The One Hundred Second United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from January 3, 1991, to January 3, 1993, during the last two years of the administration of U.S. President George H. W. Bush.
|102nd United States Congress|
United States Capitol (2002)
|January 3, 1991 – January 3, 1993|
|Senate President||Dan Quayle (R)|
|Senate President pro tem||Robert Byrd (D)|
|House Speaker||Tom Foley (D)|
435 members of the House
5 non-voting delegates
|1st: January 3, 1991 – January 3, 1992|
2nd: January 3, 1992 – October 9, 1992
(shading shows control)
|End of the previous congress||55||45||100||0|
|Final voting share||58.0%||42.0%|
|Beginning of the next congress||57||43||100||0|
This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.
Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress, In this Congress, Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1992; Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1994; and Class 2 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1996.
|Vacator||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's|
|Pete Wilson (R)||Resigned January 7, 1991, after being elected Governor of California.
As Governor, he appointed his successor.
|John F. Seymour (R)||January 10, 1991|
|John Heinz (R)||Died April 4, 1991.
His successor was appointed May 9, 1991, and subsequently won a special election on November 5, 1991, to finish the term.
|Harris Wofford (D)||May 9, 1991|
|Quentin N. Burdick (D)||Died.
His wife was appointed September 8, 1992, to succeed him.
|Jocelyn Burdick (D)||September 12, 1992|
|John F. Seymour (R)||Interim appointee lost the special election November 3, 1992, to finish the term.||Dianne Feinstein (D)||November 10, 1992|
|Jocelyn Burdick (D)||Interim appointee retired December 14, 1992.
Her successor was chosen at a special election December 4, 1992, to finish the term.
|Kent Conrad (D)||December 14, 1992|
|Kent Conrad (D)||Resigned December 14, 1992, to assume vacant Class 1 seat to which he was elected.
His successor was appointed to assume the seat early, having already won election to the next term.
|Byron Dorgan (D)||December 15, 1992|
|Al Gore (D)||Resigned January 2, 1993, to become Vice President of the United States.
His successor was appointed.
|Harlan Mathews (D)||January 2, 1993|
|District||Vacator||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's|
|Massachusetts's 1st||Silvio O. Conte (R)||Died February 11, 1991||John Olver (D)||June 18, 1991|
|Illinois's 15th||Edward R. Madigan (R)||Resigned March 8, 1991, after being appointed U.S. Secretary of Agriculture||Thomas W. Ewing (R)||July 2, 1991|
|Texas's 3rd||Steve Bartlett (R)||Resigned March 11, 1991||Sam Johnson (R)||May 8, 1991|
|Arizona's 2nd||Mo Udall (D)||Resigned May 4, 1991||Ed Pastor (D)||October 3, 1991|
|Pennsylvania's 2nd||William H. Gray (D)||Resigned September 11, 1991 to become President of the Negro College Fund||Lucien E. Blackwell (D)||November 5, 1991|
|Virginia's 7th||D. French Slaughter (R)||Resigned November 5, 1991||George F. Allen (D)||November 5, 1991|
|Puerto Rico's At-large||Jaime Fuster (PD)||Resigned March 4, 1992||Antonio Colorado (PD)||March 4, 1992|
|New York's 17th||Theodore S. Weiss (D)||Died September 14, 1992||Jerrold Nadler (D)||November 3, 1992|
|North Carolina's 1st||Walter B. Jones (D)||Died September 15, 1992||Eva M. Clayton (D)||November 3, 1992|
|North Dakota's At-large||Byron Dorgan (D)||Resigned December 14, 1992, after being appointed US Senator||Vacant||Not filled this term|
Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (1 link), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
The 1990 congressional election for the Delegate from the District of Columbia was held on November 6, 1990. Incumbent Walter E. Fauntroy (D) had stepped down earlier to run for Mayor of Washington, D.C.. Eleanor Holmes Norton (D) won the open seat. All elected members would serve in 102nd United States Congress.
The non-voting delegate to the United States House of Representatives from the District of Columbia is elected for two-year terms.1990 United States elections
The 1990 United States elections were held on November 6, and elected the members of the 102nd United States Congress. The election occurred in the middle of Republican President George H. W. Bush's term. The Democratic Party built on its majorities in both chambers of Congress. The Republicans lost nine seats in the U.S. House, lower than the average number of seats lost by the U.S. President's party at the time, which was 29. Out of the 33 Senate seats up for election, the Democratic Party picked up a net gain of one seat. In the gubernatorial elections, both parties lost a net of one seat to third parties.1991 State of the Union Address
The 1991 State of the Union address was given by President George H. W. Bush to a joint session of the 102nd United States Congress on Tuesday, January 29, 1991.
The speech lasted approximately 48 minutes. and contained 3823 words.The Democratic Party response was delivered by Senator George Mitchell (ME).Manuel Lujan, the Secretary of the Interior, served as the designated survivor.1992 State of the Union Address
The 1992 State of the Union address was a speech given by President George H. W. Bush to a joint session of the 102nd United States Congress on Tuesday, January 28, 1992. This was the last State of the Union address by President Bush, who lost his re-election bid to Bill Clinton in the 1992 election.
The president discussed the collapse of the Soviet Union, Operation Desert Storm, military spending cuts, nuclear disarmament, economic recovery (high unemployment remained from the early 1990s recession), several types of tax cuts and credits, and controlling government spending. Bush listed a nine-point, long-term plan advocating:
research and development tax credits and emerging technologies funding
inner city development
privatized health care reform
reduction of the federal budget deficit
Congress to act on various existing reform proposals
efforts to strengthen familiesSeeing increased division in American media and politics, Bush denounced election-year partisanship and described the popular sentiment as a passing mood.
The speech lasted 51 minutes and consisted of 5,012 words.The Democratic Party response was delivered by the Speaker of the House, Representative Tom Foley of Washington. Foley, speaking for 12 minutes, criticized Bush's economic recovery plans as being the same as those that led to the recession and argued for more support of the middle class instead of wealthier Americans.Edward Madigan, the Secretary of Agriculture, served as the designated survivor.1992 United States Senate special election in California
The 1992 United States Senate special election in California took place on November 3, 1992, at the same time as the regular election to the United States Senate in California. Both of California's Senators were elected for the first time. This is not a unique occurrence; it would happen again in Tennessee in 1994 and in Kansas in 1996.
In the 1990 gubernatorial election, Republican Senator Pete Wilson had beaten Democrat Dianne Feinstein for governor. He appointed John F. Seymour to the Senate to replace himself. In this special election held simultaneously with a separate but regular Senate election, Feinstein defeated Seymour to serve the remaining 2 years of the term. Feinstein subsequently held seniority over fellow Democrat Barbara Boxer, elected on the same day; because Feinstein was elected to complete an existing term, she took office on November 10, only 7 days after the election, while Boxer's term commenced with the beginning of the next session of Congress in January 1993.1992 United States Senate special election in North Dakota
The 1992 United States Senate special election in North Dakota was held December 4, 1992 to fill the United States Senate seat vacated by the late Quentin Burdick. Burdick's widow, Jocelyn Burdick, was appointed as a temporary replacement until the election was held. Dem-NPLer Kent Conrad, who held North Dakota's other senate seat for one term since 1986, had not run for re-election to his own seat, holding himself to a campaign promise pledging to reduce the federal deficit. U.S. Senator Kent Conrad won the election.Alien Species Prevention and Enforcement Act of 1992
In the United States the Alien Species Prevention and Enforcement Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-393) makes it illegal to ship certain categories of plants and animals through the mail. The prohibited species are certain injurious animals, plant pests, plants and materials under federal quarantine, and certain plants and animals under the Lacey Act (16 U.S.C. 3371-3378), a law that pertains to illegal trade in fish, wildlife, and plants. These also may be referred to as invasive species. The idea behind the piece of legislation is to protect native species and maintain a relatively high level of biodiversity.Civil Rights Act of 1991
The Civil Rights Act of 1991 is a United States labor law, passed in response to United States Supreme Court decisions that limited the rights of employees who had sued their employers for discrimination. The Act represented the first effort since the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to modify some of the basic procedural and substantive rights provided by federal law in employment discrimination cases. It provided the right to trial by jury on discrimination claims and introduced the possibility of emotional distress damages and limited the amount that a jury could award. It added provisions to Title VII protections expanding the rights of women to sue and collect compensatory and punitive damages for sexual discrimination or harassment.
President Bush had used his veto against the more comprehensive Civil Rights Act of 1990. He feared racial quotas would be imposed but later approved the 1991 version of the bill.Energy Policy Act of 1992
The Energy Policy Act, effective October 24, 1992, (102nd Congress H.R.776.ENR, abbreviated as EPACT92) is a United States government act. It was passed by Congress and set goals, created mandates, and amended utility laws to increase clean energy use and improve overall energy efficiency in the United States. The Act consists of twenty-seven titles detailing various measures designed to lessen the nation's dependence on imported energy, provide incentives for clean and renewable energy, and promote energy conservation in buildings.Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 (FDICIA), passed during the savings and loan crisis in the United States, strengthened the power of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.
It allowed the FDIC to borrow directly from the Treasury department and mandated that the FDIC resolve failed banks using the least costly method available. It also ordered the FDIC to assess insurance premiums according to risk and created new capital requirements.Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992
The Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992 (or FHEFSSA, Pub.L. 102–550, title XIII of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992, H.R. 5334, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3941, 12 U.S.C. § 4501 et seq.). The Act established the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight (OFHEO) within the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). It also mandated that HUD set specific goals for the government-sponsored enterprises Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, with regard to low income and underserved housing areas.Freedom Support Act
The FREEDOM Support Act of 1992 (Freedom for Russia and Emerging Eurasian Democracies and Open Markets Support Act, FSA, HR 282) is an act passed by the United States Congress. It is not to be confused with the Iran Freedom and Support Act of 2005 (S 333).Gang of Seven
The Gang of Seven refers to a group of freshmen Republican U.S. Representatives, elected to serve in the 102nd Congress in 1990. The group loudly condemned the House banking scandal and the Congressional Post Office scandal, forcing the congressional leadership to address the issues by ensuring the incidents stayed in the media and public eye. The group also criticized other Congressional perks, such as congressional subsidies for the Capitol Barbershop and Senate Restaurant.Two members of this group, Jim Nussle and John Boehner, were also key drafters of the Contract with America, which along with the banking and post office scandals helped the Republicans take control of the House in the 1994 elections.High Performance Computing Act of 1991
The High Performance Computing Act of 1991 (HPCA) is an Act of Congress promulgated in the 102nd United States Congress as (Pub.L. 102–194) on December 9, 1991. Often referred to as the Gore Bill, it was created and introduced by then Senator Al Gore, and led to the development of the National Information Infrastructure and the funding of the National Research and Education Network (NREN).Housing and Community Development Act of 1992
Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 was first introduced to the 102nd Congress in June 5, 1992, and was signed and made law by President George H. W. Bush on October 28, 1992. Also known as "The 1992 Act", the bill amended a number of housing, banking, and drug abuse laws. It amended The United States Housing Act of 1937. It increased aggregate budget authority for low-income housing for fiscal year 1993 and 1994. It also extends ceiling rents, excludes certain child care expenses, and excessive travel expenses from the calculation of adjusted income and apply to Indian public housing certain definitions of the Cranston-Gonzales National Affordable Housing Act; It allows the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to issue public and Section 8 housing tenant preference rules. The Act also extends certain exemptions from waiting list requirements and eligibility restrictions with respect to income eligibility for assisted housing and while revising the family self-sufficiency program, with respect to escrow saving accounts, incentives for participation, and action plans.Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act
The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (Public Law 102-240; ISTEA, pronounced Ice-Tea) is a United States federal law that posed a major change to transportation planning and policy, as the first U.S. federal legislation on the subject in the post-Interstate Highway System era.List of United States Senators in the 102nd Congress by seniority
This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 102nd United States Congress listed by seniority, from January 3, 1991, to January 3, 1993.
Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a state governor. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.Senators who were sworn in during the middle of the two-year congressional term (up until the last senator who was not sworn in early after winning the November 1992 election) are listed at the end of the list with no number.President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992
The President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992, or the JFK Records Act, is a public law passed by the United States Congress, effective October 26, 1992. It directed the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) to establish a collection of records to be known as the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection. It stated that the collection shall consist of copies of all U.S. government records relating to the 1963 assassination of President John F. Kennedy, and that they are to be housed in the NARA Archives II building in College Park, Maryland. The collection also included any materials created or made available for use by, obtained by, or otherwise came into the possession of any state or local law enforcement office that provided support or assistance or performed work in connection with a federal inquiry into the assassination.Truth in Savings Act
The Truth in Savings Act (TISA) is a United States federal law that was passed on December 19, 1991. It was part of the larger Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 and is implemented by Regulation DD. It established uniformity in the disclosure of terms and conditions regarding interest and fees when giving out information on or opening a new savings account. On passing this law, the US Congress noted that it would help promote economic stability, competition between depository institutions, and allow the consumer to make informed decisions.
The Truth in Savings Act requires the clear and uniform disclosure of rates of interest (annual percentage yield or APY) and the fees that are associated with the account so that the consumer is able to make a meaningful comparison between potential accounts. For example, a customer opening a certificate of deposit account must be provided with information about ladder rates (smaller interest rates with smaller deposits) and penalty fees for early withdrawal of a portion or all of the funds.
The Act is only applicable to deposit accounts that are held by a "natural person" for personal, household, or family use. Accounts owned by businesses or organizations such as churches and neighborhood associations are not subject to these rules.
United States Congresses (and year convened)