The One Hundred Third United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from January 3, 1993, to January 3, 1995, during the final weeks of George H. W. Bush's presidency and the first two years of Bill Clinton's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Twenty-first Census of the United States in 1990. Both chambers had a Democratic majority. This is the last Congress which the Democratic Party had both house majorities in the 20th Century.
|103rd United States Congress|
United States Capitol (2002)
|January 3, 1993 – January 3, 1995|
|Senate President||Dan Quayle (R),|
until January 20, 1993
Al Gore (D),
from January 20, 1993
|Senate President pro tem||Robert Byrd (D)|
|House Speaker||Tom Foley (D)|
435 members of the House
5 non-voting delegates
|1st: January 5, 1993 – November 26, 1993|
2nd: January 25, 1994 – December 1, 1994
(shading shows control)
|End of the previous congress||57||43||100||0|
|Final voting share||53.0%||47.0%|
|Beginning of the next congress||47||53||100||0|
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
|End of the previous Congress||270||1||164||435||0|
|Final voting share||59.2%||40.8%|
|Beginning of the next Congress||204||1||230||435||0|
This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.
Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress, In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1994; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1996; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1998.
|Vacator||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's|
|Lloyd Bentsen (D)||Resigned January 20, 1993, to become United States Secretary of the Treasury.
His successor was appointed.
|Bob Krueger (D)||January 21, 1993|
|Bob Krueger (D)||Interim appointee lost special election June 6, 1993.
His successor was elected to finish the term.
|Kay Bailey Hutchison (R)||June 14, 1993|
|Richard Shelby (D)||Changed party November 9, 1994||Richard Shelby (R)||November 9, 1994|
|David L. Boren (D)||Resigned November 15, 1994, to become President of the University of Oklahoma.
His successor was elected in a special election to finish the term.
|Jim Inhofe (R)||November 17, 1994|
|Harlan Mathews (D)||Interim appointee did not seek election.
His successor was elected in a special election November 8, 1994, to finish the term.
|Fred Thompson (R)||December 2, 1994|
|District||Vacator||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's|
|Wisconsin's 1st||Les Aspin (D)||Resigned to January 20, 1993, become United States Secretary of Defense||Peter W. Barca (D)||May 4, 1993|
|Mississippi's 2nd||Mike Espy (D)||Resigned January 22, 1993, to become United States Secretary of Agriculture||Bennie Thompson (D)||April 13, 1993|
|California's 17th||Leon Panetta (D)||Resigned January 23, 1993, to become Director of the Office of Management and Budget||Sam Farr (D)||June 8, 1993|
|Ohio 2nd||Bill Gradison (R)||Resigned January 31, 1993, to become president of the Health Insurance Association of America||Rob Portman (R)||May 4, 1993|
|Michigan 3rd||Paul B. Henry (R)||Died July 31, 1993||Vern Ehlers (R)||December 7, 1993|
|Oklahoma's 6th||Glenn English (D)||Resigned January 7, 1994, to become CEO of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association||Frank Lucas (R)||May 10, 1994|
|Kentucky's 2nd||William H. Natcher (D)||Died March 29, 1994||Ron Lewis (R)||May 24, 1994|
|New Jersey 11th||Dean Gallo (R)||Died November 6, 1994||Vacant for remainder of term|
|Oklahoma's 1st||Jim Inhofe (R)||Resigned November 15, 1994, when elected to the U.S. Senate||Steve Largent (R)||November 29, 1994|
Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (1 link), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
The 1992 congressional election for the Delegate from the District of Columbia was held on November 3, 1992. The winner of the race was Eleanor Holmes Norton (D), who won her first re-election. All elected members would serve in 103rd United States Congress.
The non-voting delegate to the United States House of Representatives from the District of Columbia is elected for two-year terms.1992 United States elections
The 1992 United States elections elected state governors, the national president, and members of the 103rd United States Congress. The election took place after the redistricting that resulted from the 1990 Census. Democrats won control of the presidency and both chambers of Congress for the first time since the Republican victory in the 1980 elections.
In the presidential election, Democratic Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas defeated Republican incumbent President George H. W. Bush and Texas businessman Ross Perot. Clinton easily won the electoral college with 370 electoral votes, but took just 43 percent of the popular vote, the fourth-lowest share of any victorious presidential candidate. Perot's independent candidacy won the largest share of the popular vote of any third party or independent candidate since Theodore Roosevelt's 1912 candidacy. Clinton defeated former California Governor Jerry Brown and former Massachusetts Senator Paul Tsongas to take the Democratic nomination. Bush defeated a primary challenge from commentator, and former Reagan White House Director of Communications Pat Buchanan to earn re-nomination as the Republican candidate.Democrats lost a handful of House seats but easily held onto their majority in the chamber.A small number of seats changed hands in the Senate, but Democrats retained a comfortable majority.In the gubernatorial elections, the Democratic Party won a net gain of two states.1994 State of the Union Address
The 1994 State of the Union address was given by President Bill Clinton to a joint session of the 103rd United States Congress on Tuesday, January 25, 1994. The speech was Clinton's first official State of the Union address, although he had similarly addressed a joint session of Congress a year prior shortly after taking office.
The president discussed the federal budget deficit, taxes, defense spending, crime, foreign affairs, education, the economy, free trade, the role of government, campaign finance reform, welfare reform, and promoting the Clinton health care plan. President Clinton threatened to veto any legislation that did not guarantee every American private health insurance. He proposed for policies to fight crime: a three strikes law for repeat violent offenders; 100,000 more police officers on the streets; expand gun control to further prevent criminals from being armed and ban assault weapons; additional support for drug treatment and education.
The president began the speech with an acknowledgment of former Speaker Tip O'Neill, who died on January 5, 1994. While discussing additional community policing, the president honored Kevin Jett, a New York City cop attending the address who had been featured in a New York Times story in December 1993.The speech lasted 63 minutes and consisted of 7,432 words. It was the longest State of the Union speech since Lyndon B. Johnson's 1967 State of the Union Address. Republican Representative Henry Hyde criticized the speech as "interminable".The Republican Party response was delivered by Senator Bob Dole of Kansas. Dole argued that health care in the United States was not in crisis, the Republican opposition to Clinton's plans in the previous year had been popular, and the deficit reduction was the temporary result of tax increases.Mike Espy, the Secretary of Agriculture, served as the designated survivor.
Contrary to common belief, Clinton did not have to recite the speech from memory because the teleprompter was loaded with the wrong speech. This had happened the previous year: in a speech Clinton gave to Congress on 22 September 1993 detailing the Clinton health care plan, the teleprompter was loaded with the wrong speech. Specifically, the one he gave to a joint session of Congress shortly after he was sworn-in in 1993. Teleprompter operators practiced with the old speech and it was accidentally left in, forcing Clinton to ad-lib for almost ten minutes. The two incidents are often conflated. What happened is that President Clinton simply referenced the September 1993 incident.Aleut Restitution Act of 1988
The Aleut Restitution Act of 1988 (also known as the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands Restitution Act) was a reparation settlement passed by the United States Congress in 1988, in response to the internment of Aleut people living in the Aleutian Islands during World War II.
Before the Japanese invasion of Attu and Kiska in 1942, the United States forcibly relocated some 800 Aleuts to camps in Southeast Alaska, where it is estimated that more than 1 in 10 evacuees perished.Amendments to the National Wool Act
The Amendments to the National Wool Act Pub. L. 103-130 (selected provisions), 107 Stat. 1368-1369 (1993), signed into law November 1, 1993, phased out wool and mohair price supports at the end of 1995.Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act
The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (Pub.L. 103–159, 107 Stat. 1536, enacted November 30, 1993), often referred to as the Brady Act or the Brady Bill, is an Act of the United States Congress that mandated federal background checks on firearm purchasers in the United States, and imposed a five-day waiting period on purchases, until the NICS system was implemented in 1998.
The original legislation was introduced into the House of Representatives by Representative Charles E. Schumer in March 1991, but was never brought to a vote. The bill was reintroduced by Rep. Schumer on February 22, 1993 and the final version was passed on November 11, 1993. It was signed into law by President Bill Clinton on November 30, 1993 and the law went into effect on February 28, 1994. The Act was named after James Brady, who was shot and wounded by John Hinckley Jr. during an attempted assassination of President Ronald Reagan on March 30, 1981.Driver's Privacy Protection Act
The Driver's Privacy Protection Act of 1994 (also referred to as the "DPPA"), Title XXX of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, is a United States federal statute governing the privacy and disclosure of personal information gathered by state Departments of Motor Vehicles.
The law was passed in 1994. It was introduced by democrat Rep. Jim Moran of Virginia in 1992, after an increase in opponents of abortion rights using public driving license databases to track down and harass abortion providers and patients. Prominent among such cases was physician Susan Wicklund, who faced protests and harassment including her house being picketed for a month. The law is currently codified at Chapter 123 of Title 18 of the United States Code.Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993
The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) is a United States labor law requiring covered employers to provide employees with job-protected and unpaid leave for qualified medical and family reasons. These include pregnancy, adoption, foster care placement of a child, personal or family illness, or family military leave. The FMLA is administered by the Wage and Hour Division of the United States Department of Labor.
The FMLA was intended "to balance the demands of the workplace with the needs of families." The Act allows eligible employees to take up to 12 work weeks of unpaid leave during any 12-month period to attend to the serious health condition of the employee, parent, spouse or child, or for pregnancy or care of a newborn child, or for adoption or foster care of a child. In order to be eligible for FMLA leave, an employee must have been at the business at least 12 months, and worked at least 1,250 hours over the past 12 months, and work at a location where the company employs 50 or more employees within 75 miles. The FMLA covers both public- and private-sector employees, but certain categories of employees are excluded, including elected officials and their personal staff members.Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act
The Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE or the Access Act, Pub. L. No. 103-259, 108 Stat. 694) (May 26, 1994, 18 U.S.C. § 248) is a United States law that was signed by President Bill Clinton in May 1994, which prohibits the following three things: (1) the use of physical force, threat of physical force, or physical obstruction to intentionally injure, intimidate, interfere with or attempt to injure, intimidate or interfere with any person who is obtaining reproductive health services or providing reproductive health services (this portion of the law typically refers to abortion clinics), (2) the use of physical force, threat of physical force, or physical obstruction to intentionally injure, intimidate, interfere with or attempt to injure, intimidate or interfere with any person who is exercising or trying to exercise their First Amendment right of religious freedom at a place of religious worship, (3) the intentional damage or destruction of a reproductive health care facility or a place of worship.Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994
The Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994 (GFSA) was part of the Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 (IASA). The Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994 also amends the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965.In 1994, Congress introduced the Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994, which encouraged each state receiving federal funds for education to follow suit and introduce their own laws, now known as zero tolerance laws. President Bill Clinton signed the Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994 into law on March 31, 1994. The Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994 requires each state receiving federal funds to have a state law in effect requiring local educational agencies to expel, for at least one year, any student who is determined to have brought a weapon to school. The one-year expulsion is mandatory, except when a chief administering officer of such local education agency may modify it on a case-by-case basis. In addition, schools are directed to develop policies requiring referral to the criminal justice or juvenile delinquency system for any student who brings a firearm or weapon to school.Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act of 1994
In September 1994, President Bill Clinton signed into law the Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act of 1994, written by US Rep. Joseph P. Kennedy (D-Mass). The law requires certain disclosures and clamps restrictions on lenders of high-cost loans.Implemented via Regulation Z at 12 CFR 226.32, it only applies to non-purchase-money transactions.
The law gives the Federal Reserve Board the power to administer the act and to adjust the implementing regulations. Critics of Alan Greenspan argue that he failed to properly use these powers when subprime mortgage problems became apparent in 2005.Immigration and Nationality Technical Corrections Act
The Immigration and Nationality Technical Corrections Act of 1994 (or H. R. 783) was an act by the United States Congress "to amend title III of the Immigration and Nationality Act to make changes in the laws relating to nationality and naturalization." The act amended the Immigration and Nationality Act by allowing to provide for the acquisition of United States citizenship from either parent for persons born abroad to parents, only one of whom is a United States citizen.The act was signed into law by President Bill Clinton, who said in his signing statement that act would correct the injustice towards persons born outside of the United States, and only one of whose parents was a United States citizen. Prior to the act, such persons could only acquire citizenship if that parent was the father. The act amended this condition to allow acquisition of US citizenship when either of the parents was a US citizen. The act also added additional weapons offenses, some theft and burglary offenses, prostitution, tax evasion, and certain categories of fraud to the definition of aggravated felonies, under which non-citizens were subject to deportation.Improving America's Schools Act of 1994
The Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 (IASA) was a major part of the Clinton administration's efforts to reform education. It was signed in the gymnasium of Framingham High School (MA). It reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965.
It included provisions or reforms for:
The Title 1 program, providing extra help to disadvantaged students and holding schools accountable for their results at the same level as other students
Safe and Drug-free schools
Eisenhower Professional Development
Major increases in bilingual and immigrant education funding
Education technology and other programs.International Broadcasting Act
Signed in law in 1994 by U.S. President Bill Clinton, this act was meant to streamline the U.S. international broadcasting and provide a cost-effective way to continue Radio Free Europe/ Radio Liberty, Voice of America, and Radio Marti. It placed control of the international broadcasting under the United States Information Agency.List of United States Senators in the 103rd Congress by seniority
This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 103rd United States Congress listed by seniority, from January 3, 1993, to January 3, 1995.
Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a state governor. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.Senators who were sworn in during the middle of the two-year congressional term (up until the last senator who was not sworn in early after winning the November 1994 election) are listed at the end of the list with no number.Michael Andrews
Michael Andrews may refer to:
Michael Andrews (artist) (1928–1995), British artist
Michael Andrews (boxer), Nigerian boxer
Michael Andrews (musician) (born 1967), American musician
Michael Andrews (rugby league) (born 1962), Australian rugby league footballer
Michael A. Andrews (born 1944), member of the United States House of Representatives in the 103rd United States Congress
Mike Andrews (born 1943), American baseball player
Mike Andrews (footballer) (born 1946), Australian rules football player for Fitzroy
Mickey Andrews (born 1942), American football coach
Michael Andrews (referee) (born 1956), Indian football refereeOmnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993
The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 (or OBRA-93) was a federal law that was enacted by the 103rd United States Congress and signed into law by President Bill Clinton. It has also been referred to, unofficially, as the Deficit Reduction Act of 1993. Part XIII, which dealt with taxes and is also called the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1993.Solomon Amendment
The 1996 Solomon Amendment is the popular name of 10 U.S.C. § 983, a United States federal law that allows the Secretary of Defense to deny federal grants (including research grants) to institutions of higher education if they prohibit or prevent ROTC or military recruitment on campus.Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act
The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, H.R. 3355, Pub.L. 103–322 is an Act of Congress dealing with crime and law enforcement; it became law in 1994. It is the largest crime bill in the history of the United States and consisted of 356 pages that provided for 100,000 new police officers, $9.7 billion in funding for prisons and $6.1 billion in funding for prevention programs, which were designed with significant input from experienced police officers. Sponsored by Representative Jack Brooks of Texas, the bill was originally written by Senator Joe Biden of Delaware and then was passed by Congress and signed into law by President Bill Clinton.
Following the 101 California Street shooting, the 1993 Waco Siege, and other high-profile instances of violent crime, the Act expanded federal law in several ways. One of the most noted sections was the Federal Assault Weapons Ban. Other parts of the Act provided for a greatly expanded federal death penalty, new classes of individuals banned from possessing firearms, and a variety of new crimes defined in statutes relating to immigration law, hate crimes, sex crimes, and gang-related crime. The bill also required states to establish registries for sexual offenders by September 1997.
United States Congresses (and year convened)