1030

Year 1030 (MXXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1030 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1030
MXXX
Ab urbe condita1783
Armenian calendar479
ԹՎ ՆՀԹ
Assyrian calendar5780
Balinese saka calendar951–952
Bengali calendar437
Berber calendar1980
English Regnal yearN/A
Buddhist calendar1574
Burmese calendar392
Byzantine calendar6538–6539
Chinese calendar己巳(Earth Snake)
3726 or 3666
— to —

3727 or 3667
Coptic calendar746–747
Discordian calendar2196
Ethiopian calendar1022–1023
Hebrew calendar4790–4791
Hindu calendars
- Vikram Samvat1086–1087
- Shaka Samvat951–952
- Kali Yuga4130–4131
Holocene calendar11030
Igbo calendar30–31
Iranian calendar408–409
Islamic calendar420–421
Japanese calendarChōgen 3
(長元３年)
Javanese calendar932–933
Julian calendar1030
MXXX
Korean calendar3363
Minguo calendar882 before ROC

Nanakshahi calendar−438
Seleucid era1341/1342 AG
Thai solar calendar1572–1573
Tibetan calendar阴土蛇年
(female Earth-Snake)
1156 or 775 or 3
— to —

(male Iron-Horse)
1157 or 776 or 4
King Olaf II (left) is killed at Stiklestad.

Events

By place

Byzantine Empire

• Battle of Azaz: Emperor Romanos III (Argyros) decides to retaliate upon the incursions of the Muslims on the eastern frontier. He leads an Byzantine expeditionary force (20,000 men) to secure Antioch. Emir Shibl al-Dawla Nasr sues for peace, but Romanos refuses to negotiate. The Byzantine army invades Syria and encampes in Azaz (near Aleppo). There, they are encircled by the Arabs (Mirdasids) who cut off the Byzantines from food and water. Romanos orders a retreat to Antioch. As the army is exhausted from the heat and the lack of supplies, the retreat soon turns into a flight in panic – with probably 10,000 killed.[1]

Europe

• June – Emperor Conrad II (the Elder) leads a invasion into Hungary. He plunders the lands west of the River Rába, but suffers from consequences of the scorched earth tactics used by the Hungarians. Conrad, threatened by starvation, is forced to retreat back to Germany. King Stephen I pursues his forces, which are defeated and captured by the Hungarians at Vienna.
• July 29Battle of Stiklestad: King Olaf II Haraldsson (St. Olaf) attempts to reconquer Norway with help from King Anund Jakob of Sweden. He is defeated by an superior Norwegian peasant and Danish army (14,000 men). Olaf is killed in the battle, he is later canonized and becomes the patron saint of Norway and Rex perpetuum Norvegiae ('the eternal king of Norway').
• The first mention is made of Tartu, Estonia, as Grand Prince Yaroslav I (the Wise) of Novgorod and Kiev defeats the Chuds, and founds a fort named Yuryev (modern-day Tartu).[2]
• The first mention is made of Thalwil, Switzerland, which is derived from Tellewilare, and indicates the early medieval origins of Thalwil as an Alemannic farmstead.
• Henry I revolts against his father King Robert II (the Pious) in a civil war over power and property. Robert's army is defeated, and he retreats to Beaugency.

References

1. ^ Shepard, Jonathan (2010). "Azaz, Battle near", p. 102. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533403-6.
2. ^ Tvauri, Andres (2012). The Migration Period, Pre-Viking Age, and Viking Age in Estonia. pp. 33, 59, 60. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
1030 AM

The following radio stations broadcast on AM frequency 1030 kHz: 1030 AM is a United States clear-channel frequency. WBZ in Boston, Massachusetts is the dominant Class A station on 1030 AM.

1030s in England

Events from the 1030s in England.

Battle of Azaz (1030)

The Battle of Azaz was an engagement fought in August 1030 near the Syrian town of Azaz between the Byzantine army, led by Emperor Romanos III Argyros (r. 1028–1034) in person, and the forces of the Mirdasid Emirate of Aleppo under Emir Shibl al-Dawla Nasr (r. 1029–1038).

Aleppo had long been a flashpoint between Byzantium and its Arab neighbours, with the Byzantines claiming a protectorate over the city. In the aftermath of a defeat inflicted on the Byzantine governor of Antioch by the Mirdasids, Romanos launched a campaign against Aleppo. Despite his own inexperience in military matters, Romanos decided to lead the army in person, leading contemporary Byzantine chroniclers to point to a quest for military glory as the emperor's primary motivation, rather than the preservation of the status quo. At the head of his army, Romanos arrived in Antioch on 20 July 1030. Confident of success, the emperor rejected both Mirdasid peace overtures and his own generals' advice urging him to avoid action in the hot and dry Syrian summer.

The Byzantines advanced to Azaz, where they set up camp. The Mirdasids ambushed and destroyed a Byzantine reconnaissance force, and started harassing the imperial camp. Unable to forage, the Byzantines began suffering from thirst and hunger, and attempts to break out were defeated. Finally, on 10 August, the Byzantine army commenced its withdrawal to Antioch, but it soon collapsed into a chaotic affair. The Arabs used the opportunity to attack the disordered Byzantines, and the ensuing engagement resulted in a rout for the Byzantines; Emperor Romanos himself only escaped thanks to the intervention of his bodyguard. The scattered remnants of the imperial army gathered at Antioch. Romanos returned to Constantinople, but his generals managed to recover the situation afterwards, putting down Arab rebellions and forcing Aleppo to resume tributary status in 1031.

Computer Fraud and Abuse Act

The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) is a United States cybersecurity bill that was enacted in 1984 as an amendment to existing computer fraud law (18 U.S.C. § 1030), which had been included in the Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984. The law prohibits accessing a computer without authorization, or in excess of authorization. Prior to computer-specific criminal laws, computer crimes were prosecuted as mail and wire fraud, but the applying law was often insufficient.

The original 1984 bill was enacted in response to concern that computer-related crimes might go unpunished. The House Committee Report to the original computer crime bill characterized the 1983 techno-thriller film WarGames—in which a young Matthew Broderick breaks into a U.S. military supercomputer programmed to predict possible outcomes of nuclear war and unwittingly almost starts World War III—as "a realistic representation of the automatic dialing and access capabilities of the personal computer."The CFAA was written to extend existing tort law to intangible property, while, in theory, limiting federal jurisdiction to cases "with a compelling federal interest-i.e., where computers of the federal government or certain financial institutions are involved or where the crime itself is interstate in nature.", but its broad definitions have spilled over into contract law. (see "Protected Computer", below). In addition to amending a number of the provisions in the original section 1030, the CFAA also criminalized additional computer-related acts. Provisions addressed the distribution of malicious code and denial of service attacks. Congress also included in the CFAA a provision criminalizing trafficking in passwords and similar items.Since then, the Act has been amended a number of times—in 1989, 1994, 1996, in 2001 by the USA PATRIOT Act, 2002, and in 2008 by the Identity Theft Enforcement and Restitution Act. With each amendment of the law, the types of conduct that fell within its reach were extended.

In January 2015 Barack Obama proposed expanding the CFAA and the RICO Act in his Modernizing Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Cyber Crime proposal. DEF CON organizer and Cloudflare researcher Marc Rogers, Senator Ron Wyden, and Representative Zoe Lofgren have stated opposition to this on the grounds it will make many regular Internet activities illegal, and moves further away from what they were trying to accomplish with Aaron's Law.

Flute Sonata in B minor, BWV 1030

The Sonata in B minor for transverse flute and obbligato harpsichord by Johann Sebastian Bach (BWV 1030) is a sonata in 3 movements:

Andante

Largo e dolce

PrestoThe existing autograph manuscript dates from after 1735, when Bach led the Collegium Musicum in Leipzig. There are errors in the manuscript, and another harpsichord part in G minor that is otherwise the same though transposed, that suggests that this, like the G minor and D major harpsichord concertos, may be among the works Bach transcribed from earlier works originally for other instrumental combinations and in other keys to be playable by performers at hand.

GeForce 10 series

The GeForce 10 series is a series of graphics processing units developed by Nvidia, initially based on the Pascal microarchitecture announced in March 2014.

This design series succeeded the GeForce 900 Series, and is succeeded by cards using the Turing microarchitecture and the GeForce 20 Series.

Haakon Ericsson

Haakon Ericsson (Old Norse: Hákon Eiríksson, Norwegian: Håkon Eiriksson; died c. 1029-1030) was Earl of Lade and governor of Norway as a vassal under Knut the Great.

Håkon Eiriksson was from a dynasty of Norwegian rulers in the eastern part of Trondheim, bordering the Trondheimsfjord. He was the son of Eirik Håkonson, ruler of Norway and earl of Northumbria. His mother is commonly believed to have been Gytha, a daughter of Sweyn Forkbeard and Sigrid the Haughty of Denmark and half-sister of King Knut. After the Battle of Svolder, Eirik Håkonson, with his brother Sveinn Hákonarson, became kings of Norway under Sweyn Forkbeard. In 1014 or 1015 Eirik Håkonson left Norway and joined Knut for his campaign in England. The north English earldom of Northumbria was given by Knut to Eirik after he won control of the north. Eirik remained as earl of Northumbria until his death between 1023 and 1033.

As his father's successor in Norway, Håkon Eiriksson ruled as a Danish vassal from 1012 to 1015, with Einar Tambarskjelve as his aide and his uncle, Sveinn Hákonarson, holding some areas as a Swedish vassal. After some years' absence in England fighting the Danes, Olaf Haraldsson returned to Norway in 1015 and declared himself king, obtaining the support of the petty kings of the Uplands. In 1016, Olaf defeated Sveinn Hákonarson at the Battle of Nesjar. After the victory of Olaf Haraldsson, Håkon fled to England where he was well received by King Knut and made Earl of Worcester. After the Battle of the Helgeå, Norwegian nobles rallied behind Knut.

He is recorded as being the ruler of the Sudreyar from 1016 until 1030. In 1028, Håkon Eiriksson returned as Knut's vassal ruler of Norway.

Håkon died in a shipwreck in the Pentland Firth, between the Orkney Islands and the Scottish mainland, in either late 1029 or early 1030.

KFAY

KFAY (1030 AM, "NewsTalk 1030") is a radio station serving the Fayetteville, Arkansas, area with a News/Talk radio format. It is under ownership of Cumulus Media. 1030 AM is a United States clear-channel frequency, on which WBZ in Boston is the dominant Class A station.

KFAY originally signed on as KGRH 1450 kHz, licensed to Fayetteville. It later changed calls to KHOG and moved to 1440 kHz. KHOG programmed a top 40 format in the 1970s. KHOG moved from 1440 kHz to the present day 1030 kHz frequency in the mid-1980s under the ownership of Demaree Media.

KTWO (AM)

KTWO is an American radio station licensed to Casper, Wyoming operating on 1030 kHz. KTWO broadcasts a 50,000 watt signal from two towers nighttime (directional), one tower daytime (non-directional) located east of Casper near Hat Six Road. The station features several talk shows such as Rush Limbaugh and Coast to Coast AM.KTWO is also very well known for its news department. It features short news broadcasts throughout the day, as well as a half-hour nightly news program at 5pm entitled "Wyoming Tonight." In addition the station also offers news broadcasts from FOX Radio News. Weather forecasts for the station are provided by Cheyenne, WY based "Day Weather."

Kosmos 1030

Kosmos 1030 (Russian: Космос 1030 meaning Cosmos 1030) was a Soviet US-K missile early warning satellite which was launched in 1978 as part of the Soviet military's Oko programme. The satellite was designed to identify missile launches using optical telescopes and infrared sensors.

List of Afghan detainees at Guantanamo Bay

According to the United States Department of Defense, it held more than two hundred Afghan detainees in Guantanamo prior to May 15, 2006. They had been captured and classified as enemy combatants in warfare following the US and allies invasion of Afghanistan to overthrow the Taliban and disrupt terrorist networks. Originally, the US held such prisoners in sites in Afghanistan, but needed a facility to detain them where they could be interrogated. It opened the Guantanamo Bay detention camp on January 11, 2002, and transported the enemy combatants there.The United States Supreme Court's ruled in Rasul v. Bush (2004) that the detainees had the right of habeas corpus to challenge their detention under the US Constitution. That summer, the Department of Defense stopped transferring detained men to Guantanamo. On September 6, 2006, United States President George W. Bush announced the transfer of 14 high value detainees to Guantanamo, including several Afghans. Other Afghans have been transferred to the camp since then.

List of kings of Connacht

The Kings of Connacht were rulers of the cóiced (variously translated as portion, fifth, province) of Connacht, which lies west of the River Shannon, Ireland. However, the name only became applied to it in the early medieval era, being named after the Connachta.

The old name for the province was Cóiced Ol nEchmacht (the fifth of the Ol nEchmacht). Ptolemy's map of c. 150 AD does in fact list a people called the Nagnatae as living in the west of Ireland. Some are of the opinion that Ptolemy's Map of Ireland may be based on cartography carried out as much as five hundred years before his time.

The Connachta were a group of dynasties who claimed descent from the three eldest sons of Eochaid Mugmedon: Brion, Ailill and Fiachrae. They took their collective name from their alleged descent from Conn Cétchathach. Their younger brother, Niall Noigiallach was ancestor to the Uí Néill.

The following is a list of kings of Connacht from the fifth to fifteenth centuries.

Mahmud of Ghazni

Mahmud of Ghazni (Persian: محمود غزنوی‎; 2 November 971 – 30 April 1030) was the first independent ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty, ruling from 998 to 1030. At the time of his death, his kingdom had been transformed into a extensive military empire, which extended from northwestern Iran proper to the Punjab in the Indian subcontinent, Khwarazm in Transoxiana, and Makran.

Highly Persianized, Mahmud continued the bureaucratic, political, and cultural customs of his predecessors, the Samanids, which proved to establish the groundwork for a Persianate state in northern India. His capital of Ghazni evolved into a significant cultural, commercial, and intellectual center in the Islamic world, almost rivaling the important city of Baghdad. The capital appealed to many prominent figures, such as al-Biruni and Ferdowsi.He was the first ruler to hold the title Sultan ("authority"), signifying the extent of his power while at the same time preserving an ideological link to the suzerainty of the Abbasid Caliphate. During his rule, he invaded and plundered parts of the Indian subcontinent (east of the Indus River) seventeen times.

Modern pentathlon at the 1992 Summer Olympics

The modern pentathlon at the 1992 Summer Olympics was represented by two events (both for men): Individual competition and Team competition. As usual in Olympic modern pentathlon, one competition was held and each competitor's score was included to the Individual competition event results table and was also added to his teammates' scores to be included to the Team competition event results table. This competition consisted of 5 disciplines:

Fencing, held on July 26 at the Palau de la Metal-lúrgia

Swimming, held on July 27 at the Piscines Bernat Picornell

Shooting, held on July 27 at the Camp de Tir Olímpic de Mollet

Running, held on July 28 at Circuit de Cros

Equestrian held on July 29 at the Real Club de Polo

Olaf II of Norway

Olaf II Haraldsson (c. 995 – 29 July 1030), later known as St. Olaf (and traditionally as St. Olave), was King of Norway from 1015 to 1028. He was posthumously given the title Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae (English: Eternal/Perpetual King of Norway) and canonised at Nidaros (Trondheim) by Bishop Grimkell, one year after his death in the Battle of Stiklestad on 29 July 1030. His remains were enshrined in Nidaros Cathedral, built over his burial site. His sainthood encouraged the widespread adoption of the Christian religion among the Vikings / Norsemen in Scandinavia.

Olaf's local canonisation was in 1164 confirmed by Pope Alexander III, making him a universally recognised saint of the Roman Catholic Church, and a commemorated historical figure among some members of the Lutheran and Anglican Communions. He is also a canonised saint of the Eastern Orthodox Church (feast day 29 July) and one of the last famous Western saints before the Great Schism.The saga of Olav Haraldsson and the legend of Olaf the Saint became central to a national identity. Especially during the period of Romantic Nationalism, Olaf was a symbol of Norwegian independence and pride. Saint Olaf is symbolised by the axe in Norway's coat of arms and Olsok (29 July) is still his day of celebration. Many Christian institutions with Scandinavian links as well as Norway's Order of St. Olav are named after him.

Padag Road railway station (Urdu: پڈاگ سڑک اسٹیشن‬‎, Balochi: پڈاگ سڑک اسٹیشن) is located in Pakistan.

Solar mass

The solar mass (M) is a standard unit of mass in astronomy, equal to approximately 2×1030 kg. It is used to indicate the masses of other stars, as well as clusters, nebulae, and galaxies. It is equal to the mass of the Sun (denoted by the solar symbol ⊙︎). This equates to about two nonillion (two quintillion in the long scale) kilograms:

M = (1.98847±0.00007)×1030 kg

The above mass is about 332946 times the mass of Earth (M), or 1047 times the mass of Jupiter (MJ).

Because Earth follows an elliptical orbit around the Sun, the solar mass can be computed from the equation for the orbital period of a small body orbiting a central mass. Based upon the length of the year, the distance from Earth to the Sun (an astronomical unit or AU), and the gravitational constant (G), the mass of the Sun is given by:

${\displaystyle M_{\odot }={\frac {4\pi ^{2}\times (1\,\mathrm {AU} )^{3}}{G\times (1\,\mathrm {yr} )^{2}}}}$

The value of G is difficult to measure and is only known with limited accuracy in SI units (see Cavendish experiment). The value of G times the mass of an object, called the standard gravitational parameter, is known for the Sun and several planets to much higher accuracy than G alone. As a result, the solar mass is used as the standard mass in the astronomical system of units.