100th meridian west

The meridian 100° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

The 100th meridian west forms a great circle with the 80th meridian east.

Line across the Earth
100th meridian west
Sign at the 100th meridian on U.S. Highway 30 in Cozad, Nebraska
Sign marking the 100th meridian in Cozad, Nebraska

From Pole to Pole

Starting at the North Pole and heading south to the South Pole, the 100th meridian west passes through:

Co-ordinates Country, territory or sea Notes
90°0′N 100°0′W / 90.000°N 100.000°W Arctic Ocean
80°6′N 100°0′W / 80.100°N 100.000°W  Canada NunavutMeighen Island
79°52′N 100°0′W / 79.867°N 100.000°W Peary Channel
78°44′N 100°0′W / 78.733°N 100.000°W  Canada NunavutEllef Ringnes Island
77°48′N 100°0′W / 77.800°N 100.000°W Unnamed waterbody
76°45′N 100°0′W / 76.750°N 100.000°W  Canada NunavutBerkeley Islands and Bathurst Island
74°59′N 100°0′W / 74.983°N 100.000°W Parry Channel
73°57′N 100°0′W / 73.950°N 100.000°W  Canada NunavutPrince of Wales Island
71°52′N 100°0′W / 71.867°N 100.000°W M'Clintock Channel
70°35′N 100°0′W / 70.583°N 100.000°W Larsen Sound Passing just east of Gateshead Island, Nunavut,  Canada (at 70°35′N 100°9′W / 70.583°N 100.150°W)
69°58′N 100°0′W / 69.967°N 100.000°W Victoria Strait
69°3′N 100°0′W / 69.050°N 100.000°W  Canada NunavutRoyal Geographical Society Islands
68°57′N 100°0′W / 68.950°N 100.000°W Queen Maud Gulf Passing just east of Hat Island, Nunavut,  Canada (at 68°18′N 100°2′W / 68.300°N 100.033°W)
67°50′N 100°0′W / 67.833°N 100.000°W  Canada Nunavut
Manitoba — from 60°0′N 100°0′W / 60.000°N 100.000°W
49°0′N 100°0′W / 49.000°N 100.000°W  United States North Dakota
South Dakota — from 45°56′N 100°0′W / 45.933°N 100.000°W
Nebraska — from 43°0′N 100°0′W / 43.000°N 100.000°W
Kansas — from 40°0′N 100°0′W / 40.000°N 100.000°W
Oklahoma — from 37°0′N 100°0′W / 37.000°N 100.000°W
Texas / Oklahoma border — from 36°30′N 100°0′W / 36.500°N 100.000°W
Texas — from 34°34′N 100°0′W / 34.567°N 100.000°W
28°0′N 100°0′W / 28.000°N 100.000°W  Mexico Coahuila
Nuevo León — from 27°37′N 100°0′W / 27.617°N 100.000°W
Tamaulipas — from 23°24′N 100°0′W / 23.400°N 100.000°W
San Luis Potosí — from 23°10′N 100°0′W / 23.167°N 100.000°W
Tamaulipas — from 22°54′N 100°0′W / 22.900°N 100.000°W
San Luis Potosí — from 22°50′N 100°0′W / 22.833°N 100.000°W
Guanajuato — from 21°30′N 100°0′W / 21.500°N 100.000°W
Querétaro — from 21°12′N 100°0′W / 21.200°N 100.000°W
Mexico State — from 20°6′N 100°0′W / 20.100°N 100.000°W
Guerrero — from 18°35′N 100°0′W / 18.583°N 100.000°W
16°54′N 100°0′W / 16.900°N 100.000°W Pacific Ocean
60°0′S 100°0′W / 60.000°S 100.000°W Southern Ocean
71°55′S 100°0′W / 71.917°S 100.000°W Antarctica Unclaimed territory

United States

100th meridian US
Part of the border between Texas and Oklahoma is defined by the 100th meridian west.

In the United States the meridian 100° west of Greenwich forms the eastern border of the Texas panhandle with Oklahoma (which traces its origin to the Adams-Onís Treaty in 1819 which settled the border between New Spain and the United States between the Red River and Arkansas River). Dodge City, Kansas lies exactly at the intersection of the Arkansas River and the 100th meridian.

In the central Great Plains, the meridian roughly marks the western boundary of the normal reach of moist air from the Gulf of Mexico, and the approximate boundary (although some areas do push the boundary slightly farther east) between the semi-arid climate to the west and the humid continental (north of about 37°N) and humid subtropical (south of about 37°N) climates to the east. The type of agriculture west of the meridian typically relies heavily on irrigation. Historically the meridian has often been taken as a rough boundary between the eastern and western United States. White settlement, spreading westward after the American Civil War, settled the area around this meridian during the 1870s.

A sign across U.S. Highway 30 in Cozad, Nebraska, marks the place where the 100th meridian intersects with the routes of the Oregon Trail, Pony Express, transcontinental railroad, and the Lincoln Highway.

In popular culture

Wallace Stegner's Beyond the Hundredth Meridian (1954), is a biography of John Wesley Powell, an explorer of the American West.

The song "At the Hundredth Meridian" by The Tragically Hip is about the 100th meridian west, specifically in Canada, and how it has traditionally been considered "where the great plains begin."

Preceded by
99th meridian west
100th meridian west
forms a great circle with
80th meridian east
Succeeded by
101st meridian west

See also

100th meridian

100th meridian may refer to:

100th meridian east, a line of longitude east of the Greenwich Meridian

100th meridian west, a line of longitude west of the Greenwich Meridian

101st meridian west

The meridian 101° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

The 101st meridian west forms a great circle with the 79th meridian east.

80th meridian east

The meridian 80° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

The 80th meridian east forms a great circle with the 100th meridian west.

There is also an 80 Degrees East cafe in Nanganallur, Chennai, India named after this longitude.

99th meridian west

The meridian 99° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

The 99th meridian west forms a great circle with the 81st meridian east.

American Campaign Medal

The American Campaign Medal is a military award of the United States Armed Forces which was first created on November 6, 1942 by Executive Order 9265 issued by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The medal was intended to recognize those military members who had performed military service in the American Theater of Operations during World War II. A similar medal, known as the American Defense Service Medal was awarded for active duty service before the United States entry into World War II.

Arkansas River

The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. It generally flows to the east and southeast as it traverses the U.S. states of Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. The river's source basin lies in the western United States in Colorado, specifically the Arkansas River Valley, where the headwaters derive from the snowpack in the Sawatch and Mosquito mountain ranges. It then flows east into the Midwest via Kansas, and finally into the South through Oklahoma and Arkansas.

At 1,469 miles (2,364 km), it is the sixth-longest river in the United States, the second-longest tributary in the Mississippi–Missouri system, and the 45th longest river in the world. Its origin is in the Rocky Mountains in Lake County, Colorado, near Leadville. In 1859, placer gold discovered in the Leadville area brought thousands seeking to strike it rich, but the easily recovered placer gold was quickly exhausted. The Arkansas River's mouth is at Napoleon, Arkansas, and its drainage basin covers nearly 170,000 sq mi (440,300 km²). In terms of volume, the river is much smaller than the Missouri and Ohio Rivers, with a mean discharge of about 40,000 cubic feet per second (1,100 m3/s).

The Arkansas from its headwaters to the 100th meridian west formed part of the U.S.-Mexico border from the Adams–Onís Treaty (in force 1821) until the Texas Annexation or Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

At the Hundredth Meridian

"At the Hundredth Meridian" is a song by Canadian rock band The Tragically Hip. It was released in April 1993 as the fourth single from the band's 1992 album, Fully Completely. The song peaked at #18 on the Canadian RPM Singles chart. The song was also featured in the Due South episode "Heaven and Earth" in 1995.

When performing the song live, the band would often play it at a significantly faster tempo than on the album, and would use the instrumental break for a jam session lasting several minutes.

Colorado War

The Colorado War was an Indian War fought from 1863 to 1865 between the Cheyenne and Arapaho Nations and white settlers and militia in the Colorado Territory and adjacent regions. The Kiowa and the Comanche played a minor role in actions that occurred in the southern part of the Territory along the Arkansas River, while the Sioux played a major role in actions that occurred along the South Platte River along the Great Platte River Road, the eastern portion of the Overland Trail. The United States government and Colorado Territory authorities participated through the Colorado volunteers, a citizens militia while the United States Army played a minor role. The war was centered on the Colorado Eastern Plains.

The war included an attack in November 1864 against the winter camp of the Southern Cheyenne Chief Black Kettle known as the Sand Creek massacre. The engagement, initially hailed in the United States press as a great victory, was later publicly condemned as an act of depraved genocidal brutality. The massacre resulted in military and congressional hearings which established the culpability of John Chivington, the commander of the Colorado Volunteers, and his troops.

Dodson, Texas

Dodson is a town in Collingsworth County, Texas, United States. The population was 109 at the 2010 census.

Eastern Wilderness Act

The Eastern Wilderness Areas Act (Pub.L. 93–622, 88 Stat. 2096, enacted January 3, 1975) was signed into law by President Gerald Ford on January 3, 1975. Built upon the 1964 Wilderness Act, which was written by Howard Zahniser of The Wilderness Society and signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson, the Act designated 16 new wilderness areas in the Eastern United States, including 207,000 acres (84,000 ha) of wilderness on national lands in 13 states. Although it was originally untitled, the bill signed by Ford has come to be known as the Eastern Wilderness Areas Act.While the previous Act created the legal definition of wilderness in the United States, the Eastern Wilderness Areas Act applied only to land east of the 100th meridian west.

First National Bank (Erick, Oklahoma)

The First National Bank is a historic building located at 101 S. Main St. in Erick, Oklahoma. The two-story frame building was built in 1907. The building was primarily used as the city's bank; however, it also housed a barbershop in the rear and at one point had a second barbershop in the basement. The second floor of the building held various professional offices, including the courts of local justices of the peace. The bank operated in the building until 1968, during which time it served as Erick's commercial center.

After the bank closed, the 100th Meridian Museum occupied the building; the museum commemorates the survey of the 100th meridian west, a benchmark of which is set in the bank's wall.The bank was added to the National Register of Historic Places on December 11, 1979.

Graham County, Kansas

Graham County (county code GH) is a county located in the U.S. state of Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 2,597. Its county seat and most populous city is Hill City. The county is home to Nicodemus, founded 1877, which is the only remaining western town established by African Americans during the Reconstruction Period following the American Civil War.

Greer County, Texas

Greer County, a county created by the Texas legislature on February 8, 1860 (and named for John Alexander Greer, Lieutenant Governor of Texas), was land claimed by both Texas and the United States.

History of Oklahoma

The history of Oklahoma refers to the history of the state of Oklahoma and the land that the state now occupies. Areas of Oklahoma east of its panhandle were acquired in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, while the Panhandle was not acquired until the U.S. land acquisitions following the Mexican–American War.

Most of Oklahoma was set aside as Indian Territory before the Civil War. It was opened for general settlement around 1890—the "Sooners" were settlers who jumped the gun. Statehood came to the poor ranching and farming state in Oklahoma, but soon oil was discovered and new wealth poured in.

Historians David Baird and Danney Goble have searched for the essence of the historical experiences of the people of Oklahoma. They find that, "The shared experiences of Oklahoma's people over time speak of optimism, innovation, perseverance, entrepreneurialism, common sense, collective courage, and simple decency. Those, not victimization, were the core values."

Mexican Cession

The Mexican Cession is the region in the modern-day southwestern United States that Mexico ceded to the U.S. in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 after the Mexican–American War. This region had not been part of the areas east of the Rio Grande which had been claimed by the Republic of Texas, though the Texas annexation resolution two years earlier had not specified the southern and western boundary of the new State of Texas. The Mexican Cession (529,000 sq. miles) was the third largest acquisition of territory in US history. The largest was the Louisiana Purchase, with some 827,000 sq. miles (including land from fifteen present U.S. states and two Canadian provinces), followed by the acquisition of Alaska (about 586,000 sq. miles).

Most of the area had been the Mexican territory of Alta California, while a southeastern strip on the Rio Grande had been part of Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico, most of whose area and population were east of the Rio Grande on land that had been claimed by the Republic of Texas since 1835, but never controlled or even approached aside from the Texan Santa Fe Expedition. Mexico controlled the territory later known as the Mexican Cession, with considerable local autonomy punctuated by several revolts and few troops sent from central Mexico, in the period from 1821–22 after independence from Spain up through 1846 when U.S. military forces seized control of California and New Mexico on the outbreak of the Mexican–American War. The northern boundary of the 42nd parallel north was set by the Adams–Onís Treaty signed by the United States and Spain in 1821 and ratified by Mexico in 1831 in the Treaty of Limits (Mexico-United States). The eastern boundary of the Mexican Cession was the Texas claim at the Rio Grande and extending north from the headwaters of the Rio Grande, not corresponding to Mexican territorial boundaries. The southern boundary was set by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which followed the Mexican boundaries between Alta California (to the north) and Baja California and Sonora (to the south). The United States paid Mexico $15 million for the land which became known as the Mexican Cession.

New Mexico Territory

The Territory of New Mexico was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed (with varying boundaries) from September 9, 1850, until January 6, 1912, when the remaining extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of New Mexico, making it the longest-lived organized incorporated territory of the United States, lasting approximately 62 years.

Rain follows the plow

Rain follows the plow is the conventional name for a now-discredited theory of climatology that was popular throughout the American West and Australia during the late 19th century. The phrase was employed as a summation of the theory by Charles Dana Wilber:

God speed the plow. ... By this wonderful provision, which is only man's mastery over nature, the clouds are dispensing copious rains ... [the plow] is the instrument which separates civilization from savagery; and converts a desert into a farm or garden. ... To be more concise, Rain follows the plow.

The basic premise of the theory was that human habitation and agriculture through homesteading effected a permanent change in the climate of arid and semi-arid regions, making these regions more humid. The theory was widely promoted in the 1870s as a justification for the settlement of the Great Plains, a region previously known as the "Great American Desert". It was also used to justify the expansion of wheat growing on marginal land in South Australia during the same period.According to the theory, increased human settlement in the region and cultivation of soil would result in an increased rainfall over time, rendering the land more fertile and lush as the population increased. As later historical records of rainfall indicated, the theory was based on faulty evidence arising from brief climatological fluctuations that happened to coincide with settlement, an example of the logical fallacy that correlation means causation. The theory was later refuted by climatologists and is now definitively regarded as pure superstition.

Spanish Fort (Colorado)

A Spanish military fort was constructed and occupied in 1819 near Sangre de Cristo Pass in the present U.S. State of Colorado to protect the Spanish colony of Santa Fe de Nuevo México from a possible invasion from the United States. The fort was the only Spanish settlement in present-day Colorado. The site of this fort is known today as the Spanish Fort.

Upper Midwest

The Upper Midwest is a region in the northern portion of the U.S. Census Bureau's Midwestern United States. It is largely a sub-region of the Midwest. Although the exact boundaries are not uniformly agreed-upon, the region is officially defined as referring to the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Iowa, South Dakota, and North Dakota.Historically, the term has more often been used to refer to just the three states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan (Iowa being considered part of the Lower Midwest, while the Dakotas are part of the Great Plains).

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