The One Hundred Fourth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from January 3, 1995, to January 3, 1997, during the third and fourth years of Bill Clinton's presidency. Apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the 1990 United States census. Both chambers had Republican majorities for the first time since the 1950s. Major events included passage of elements of the Contract with America and a budget impasse between Congress and the Clinton Administration that resulted in the Federal government shutdown of 1995 and 1996.
|104th United States Congress|
United States Capitol (2002)
|January 3, 1995 – January 3, 1997|
|Senate President||Al Gore (D)|
|Senate President pro tem||Strom Thurmond (R)|
|House Speaker||Newt Gingrich (R)|
435 members of the House
5 non-voting delegates
|1st: January 4, 1995 – January 3, 1996|
2nd: January 3, 1996 – October 4, 1996
(shading shows control)
|End of the previous congress||53||47||100||0|
|Final voting share||47.0%||53.0%|
|Beginning of the next congress||45||55||100||0|
(shading shows control)
|End of the previous congress||258||1||176||435||0|
|Final voting share||45.5%||0.5%||54.0%|
|Beginning of the next congress||206||1||228||435||0|
In this Congress, Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1996; Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 1998; and Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring re-election in 2000.
The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.
|Vacator||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's|
|Ben Nighthorse Campbell (D)||Changed party March 3, 1995||Ben Nighthorse Campbell (R)||March 3, 1995|
|Bob Packwood (R)||Resigned October 1, 1995. Wyden won the special election on January 30, 1996.||Ron Wyden (D)||Seated February 6, 1996|
|Bob Dole (R)||Resigned June 11, 1996, to campaign for the Presidency||Sheila Frahm (R)||June 11, 1996|
|Sheila Frahm (R)||Successor elected November 5, 1996, after Brownback won the special election.||Sam Brownback (R)||November 6, 1996|
|District||Vacator||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's|
|Georgia 9th||Nathan Deal (D)||Changed party April 10, 1995||Nathan Deal (R)||April 10, 1995|
|Texas 14th||Greg Laughlin (D)||Changed party June 26, 1995||Greg Laughlin (R)||June 26, 1995|
|Louisiana 3rd||Billy Tauzin (D)||Changed party August 8, 1995||Billy Tauzin (R)||August 8, 1995|
|Illinois 2nd||Mel Reynolds (D)||Resigned October 1, 1995||Jesse Jackson, Jr. (D)||December 15, 1995|
|California's 15th||Norman Y. Mineta (D)||Resigned October 10, 1995||Tom Campbell (R)||December 12, 1995|
|Mississippi 4th||Mike Parker (D)||Changed party November 10, 1995||Mike Parker (R)||November 10, 1995|
|Louisiana 7th||Jimmy Hayes (D)||Changed party December 1, 1995||Jimmy Hayes (R)||December 1, 1995|
|California 37th||Walter R. Tucker III (D)||Resigned December 15, 1995, due to scandals during his past tenure as Mayor of Compton||Juanita Millender-McDonald (D)||March 26, 1996|
|Oregon 3rd||Ron Wyden (D)||Resigned February 6, 1996, after being elected US Senator||Earl Blumenauer (D)||May 21, 1996|
|Maryland's 7th||Kweisi Mfume (D)||Resigned February 15, 1996, to become CEO of the NAACP||Elijah Cummings (D)||April 16, 1996|
|Missouri's 8th||Bill Emerson (R)||Died June 22, 1996||Jo Ann Emerson (I/R)||November 5, 1996|
|Kansas 2nd||Sam Brownback (R)||Resigned November 27, 1996, retroactive to November 7 after being elected to the US Senate||Jim Ryun (R)||November 27, 1996|
|Arkansas 2nd||Ray Thornton (D)||Resigned January 1, 1997||Vacant||Vacant for remainder of term|
|Arkansas 3rd||Tim Hutchinson (R)||Resigned January 2, 1997, after being elected to the US Senate|
Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (1 link), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
The 1994 congressional election for the Delegate from the District of Columbia was held on November 8, 1994. The winner of the race was Eleanor Holmes Norton (D), who won her second re-election. All elected members would serve in 104th United States Congress.
The non-voting delegate to the United States House of Representatives from the District of Columbia is elected for two-year terms.1994 United States elections
The 1994 United States elections were held on November 8, 1994. The election occurred in the middle of Democratic President Bill Clinton's first term in office, and elected the members of 104th United States Congress. This was the year known as the Republican Revolution, in which members of the Republican Party captured majorities in the House of Representatives, Senate and governors mansions. Republicans were able to gain eight Senate seats, fifty-four House seats, and ten governorships. In addition, many state legislative chambers switched from Democratic to Republican control. This became the first time since 1954 that control of both Congressional chambers switched at the same time, and the results ended 40 years of uninterrupted Democratic control of the House.Republicans were able to nationalize the election by campaigning on a "Contract with America," and the new Republican majorities passed conservative legislation such as the Telecommunications Act of 1996, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act, and the Defense of Marriage Act. The election was a major defeat for Clinton's health care plan, but Clinton's subsequent move to the center may have helped him win re-election in 1996. George W. Bush's election as Governor of Texas laid the groundwork for his successful campaign for president in 2000.The Republican Party would retain control of the House until the 2006 elections, while they would retain control of the Senate until Vermont Senator Jim Jeffords left the Republican Party in 2001.1995 Illinois's 2nd congressional district special election
The Congressional election in Illinois's 2nd congressional district on December 12, 1995 resulted in the entry to Congress of Jesse Jackson, Jr. as a Democratic Party representative, a position he held until 2012.
The election was a special election made necessary by the resignation from Congress of Mel Reynolds. In the preceding Democratic Party primary held on November 29, Jackson defeated Emil Jones by a margin of 48% to 39%; there were three other candidates. In the general election, Jackson won 76% of the vote against 24% for the Republican candidate, Thomas Somer.1995 State of the Union Address
The 1995 State of the Union address was given by President Bill Clinton to a joint session of the 104th United States Congress on Tuesday, January 24, 1995. This was the first speech delivered to a Republican-controlled Congress since 1954. This was also the first time a Republican Speaker sat in the chair since 1954. The Speaker was Newt Gingrich of Georgia.
The president discussed his proposals of a New Covenant vision for a smaller government and proposing tax reductions. The president also discussed crime, the Brady Bill and the Assault Weapons Ban, illegal immigration, and the minimum wage. Regarding foreign policy, he urged assistance in Mexico's economic crisis, additional disarmament in cooperation with Russia and other international treaties, stopping North Korea's nuclear weapons program, legislation to fight terrorists, and peace between Israel and its neighbors. Discussion of the failed attempt to overhaul health care was refocused on more limited efforts to protect coverage for those who have health insurance and expand coverage for children.
The speech lasted nearly 1 hour and 25 minutes and consisted of 9,190 words. In terms of word count it is the longest State of the Union speech in history.The president acknowledged many Americans of past and present in his speech. Among them were:
Newt Gingrich, the new Speaker of the House
Ronald Reagan, who similarly had been president while Congress was controlled by the opposing party; also in the past year he announced his Alzheimer's disease diagnosis
Jacklyn H. Lucas, who was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions during the World War IIThe Republican Party response was delivered by Governor Christine Todd Whitman of New Jersey. This was the first response given exclusively by a state governor and, delivered in Trenton, the first outside Washington, DC.Conservative William Kristol called the address the "most conservative State of the Union by a Democratic president in history."Federico Peña, the Secretary of Transportation, served as the designated survivor.1996 State of the Union Address
The 1996 State of the Union address was given by President Bill Clinton to a joint session of the 104th United States Congress on Tuesday, January 23, 1996. The speech was the last State of the Union address of President Clinton's first term. This speech occurred shortly after the federal government shutdown of 1995 and 1996 which had resulted from disagreements on the 1996 United States federal budget.
President Clinton discussed the economy and declared that "the era of big government is over," and continued, "but we cannot go back to the time when our citizens were left to fend for themselves. We must go forward as one America, one nation working together, to meet the challenges we face together. Self-reliance and teamwork are not opposing virtues -- we must have both." The president discussed welfare reform, the V-chip, education, community policing, crime and the environment. The president also discussed foreign relations and the federal budget.
The Republican Party response was delivered by Senator Bob Dole of Kansas. He stated that "[President Clinton] is the chief obstacle to a balanced budget and the balanced budget amendment.... While the President's words speak of change, his deeds are a contradiction. President Clinton claims to embrace the future while clinging to the policies of the past."Donna Shalala, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, served as the designated survivor.1997 New Mexico's 3rd congressional district special election
A special election was held in the historically Democratic New Mexico's 3rd congressional district after the resignation of Bill Richardson, who became the United States Ambassador to the United Nations. Bill Redmond won the May 13 election and became the only Republican to ever represent this district.Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996
The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-132, 110 Stat. 1214 (also known as AEDPA), is an act of the United States Congress signed into law on April 24, 1996. The bill was introduced by then-Senate Majority Leader Bob Dole and passed with broad bipartisan support by Congress (91-8 in the US Senate, 293-133 in the U.S. House of Representatives) following the 1993 World Trade Center bombing and the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing. It was signed into law by President Bill Clinton.Although controversial for its changes to the law of habeas corpus in the United States (Title I), upheld in Felker v. Turpin, 518 U.S. 651 (1997), it also contained a number of provisions to "deter terrorism, provide justice for victims, provide for an effective death penalty, and for other purposes," in the words of the bill summary.Bill Emerson Good Samaritan Act of 1996
The Bill Emerson Good Samaritan Food Donation Act was created to encourage food donation to nonprofit organizations by minimizing liability. Signed into United States law by President Bill Clinton, this law, named after Representative Bill Emerson (who encouraged the proposal but died before it was passed), makes it easier to donate 'apparently wholesome food' by excluding donor liability except in cases of gross negligence.Emerson died on June 22, 1996.
The Federal Food Donation Act of 2008 built on this legislation by encouraging federal agencies to donate excess food to nonprofit organizations, utilizing the exemption for civil and criminal liability provided for in the 1996 law. Federal contracts for the purchase of food valued at over $25,000 must make provision for contractors to donate apparently wholesome excess food to nonprofit organizations.Contract with America
The Contract with America was a document released by the United States Republican Party during the 1994 Congressional election campaign. Written by Newt Gingrich and Dick Armey, and in part using text from former President Ronald Reagan's 1985 State of the Union Address, the Contract detailed the actions the Republicans promised to take if they became the majority party in the United States House of Representatives for the first time in 40 years. Many of the Contract's policy ideas originated at The Heritage Foundation, a conservative think tank.The Contract with America was introduced six weeks before the 1994 Congressional election, the first mid-term election of President Bill Clinton's Administration, and was signed by all but two of the Republican members of the House and all of the Party's non-incumbent Republican Congressional candidates.
Proponents say the Contract was revolutionary in its commitment to offering specific legislation for a vote, describing in detail the precise plan of the Congressional Representatives, and broadly nationalizing the Congressional election. Furthermore, its provisions represented the view of many conservative Republicans on the issues of shrinking the size of government, promoting lower taxes and greater entrepreneurial activity, and both tort reform and welfare reform. Critics of the Contract describe it as a political ploy and election tool designed to have broad appeal while masking the Republicans' real agenda and failing to provide real legislation or governance.
The 1994 elections resulted in Republicans gaining 54 House and 9 U.S. Senate seats. When the Republicans gained this majority of seats in the 104th Congress, the Contract was seen as a triumph by party leaders such as Minority Whip Newt Gingrich, Dick Armey, and the American conservative movement in general.Elizabeth Morgan Act
The Elizabeth Morgan Act is an act of the 104th United States Congress. It was originally introduced as H.R. 1855, by Rep. Thomas M. Davis. It was passed as part of the Department of Transportation and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1997 (H.R. 3675), Pub.L. 104–205. The Elizabeth Morgan Act was declared unconstitutional as a bill of attainder in 2003.Health Center Consolidation Act
The Health Center Consolidation Act of 1996 in the United States is commonly also called Section 330. The Act brings together various funding mechanisms for the country's community health facilities, such as migrant/seasonal farmworker health centers, healthcare for the homeless, health centers and health centers for residents of public housing. Previously, each of these organizations were provided grants under numerous other mechanisms.
The S. 1044 legislation was passed by the 104th U.S. Congressional session and enacted into law by the 42nd President of the United States Bill Clinton on October 11, 1996.Housing for Older Persons Act
The Housing for Older Persons Act of 1995 (HOPA) (Pub.L. 104–76, 109 Stat. 787, enacted December 28, 1995) amends Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968 (Fair Housing Act). The consolidated Act is administered by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). The law was signed by President of the United States Bill Clinton on December 28, 1995.HOPA amends the Fair Housing Act as follows:
eliminates the requirement that qualified housing for persons age 55 or older have "significant facilities and services" designed for the elderly
provides "good faith reliance" immunity from damages to persons who in good faith believe and rely on a written statement that a property qualifies for the 55 or older exemption, unaware that the property is ineligible for the exemption.Library Services and Technology Act
The Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA) was signed on October 1, 1996, by United States President Bill Clinton. LSTA is a United States federal library grant program. Its roots come from the Library Services Act that was first enacted in 1956. LSTA replaced the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) that was first enacted in 1962. The new act was developed by the American Library Association (ALA) and other library groups.Many changes occurred with the passage of LSTA. The original act, Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA), allocated funds for construction of buildings, but LSTA has an emphasis on technology. The new priority is the creation of technological infrastructure. Another change that occurred with the passage of LSCA was the responsibility of library services. This responsibility was originally a part of the Department of Education. It was moved to the newly created, independent federal agency called the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). The range of libraries served also changed with the enactment of LSTA. Originally, public libraries were primarily served by LSCA. With the passage of LSTA, all types of libraries are served, including public, school, academic, and special.
Not all initiatives under LSCA have changed with the enactment of LSTA. Priorities, like services to the under-served and rural areas, are still supported.LSCA is a federally funded state-based program generally administered by the state library of each state. Specific funding categories are set by each state based on a long-range plan filed with the IMLS.List of United States Senators in the 104th Congress by seniority
This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 104th United States Congress listed by seniority, from January 3, 1995, to January 3, 1997.
Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a state governor. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.Senators who were sworn in during the middle of the two-year congressional term (up until the last senator who was not sworn in early after winning the November 1996 election) are listed at the end of the list with no number.Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995
The Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 (2 U.S.C. § 1601) was legislation in the United States aimed at bringing increased accountability to federal lobbying practices in the United States. The law was amended substantially by the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007. Under provisions which took effect on January 1, 1996, federal lobbyists are required to register with the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and the Secretary of the United States Senate. Anyone failing to do so is punishable by a civil fine of up to $50,000. The clerk and secretary must refer any acts of non-compliance to the United States Attorney for the District of Columbia.
A consequence of the act is that the act "removed from Foreign Agents Registration Act a class of agents who are engaged in lobbying activities and who register under the LDA. This Act is administered by Congress."Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act
In the United States, the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act (the Battery Act) (Public law 104-142) was signed into law on May 13, 1996. The purpose of the law was to phase out the use of mercury in batteries and to provide for the efficient and cost-effective collection and recycling, or proper disposal, of used nickel cadmium batteries, small sealed lead-acid batteries, and certain other batteries.Military housing privatization
The military housing privatization initiative (MHPI) was established by the United States Congress in 1996 as tool to help the military improve the quality of life for its service members by improving the condition of their housing. The MHPI was designed and developed to attract private-sector financing, expertise and innovation to provide necessary housing faster and more efficiently than traditional military construction processes would allow. The Office of the U.S. Secretary of Defense has delegated to the military services the MHPI and they are authorized to enter into agreements with private developers selected in a competitive process to own, maintain and operate family housing via a fifty-year lease.
MHPI addresses two significant problems concerning housing for military-service members and their families: (1) the poor condition of housing owned by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and (2) a shortage of quality affordable private housing. Under the MHPI authorities, DOD works with the private sector to revitalize military family housing through a variety of financial tools-direct loans, loan guarantees, equity investments, conveyance or leasing of land and/or housing/and other facilities. Military service members receive a basic allowance where they can choose to live in private sector housing, or privatized housing.National Gambling Impact Study Commission Act
The National Gambling Impact Study Commission Act of 1996 (Pub.L. 104–169, 110 Stat. 1482, enacted August 3, 1996) is an Act of Congress that was signed into law by President of the United States Bill Clinton.This legislation established the National Gambling Impact Study Commission in 1997 to conduct a comprehensive legal and factual study of the social and economic impacts of gambling in the United States on:
Federal, State, local, and Native American tribal governments;
Communities and social institutions generally, including individuals, families, and businesses within such communities and institutions.Mandates a report to the President, the Congress, State Governors, and Native American tribal governments. Requires the Commission to contract with the Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations and the United States National Research Council for assistance
with the study. Authorizes appropriations. Specifically the commission was to look at the following:
existing policies and practices concerning the legalization of prohibition of gambling
the relationship between gambling and crime
the nature and impact of pathological and problem gambling
the impacts of gambling on individuals, communities, and the economy, including depressed economic areas
the extent to which gambling revenue had benefited various governments and whether alternative revenue sources existed
the effects of technology, including the Internet on gamblingThe study lasted two years, and in 1999 the commission released it final report. There was a separate section on Indian gaming provided.National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act
The National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act (NTTAA; United States Public Law 104-113) was signed into law March 7, 1996. The Act amended several existing acts and mandated new directions for federal agencies with the purpose of:
bringing technology and industrial innovation to market more quickly
encouraging cooperative research and development between business and the federal government by providing access to federal laboratories
making it easier for businesses to obtain exclusive licenses to technology and inventions that result from cooperative research with the federal governmentThe Act made a direct impact on the development of new industrial and technology standards by requiring that all Federal agencies use cooperatively developed standards, particularly those developed by standards developing organizations.
United States Congresses (and year convened)