102nd United States Congress

The One Hundred Second United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from January 3, 1991, to January 3, 1993, during the last two years of the administration of U.S. President George H. W. Bush.

The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the 1980 United States Census. Both chambers had a Democratic majority.

102nd United States Congress
101st ←
→ 103rd
January 3, 1991 – January 3, 1993
Senate PresidentDan Quayle (R)
Senate President pro temRobert Byrd (D)
House SpeakerTom Foley (D)
Members100 senators
435 members of the House
5 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityDemocratic
House MajorityDemocratic
1st: January 3, 1991 – January 3, 1992
2nd: January 3, 1992 – October 9, 1992

Notable events

Major Legislation

Constitutional amendments

Party summary


Party standings on the opening day of the 102nd Congress
  56 Democratic Senators
  44 Republican Senators
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
End of the previous congress 55 45 100 0
Begin 56 44 100 0
End 58 42
Final voting share 58.0% 42.0%
Beginning of the next congress 57 43 100 0

House of Representatives

Affiliation Members Voting
Democratic Party 270 62.1%
Republican Party 164 37.7%
Independent 1 0.2%
Total 435 100%



Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership

House of Representatives

Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership



This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.


Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress, In this Congress, Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1992; Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1994; and Class 2 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1996.





























New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota





Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota







West Virginia



House of Representatives

102 us house membership
House seats by party holding majority in state
  80+ -100% Republican
  80+ -100% Democratic
  60+ -80% Republican
  60+ -80% Democratic
  50+ -60% Republican
  50+ -60% Democratic
  striped: evenly split
  100% independent

Changes in membership


Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Pete Wilson (R) Resigned January 7, 1991, after being elected Governor of California.
As Governor, he appointed his successor.
John F. Seymour (R) January 10, 1991
John Heinz (R) Died April 4, 1991.
His successor was appointed May 9, 1991, and subsequently won a special election on November 5, 1991, to finish the term.
Harris Wofford (D) May 9, 1991
North Dakota
Quentin N. Burdick (D) Died.
His wife was appointed September 8, 1992, to succeed him.
Jocelyn Burdick (D) September 12, 1992
John F. Seymour (R) Interim appointee lost the special election November 3, 1992, to finish the term. Dianne Feinstein (D) November 10, 1992
North Dakota
Jocelyn Burdick (D) Interim appointee retired December 14, 1992.
Her successor was chosen at a special election December 4, 1992, to finish the term.
Kent Conrad (D) December 14, 1992
North Dakota
Kent Conrad (D) Resigned December 14, 1992, to assume vacant Class 1 seat to which he was elected.
His successor was appointed to assume the seat early, having already won election to the next term.
Byron Dorgan (D) December 15, 1992
Al Gore (D) Resigned January 2, 1993, to become Vice President of the United States.
His successor was appointed.
Harlan Mathews (D) January 2, 1993

House of Representatives

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Massachusetts's 1st Silvio O. Conte (R) Died February 11, 1991 John Olver (D) June 18, 1991
Illinois's 15th Edward R. Madigan (R) Resigned March 8, 1991, after being appointed U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Thomas W. Ewing (R) July 2, 1991
Texas's 3rd Steve Bartlett (R) Resigned March 11, 1991 Sam Johnson (R) May 8, 1991
Arizona's 2nd Mo Udall (D) Resigned May 4, 1991 Ed Pastor (D) October 3, 1991
Pennsylvania's 2nd William H. Gray (D) Resigned September 11, 1991 to become President of the Negro College Fund Lucien E. Blackwell (D) November 5, 1991
Virginia's 7th D. French Slaughter (R) Resigned November 5, 1991 George F. Allen (D) November 5, 1991
Puerto Rico's At-large Jaime Fuster (PD) Resigned March 4, 1992 Antonio Colorado (PD) March 4, 1992
New York's 17th Theodore S. Weiss (D) Died September 14, 1992 Jerrold Nadler (D) November 3, 1992
North Carolina's 1st Walter B. Jones (D) Died September 15, 1992 Eva M. Clayton (D) November 3, 1992
North Dakota's At-large Byron Dorgan (D) Resigned December 14, 1992, after being appointed US Senator Vacant Not filled this term


Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (1 link), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.


House of Representatives

  • Aging (Select)
  • Agriculture (Chair: Kika de la Garza)
    • Cotton, Rice and Sugar
    • Livestock, Dairy and Poultry
    • Peanuts and Tobacco
    • Wheat, Soybeans and Feed Grains
    • Department Operations, Research and Foreign Agriculture
    • Domestic Marketing, Consumer Relations and Nutrition
    • Forests, Family Farms and Energy
  • Appropriations (Chair: Jamie L. Whitten)
  • Armed Services (Chair: Les Aspin)
    • Procurement and Military Nuclear Systems
    • Seapower, Strategic and Critical Materials
    • Research and Development
    • Military Installations and Facilities
    • Military Personnel and Compensation
    • Investigations
    • Readiness
  • Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs (Chair: Henry B. Gonzalez)
    • Financial Institutions Supervision, Regulation and Insurance
    • Domestic Monetary Policy
    • General Oversight and Investigations
    • Policy Research and Insurance
    • Economic Stabilization
    • Consumer Affairs and Coinage
  • Budget (Chair: Leon Panetta)
    • Budget Process, Reconciliation and Enforcement
    • Community Development and Natural Resources
    • Defense, Foreign Policy and Space
    • Urgent Fiscal Issues
    • Human Resources
    • Economic Policy, Projections and Revenues
  • Children, Youth and Families (Select)
  • District of Columbia (Chair: Ron Dellums)
    • Fiscal Affairs and Health
    • Government Operations and Metropolitan Affairs
    • Judiciary and Education
  • Education and Labor (Chair: William D. Ford)
    • Postsecondary Education
    • Health and Safety
    • Labor Standards
    • Elementary, Secondary and Vocational Education
    • Labor-Management Relations
    • Human Resources
    • Select Education
    • Employment Opportunities
  • Energy and Commerce (Chair: John Dingell)
    • Oversight and Investigations
    • Health and the Environment
    • Energy and Power
    • Telecommunications and Finance
    • Commerce, Transportation and Competitiveness
    • Transportation and Hazardous Materials
  • Foreign Affairs (Chair: Dante Fascell)
    • Arms Control, International Security and Science
    • Europe and the Middle East
    • Human Rights and International Organizations
    • Asian and Pacific Affairs
    • International Economic Policy and Trade
    • Africa
    • Western Hemisphere Affairs
    • International Operations
  • Government Operations (Chair: John Conyers)
    • Legislation and National Security
    • Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations
    • Environment, Energy and Natural Resources
    • Commerce, Consumer and Monetary Affairs
    • Employment and Housing
    • Government Information, Justice and Agriculture
    • Government Activities and Transportation
    • Employment and Housing
  • House Administration (Chair: Charlie Rose
    • Procurement and Printing
    • Accounts
    • Elections
    • Personnel and Police
    • Libraries and Memorials
    • Office Systems
    • Campaign Finance Reform Task Force
  • Hunger (Select)
  • Interior and Insular Affairs (Chair: George Miller)
    • Water and Power Resources and Offshore Energy Resources
    • Mining and Natural Resources
    • National Parks and Public Lands
    • Insular and International Affairs
    • Energy and the Environment
    • General Oversight, Northwest Power and Forest Management
  • Judiciary (Chair: Jack Brooks)
    • Economic and Commercial Law
    • Civil and Constitutional Rights
    • International Law, Immigration and Refugees
    • Intellectual Property and Judicial Administration
    • Administration Law and Governmental Relations
    • Crime and Criminal Justice
  • Merchant Marine and Fisheries (Chair: Walter B. Jones Sr.)
    • Merchant Marine
    • Fisheries, Wildlife Conservation and the Environment
    • Coast Guard and Navigation
    • Oceangraphy, Great Lakes and the Outer Continental Shelf
    • Oversight and Investigations
  • Narcotics Abuse and Control (Select)
  • Post Office and Civil Service
    • Investigations
    • Civil Service
    • Postal Operations and Services
    • Compensation and Employee Benefits
    • Census and Population
    • Human Resources
    • Postal Personnel and Modernization
  • Public Works and Transportation (Chair: Robert A. Roe)
    • Aviation
    • Economic Development
    • Investigations and Oversight
    • Public Buildings and Grounds
    • Surface Transportation
    • Water Resources
  • Rules (Chair: Joe Moakley)
    • Rules of the House
    • The Legislative Process
  • Science, Space and Technology (Chair: George Brown Jr.)
    • Environment
    • Energy
    • Investigations and Oversight
    • Space
    • Technology and Competitiveness
    • Science
  • Small Business (Chair: John J. LaFalce)
    • SBA, the General Economy and Minority Enterprise Development
    • Procurement, Tourism and Minority Enterprise Development
    • Regulation, Business Opportunity and Energy
    • Antitrust, Impact of Deregulation and Privatization
    • Exports, Tax Policy and Special Problems
    • Environment and Employment
  • Standards of Official Conduct (Chair: Louis Stokes)
  • Veterans' Affairs (Chair: Gillespie V. Montgomery)
    • Hospitals and Health Care
    • Compensation, Pension and Insurance
    • Oversight and Investigations
    • Education, Training and Employment
    • Housing and Memorial Affairs
  • Ways and Means (Chair: Dan Rostenkowski)
  • Whole

Joint committees

Employees and legislative agency directors

Legislative branch agency directors


House of Representatives

See also


  1. ^ Dean, John W. (September 27, 2002). "The Telling Tale of the Twenty-Seventh Amendment". FindLaw. Retrieved July 9, 2013.

External links

1990 United States House of Representatives election in the District of Columbia

The 1990 congressional election for the Delegate from the District of Columbia was held on November 6, 1990. Incumbent Walter E. Fauntroy (D) had stepped down earlier to run for Mayor of Washington, D.C.. Eleanor Holmes Norton (D) won the open seat. All elected members would serve in 102nd United States Congress.

The non-voting delegate to the United States House of Representatives from the District of Columbia is elected for two-year terms.

1990 United States elections

The 1990 United States elections were held on November 6, and elected the members of the 102nd United States Congress. The election occurred in the middle of Republican President George H. W. Bush's term. The Democratic Party built on its majorities in both chambers of Congress. The Republicans lost nine seats in the U.S. House, lower than the average number of seats lost by the U.S. President's party at the time, which was 29. Out of the 33 Senate seats up for election, the Democratic Party picked up a net gain of one seat. In the gubernatorial elections, both parties lost a net of one seat to third parties.

1991 State of the Union Address

The 1991 State of the Union address was given by President George H. W. Bush to a joint session of the 102nd United States Congress on Tuesday, January 29, 1991.

The speech lasted approximately 48 minutes. and contained 3823 words.The Democratic Party response was delivered by Senator George Mitchell (ME).Manuel Lujan, the Secretary of the Interior, served as the designated survivor.

1992 State of the Union Address

The 1992 State of the Union address was a speech given by President George H. W. Bush to a joint session of the 102nd United States Congress on Tuesday, January 28, 1992. This was the last State of the Union address by President Bush, who lost his re-election bid to Bill Clinton in the 1992 election.

The president discussed the collapse of the Soviet Union, Operation Desert Storm, military spending cuts, nuclear disarmament, economic recovery (high unemployment remained from the early 1990s recession), several types of tax cuts and credits, and controlling government spending. Bush listed a nine-point, long-term plan advocating:

free trade

school choice

research and development tax credits and emerging technologies funding

anti-crime legislation

inner city development

privatized health care reform

reduction of the federal budget deficit

Congress to act on various existing reform proposals

efforts to strengthen familiesSeeing increased division in American media and politics, Bush denounced election-year partisanship and described the popular sentiment as a passing mood.

The speech lasted 51 minutes and consisted of 5,012 words.The Democratic Party response was delivered by the Speaker of the House, Representative Tom Foley of Washington. Foley, speaking for 12 minutes, criticized Bush's economic recovery plans as being the same as those that led to the recession and argued for more support of the middle class instead of wealthier Americans.Edward Madigan, the Secretary of Agriculture, served as the designated survivor.

1992 United States Senate special election in California

The 1992 United States Senate special election in California took place on November 3, 1992, at the same time as the regular election to the United States Senate in California. Both of California's Senators were elected for the first time. This is not a unique occurrence; it would happen again in Tennessee in 1994 and in Kansas in 1996.

In the 1990 gubernatorial election, Republican Senator Pete Wilson had beaten Democrat Dianne Feinstein for governor. He appointed John F. Seymour to the Senate to replace himself. In this special election held simultaneously with a separate but regular Senate election, Feinstein defeated Seymour to serve the remaining 2 years of the term. Feinstein subsequently held seniority over fellow Democrat Barbara Boxer, elected on the same day; because Feinstein was elected to complete an existing term, she took office on November 10, only 7 days after the election, while Boxer's term commenced with the beginning of the next session of Congress in January 1993.

1992 United States Senate special election in North Dakota

The 1992 United States Senate special election in North Dakota was held December 4, 1992 to fill the United States Senate seat vacated by the late Quentin Burdick. Burdick's widow, Jocelyn Burdick, was appointed as a temporary replacement until the election was held. Dem-NPLer Kent Conrad, who held North Dakota's other senate seat for one term since 1986, had not run for re-election to his own seat, holding himself to a campaign promise pledging to reduce the federal deficit. U.S. Senator Kent Conrad won the election.

Alien Species Prevention and Enforcement Act of 1992

In the United States the Alien Species Prevention and Enforcement Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-393) makes it illegal to ship certain categories of plants and animals through the mail. The prohibited species are certain injurious animals, plant pests, plants and materials under federal quarantine, and certain plants and animals under the Lacey Act (16 U.S.C. 3371-3378), a law that pertains to illegal trade in fish, wildlife, and plants. These also may be referred to as invasive species. The idea behind the piece of legislation is to protect native species and maintain a relatively high level of biodiversity.

Civil Rights Act of 1991

The Civil Rights Act of 1991 is a United States labor law, passed in response to United States Supreme Court decisions that limited the rights of employees who had sued their employers for discrimination. The Act represented the first effort since the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to modify some of the basic procedural and substantive rights provided by federal law in employment discrimination cases. It provided the right to trial by jury on discrimination claims and introduced the possibility of emotional distress damages and limited the amount that a jury could award. It added provisions to Title VII protections expanding the rights of women to sue and collect compensatory and punitive damages for sexual discrimination or harassment.

President Bush had used his veto against the more comprehensive Civil Rights Act of 1990. He feared racial quotas would be imposed but later approved the 1991 version of the bill.

Energy Policy Act of 1992

The Energy Policy Act, effective October 24, 1992, (102nd Congress H.R.776.ENR, abbreviated as EPACT92) is a United States government act. It was passed by Congress and set goals, created mandates, and amended utility laws to increase clean energy use and improve overall energy efficiency in the United States. The Act consists of twenty-seven titles detailing various measures designed to lessen the nation's dependence on imported energy, provide incentives for clean and renewable energy, and promote energy conservation in buildings.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 (FDICIA), passed during the savings and loan crisis in the United States, strengthened the power of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

It allowed the FDIC to borrow directly from the Treasury department and mandated that the FDIC resolve failed banks using the least costly method available. It also ordered the FDIC to assess insurance premiums according to risk and created new capital requirements.

Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992

The Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992 (or FHEFSSA, Pub.L. 102–550, title XIII of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992, H.R. 5334, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3941, 12 U.S.C. § 4501 et seq.). The Act established the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight (OFHEO) within the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). It also mandated that HUD set specific goals for the government-sponsored enterprises Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, with regard to low income and underserved housing areas.

Freedom Support Act

The FREEDOM Support Act of 1992 (Freedom for Russia and Emerging Eurasian Democracies and Open Markets Support Act, FSA, HR 282) is an act passed by the United States Congress. It is not to be confused with the Iran Freedom and Support Act of 2005 (S 333).

Gang of Seven

The Gang of Seven refers to a group of freshmen Republican U.S. Representatives, elected to serve in the 102nd Congress in 1990. The group loudly condemned the House banking scandal and the Congressional Post Office scandal, forcing the congressional leadership to address the issues by ensuring the incidents stayed in the media and public eye. The group also criticized other Congressional perks, such as congressional subsidies for the Capitol Barbershop and Senate Restaurant.Two members of this group, Jim Nussle and John Boehner, were also key drafters of the Contract with America, which along with the banking and post office scandals helped the Republicans take control of the House in the 1994 elections.

High Performance Computing Act of 1991

The High Performance Computing Act of 1991 (HPCA) is an Act of Congress promulgated in the 102nd United States Congress as (Pub.L. 102–194) on December 9, 1991. Often referred to as the Gore Bill, it was created and introduced by then Senator Al Gore, and led to the development of the National Information Infrastructure and the funding of the National Research and Education Network (NREN).

Housing and Community Development Act of 1992

Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 was first introduced to the 102nd Congress in June 5, 1992, and was signed and made law by President George H. W. Bush on October 28, 1992. Also known as "The 1992 Act", the bill amended a number of housing, banking, and drug abuse laws. It amended The United States Housing Act of 1937. It increased aggregate budget authority for low-income housing for fiscal year 1993 and 1994. It also extends ceiling rents, excludes certain child care expenses, and excessive travel expenses from the calculation of adjusted income and apply to Indian public housing certain definitions of the Cranston-Gonzales National Affordable Housing Act; It allows the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to issue public and Section 8 housing tenant preference rules. The Act also extends certain exemptions from waiting list requirements and eligibility restrictions with respect to income eligibility for assisted housing and while revising the family self-sufficiency program, with respect to escrow saving accounts, incentives for participation, and action plans.

Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act

The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (Public Law 102-240; ISTEA, pronounced Ice-Tea) is a United States federal law that posed a major change to transportation planning and policy, as the first U.S. federal legislation on the subject in the post-Interstate Highway System era.

List of United States Senators in the 102nd Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 102nd United States Congress listed by seniority, from January 3, 1991, to January 3, 1993.

Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a state governor. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.Senators who were sworn in during the middle of the two-year congressional term (up until the last senator who was not sworn in early after winning the November 1992 election) are listed at the end of the list with no number.

President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992

The President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992, or the JFK Records Act, is a public law passed by the United States Congress, effective October 26, 1992. It directed the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) to establish a collection of records to be known as the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection. It stated that the collection shall consist of copies of all U.S. government records relating to the 1963 assassination of President John F. Kennedy, and that they are to be housed in the NARA Archives II building in College Park, Maryland. The collection also included any materials created or made available for use by, obtained by, or otherwise came into the possession of any state or local law enforcement office that provided support or assistance or performed work in connection with a federal inquiry into the assassination.

Truth in Savings Act

The Truth in Savings Act (TISA) is a United States federal law that was passed on December 19, 1991. It was part of the larger Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 and is implemented by Regulation DD. It established uniformity in the disclosure of terms and conditions regarding interest and fees when giving out information on or opening a new savings account. On passing this law, the US Congress noted that it would help promote economic stability, competition between depository institutions, and allow the consumer to make informed decisions.

The Truth in Savings Act requires the clear and uniform disclosure of rates of interest (annual percentage yield or APY) and the fees that are associated with the account so that the consumer is able to make a meaningful comparison between potential accounts. For example, a customer opening a certificate of deposit account must be provided with information about ladder rates (smaller interest rates with smaller deposits) and penalty fees for early withdrawal of a portion or all of the funds.

The Act is only applicable to deposit accounts that are held by a "natural person" for personal, household, or family use. Accounts owned by businesses or organizations such as churches and neighborhood associations are not subject to these rules.

United States Congresses (and year convened)

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