb al-Fuṣūl al-Ilāqiyya ("The Aphorisms of al-Ilāqī") and Kitāb al-asbāb wa-al-`alāmāt ("The Book of Causes and Symptoms"). Al-Ilāqī's greatly abbreviated version of the first book of the Canon was very popular, and many copies have survived.

Battle of Llantada

The Battle of Llantada or Llantadilla was a border skirmish fought on 19 July 1068 on the banks of the Pisuerga near the frontier between León and Castile. There Sancho II of Castile defeated his brother Alfonso VI of León. Though Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar is usually associated with this battle, the evidence of his presence there is rather late and his influence in Castile at that early stage of his career too slight to make plausible the tradition that he was Sancho's alférez.Llantadilla (Plantata in the Historia Roderici, xvii) was a small village located some ten kilometres southwest of Melgar de Fernamental, and about two kilometers west of the river Pisuerga on the Leonese side of the frontier. The closeness of the location of battle to the border suggests that no major invasion took place. The skirmish may have resulted from the increasing ambitions of Sancho, the eldest son of Ferdinand I, whose inheritance was smaller than his brother's. Sancho may have been encouraged by his brother's ambitious invasion of the Taifa of Badajoz, whose king, al-Muzzaffar, was fatally ill, sometime between 1 May and 7 June 1068. Alfonso succeeded in extorting a tribute from the ailing king, despite that the parias of Badajoz had been relegated to his and Sancho's younger brother, García II, in the division of the realm after Ferdinand's death (1065). Bernard Reilly writes that "such an initiative on Alfonso's part would have been the first, unmistakable sign of his intention to depart from the settlement arranged by his father."Pelayo of Oviedo is the earliest source for the battle, and he probably relied on stories then current or from his childhood. He attributes the victory to Sancho and says that Alfonso returned to León. Subsequent historians treated the battle as a sort of judicial duel deciding which brother would accede to the other's kingdom. Already in Pelayo's chronicle the influence of this interpretation, abetted by hindsight, are evident. The late-twelfth-century Chronica Naierensis provides a year for the battle (1068), but otherwise relies on Pelayo. The slightly earlier Annales Complutenses place it on 19 July, though there is a discrepancy in the record, since 19 July was not a Wednesday but a Saturday.The presence of Alfonso at the battle is made slightly improbable by the existence of a charter issued to the monastery of Sahagún on 7 July, presumably at or near Sahagún, since it was in the presence of the abbot and prior. On 20 July, the day after the battle if the Annales Complutenses can be trusted, Alfonso's alférez, Martín Alfónsez, confirmed a private donation to Sahagún. Likewise, the long-term effect of the battle was muted. Alfonso resumed his attack on Badajoz, now ruled by the old king's two rival sons, between 22 November 1068, when the king was again at Sahagún, and March 1069.

Diocese of Nidaros

Nidaros is a diocese in the Lutheran Church of Norway. It covers Trøndelag county in Central Norway and its cathedral city is Trondheim, which houses the well-known Nidaros Cathedral. The diocese is divided into 10 deaneries (prosti). Since 10 September 2017, the Bishop of Nidaros is Herborg Finnset who took over from the Bishop Tor Singsaas who retired. The Bishop Preses is also based at the Nidaros Cathedral and serves as the dean of the Nidaros domprosti (deanery) in Trondheim.

Diocese of Oslo

Oslo bishopric is the Church of Norway's bishopric for the municipalities of Oslo, Asker and Bærum. It is one of Norway's five traditional bishoprics and was founded around the year 1070.

Emperor Go-Reizei

Emperor Go-Reizei (後冷泉天皇, Go-Reizei-tennō, August 28, 1025 – May 22, 1068) was the 70th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Go-Reizei's reign spanned the years 1045–1068.This 11th century sovereign was named after the 10th century Emperor Reizei and go- (後), translates literally as "later;" and thus, he is sometimes called the "Later Emperor Reizei". The Japanese word "go" has also been translated to mean the "second one;" and in some older sources, this emperor may be identified as "Reizei, the second," or as "Reizei II."

Ephraim ibn al-Za'faran

Ephraim ibn al-Za'faran was a Jewish physician who lived in Cairo in the eleventh century. He was renowned for his extensive library of medical and other scientific texts, and at some point was appointed court physician for the Fatimid Caliph Ma'ad al-Mustansir. Ephraim died around 1068 CE.

Episode 1068

Episode 1068 is the nineteenth episode of the thirty-second series of the British medical drama television series Casualty, and the 1068th episode of the overall series. The episode was written by Matthew Barry and Kelly Jones and directed by Judith Dine, and premiered on BBC One on 13 January 2018. The episode features the return of Zoe Hanna (Sunetra Sarker), who departed the drama in 2016, and departure of Zoe's estranged husband Max Walker (Jamie Davis), who has appeared on the drama for over three years. Sarker reprised her role for Davis' exit following a deal they made when she left the series. Davis' departure was not announced before the transmission of the episode as to surprise viewers, and the couple departed together.

The episode features an acid attack when a drug addict attacks a woman so he can steal her money. Sarker liked the decision to feature the attack as she felt it was topical. Zoe is later subject to the threat of acid being thrown in her face, which helps develop Max and Zoe's relationship. Episode 1068 also features Jacob Masters (Charles Venn) telling Elle Gardner's (Jaye Griffiths) son Blake Gardner (Kai Thorne) that he is his father as part of their ongoing storyline. Griffiths said that the development in the story would challenge Elle and Jacob's friendship. The episode was promoted through promotional trailers, and was watched by 5.16 million viewers in a 28-day period. While the episode received mainly positive reviews from critics and fans, some reviewers criticised the logic behind Max's ability to board the same plane as Zoe.

Haakon Magnusson of Norway

Haakon Magnusson (Old Norse: Hákon Magnússon, Norwegian: Håkon Magnusson; 1068 – February 1095), byname Toresfostre (Old Norse: Þórisfóstra, meaning "fostered by Tore"), was king of Norway from 1093 to 1095. Haakon was only partially recognized within Norway and his reign was thus of limited significance. He has generally not been counted in the numbered series of Norwegian kings.He was the grandson of King Harald Hardrada, son of King Magnus and nephew of King Olaf Kyrre. Haakon was born around the same time his father died. He was raised as a foster son by Tore på Steig of Gudbrandsdalen on the farm Steig in Fron. In 1090, he undertook a Viking expedition to Bjarmaland, today the area of Arkhangelsk in northern Russia.After the death of Olav Kyrre he was hailed as King of Norway in Trondheim, while his cousin, King Magnus Barefoot, was hailed in Viken. He soon came into conflict with King Magnus and war seemed inevitable. In 1095, Magnus Berrføtt prepared an armed action against Haakon, but was surprised by the strong position held by his cousin. When Haakon learned that Magnus had come to Trondheim, he went across Dovrefjell mountain range. However, Haakon suddenly died during the trip over Dovrefjell. Magnus subsequently ruled as sole king of Norway. He captured Tore på Steig who was subsequently hanged.

Heinkel He 343

The Heinkel He 343 was a quadjet bomber project developed by Ernst Heinkel Flugzeugwerke in Nazi Germany during the final two years of World War II. Plans recovered by the Soviet Union were studied and used in the development of the Ilyushin Il-22.

Ibn Abi Sadiq

Ibn Abi Sadiq al-Naishaburi, Abu al-Qasim ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Ali (Arabic and Persian: أبوالقاسم عبد الرحمن بن علي بن أبي صادق النيشابوري ) was an 11th-century Persian physician from Nishapur in Khorasan.

He was a pupil of Avicenna. As he composed a popular commentary on the Aphorisms of Hippocrates, he was known in some circles as "the second Hippocrates" (Buqrat al-thani). Ismail Gorgani, the author of Zakhireye Khwarazmshahi, completed his studies under his guidance.His commentary on the Hunayn ibn Ishaq's Questions on Medicine, however, may have been even more popular, judging from the large number of copies preserved today. Ibn Abi Sadiq also wrote a commentary on the Prognostics of Hippocrates, on Galen's treatise On the Usefulness of the Parts, and on Razi's treatise Doubts about Galen (Shukuk ‘alá Jalinus). According to the medieval biographical sources, he completed the commentary on Galen's On the Usefulness of the Parts in the year 1068 AD, which provides us with the one firm date in his biography.

List of peers 1060–1069

This page lists all non-royal peers who carried extant titles between the years 1060 and 1069.

Messier 77

Messier 77 or M77, also known as NGC 1068, is a barred spiral galaxy about 47 million light-years away in the constellation Cetus. Messier 77 was discovered by Pierre Méchain in 1780, who originally described it as a nebula. Méchain then communicated his discovery to Charles Messier, who subsequently listed the object in his catalog. Both Messier and William Herschel described this galaxy as a star cluster. Today, however, the object is known to be a galaxy.

The morphological classification of NGC 1068 in the De Vaucouleurs system is (R)SA(rs)b, where the '(R)' indicates an outer ring-like structure, 'SA' denotes a non-barred spiral, '(rs)' means a transitional inner ring/spiral structure, and 'b' says the spiral arms are moderately wound. Ann et al. (2015) gave it a class of SAa, suggesting a non-barred spiral galaxy with tightly wound arms. However, infrared images of the inner part of the galaxy reveal a prominent bar feature not seen in visual light, and for this reason it is now considered a barred spiral.Messier 77 is an active galaxy with an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), which is obscured from view by astronomical dust at visible wavelengths. The diameter of the molecular disk and hot plasma associated with the obscuring material was first measured at radio wavelengths by the VLBA and VLA. The hot dust around the nucleus was subsequently measured in the mid-infrared by the MIDI instrument at the VLTI. It is the brightest and one of the closest and best-studied type 2 Seyfert galaxies, forming a prototype of this class.X-ray source 1H 0244+001 in Cetus has been identified as Messier 77. Only one supernova has been detected in Messier 77. The supernova, named SN 2018 ivc, was discovered on 24 November 2018 by the DLT40 Survey. It is a type II supernova, and at discovery it was 15th magnitude and brightening.

Modern pentathlon at the 1976 Summer Olympics

The modern pentathlon at the 1976 Summer Olympics was represented by two events (both for men): Individual competition and Team competition. As usual in Olympic modern pentathlon, one competition was held and each competitor's score was included to the Individual competition event results table and was also added to his teammates' scores to be included to the Team competition event results table. This competition consisted of 5 disciplines:

Equestrian, held on July 18 at Bromont.

Fencing, held on July 19 at Université de Montréal.

Shooting, held on July 20 at L'Acadie.

Swimming, held on July 21 at Olympic Pool.

Cross-country, held on July 22 at Olympic Stadium and Maisonneuve Park.

Orchestral suites (Bach)

The four orchestral suites (called ouvertures by their author), BWV 1066–1069 are four suites by Johann Sebastian Bach. The name ouverture refers only in part to the opening movement in the style of the French overture, in which a majestic opening section in relatively slow dotted-note rhythm in duple meter is followed by a fast fugal section, then rounded off with a short recapitulation of the opening music. More broadly, the term was used in Baroque Germany for a suite of dance-pieces in French Baroque style preceded by such an ouverture. This genre was extremely popular in Germany during Bach's day, and he showed far less interest in it than was usual: Robin Stowell writes that "Telemann's 135 surviving examples [represent] only a fraction of those he is known to have written"; Christoph Graupner left 85; and Johann Friedrich Fasch left almost 100. Bach did write several other ouverture (suites) for solo instruments, notably the Cello Suite no. 5, BWV 1011, which also exists in the autograph Lute Suite in G minor, BWV 995, the Keyboard Partita no. 4 in D, BWV 828, and the Overture in the French style, BWV 831 for keyboard. The two keyboard works are among the few Bach published, and he prepared the lute suite for a "Monsieur Schouster," presumably for a fee, so all three may attest to the form's popularity.

Scholars believe that Bach did not conceive of the four orchestral suites as a set (in the way he conceived of the Brandenburg Concertos), since the sources are various, as detailed below.

The Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis catalogue includes a fifth suite, BWV 1070 in G minor. However, this work is highly unlikely to have been composed by J. S. Bach.

USS Orange County (LST-1068)

USS Orange County (LST–1068) was an LST-542-class tank landing ship built for the United States Navy during World War II. Unlike many of her class, which received only numbers and were disposed of after World War II, she survived long enough to be named. On 1 July 1955, all LSTs still in commission were named for US counties or parishes; LST-1068 was given the name Orange County, for counties in the states of California, Florida, Indiana, New York, North Carolina, Texas, Vermont, and Virginia, she was the only US Naval vessel to bear the name.

USS Vreeland

USS Vreeland (FF-1068) was a Knox-class frigate of the United States Navy. The ship was named for Rear Admiral Charles E. Vreeland (1852–1916).

Vreeland (DE-1068) was laid down on 20 March 1968 by the Avondale Shipyard at Westwego, La.; launched on 16 June 1969; sponsored by Mrs. Jamie L. Whitten, wife of the Congressman representing Mississippi's 2nd Congressional district; and commissioned at Charleston, S.C., on 13 June 1970, Comdr. David R. Stefferud in command.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1068

United Nations Security Council resolution 1068, adopted unanimously on 30 July 1996, after recalling previous resolutions on Israel and Lebanon including 501 (1982), 508 (1982), 509 (1982) and 520 (1982) as well as studying the report by the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali on the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) approved in 426 (1978), the Council decided to extend the mandate of UNIFIL for a further six months until 31 January 1997.The Council then reemphasised the mandate of the Force and requested the Secretary-General to continue negotiations with the Government of Lebanon and other parties concerned with regard to the implementation of resolutions 425 (1978) and 426 (1978) and report thereon.

The completion of streamlining measures concerning UNIFIL was welcomed and further savings were encouraged, but noting that the operational capacity of the Force should not be affected.

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