# 1,000,000,000

1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard,[1] long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. One billion can also be written as b or bn.[2][3]

In scientific notation, it is written as 1 × 109. The metric prefix giga indicates 1,000,000,000 times the base unit. Its symbol is G.

One billion years may be called eon/aeon in astronomy or geology.

Previously in British English (but not in American English), the word "billion" referred exclusively to a million millions (1,000,000,000,000). However, this is no longer common, and the word has been used to mean one thousand million (1,000,000,000) for several decades.[4]

The term milliard can also be used to refer to 1,000,000,000; whereas "milliard" is seldom used in English,[5] variations on this name often appear in other languages.

In the South Asian numbering system, it is known as 100 crore or 1 arab.

Visualization of powers of ten from one to 1 billion
1000000000
CardinalOne billion (short scale)
One thousand million, or one milliard (long scale)
OrdinalOne billionth (short scale)
Factorization29 · 59
Greek numeral${\displaystyle {\stackrel {\iota }{\mathrm {M} }}}$
Roman numeralM
Binary1110111001101011001010000000002
Ternary21202002000210100013
Quaternary3232122302200004
Quinary40220000000005
Senary2431212453446
Octal73465450008
Duodecimal23AA9385412
VigesimalFCA000020
Base 36GJDGXS36

## Sense of scale

The facts below give a sense of how large 1,000,000,000 (109) is in the context of time according to current scientific evidence:

### Time

• 109 seconds is 114 days short of 32 calendar years (≈ 31.7 years).
• More precisely, a billion seconds is exactly 31 years, 8 months, 2 weeks, 1 day, 17 hours, 46 minutes, and 40 seconds.
• About 109 minutes ago, the Roman Empire was flourishing and Christianity was emerging. (109 minutes is roughly 1,901 years.)
• About 109 hours ago, modern human beings and their ancestors were living in the Stone Age (more precisely, the Middle Paleolithic). (109 hours is roughly 114,080 years.)
• About 109 days ago, Australopithecus, an ape-like creature related to an ancestor of modern humans, roamed the African savannas. (109 days is roughly 2.738 million years.)
• About 109 months ago, dinosaurs walked the Earth during the late Cretaceous. (109 months is roughly 83.3 million years.)
• About 109 years—a gigaannus—ago, the first multicellular eukaryotes appeared on Earth.
• About 109 decades ago, galaxies began to appear in the early Universe which was then 3.799 billion years old. (109 decades is roughly 10 billion years.)
• It takes approximately 95 years to count from one to one billion in a single sitting.[6]
• The universe is thought to be about 13.8 × 109 years old.[7]

### Distance

• 109 inches is 15,783 miles (25,400 km), more than halfway around the world and thus sufficient to reach any point on the globe from any other point.
• 109 metres (called a gigametre) is almost three times the distance from the Earth to the Moon.
• 109 kilometres (called a terameter) is over six times the distance from the Earth to the Sun.

### Area

• A billion square inches would be a square about one half mile on a side.
• A piece of finely woven bed sheet cloth that contained a billion holes would measure about 500 square feet (46 m2), large enough to cover a moderate sized apartment.

### Volume

• There are a billion cubic millimetres in a cubic metre and there are a billion cubic metres in a cubic kilometre.
• A billion grains of table salt or granulated sugar would occupy a volume of about 2.5 cubic feet (0.071 m3).
• A billion cubic inches would be a volume comparable to a large commercial building slightly larger than a typical supermarket.

### Weight

• Any object that weighs one billion kilograms (2.2×109 lb) would weigh about as much as 5,525 empty Boeing 747-400s.
• A cube of iron that weighs one billion pounds (450,000,000 kg) would be 1,521 feet 4 inches (0.28813 mi; 463.70 m) on each side.

### Nature

• A small mountain, slightly larger than Stone Mountain in Georgia, United States, would weigh (have a mass of) a billion tons.
• There are billions of worker ants in the largest ant colony in the world,[10] which covers almost 4,000 miles (6,400 km) of the Mediterranean coast.
• In 1804, the world population was one billion.

### Count

A is a cube; B consists of 1000 cubes the size of cube A, C consists of 1000 cubes the size of cube B; and D consists of 1000 cubes the size of cube C. Thus there are 1 million A-sized cubes in C; and 1,000,000,000 A-sized cubes in D.

## Selected 10-digit numbers (1,000,000,001–9,999,999,999)

### 2,000,000,000 to 2,999,999,999

• 2,038,074,743 – 100,000,000th prime number
• 2,147,483,647 – 8th Mersenne prime and the largest signed 32-bit integer.
• 2,147,483,648 – 231
• 2,176,782,336 – 612
• 2,214,502,422 – 6th primary pseudoperfect number.[19]
• 2,357,947,691 – 119
• 2,562,890,625 – 158
• 2,971,215,073 – 11th Fibonacci prime (47th Fibonacci number).

### 3,000,000,000 to 3,999,999,999

• 3,166,815,962 – 26th Pell number.[15]
• 3,192,727,797 – 24th Motzkin number.[14]
• 3,323,236,238 – 31st Wedderburn–Etherington number.[17]
• 3,405,691,582 – hexadecimal CAFEBABE; used as a placeholder in programming.
• 3,405,697,037 – hexadecimal CAFED00D; used as a placeholder in programming.
• 3,735,928,559 – hexadecimal DEADBEEF; used as a placeholder in programming.
• 3,486,784,401 – 320

### 4,000,000,000 to 4,999,999,999

• 4,294,836,223 – 16th Carol number.[12]
• 4,294,967,291 – Largest prime 32-bit unsigned integer.
• 4,294,967,295 – Maximum 32-bit unsigned integer (FFFFFFFF16), perfect totient number, product of the five prime Fermat numbers ${\displaystyle F_{0}}$ through ${\displaystyle F_{4}}$.
• 4,294,967,296 – 232
• 4,294,967,297${\displaystyle F_{5}}$, the first composite Fermat number.
• 4,295,098,367 – 15th Kynea number.[13]
• 4,807,526,976 – 48th Fibonacci number.

### 5,000,000,000 to 5,999,999,999

• 5,159,780,352 – 129
• 5,354,228,880 – superior highly composite number, smallest number divisible by all the numbers 1 through 24
• 5,784,634,181 – 13th alternating factorial.[20]

### 7,000,000,000 to 7,999,999,999

• 7,645,370,045 – 27th Pell number.[15]
• 7,778,742,049 – 49th Fibonacci number.
• 7,862,958,391 – 32nd Wedderburn–Etherington number.[17]

## References

1. ^ "Yard". Investopedia. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
2. ^ "figures". The Economist Style Guide (11th ed.). The Economist. 2015.
3. ^ "6.5 Abbreviating 'million' and 'billion'". English Style Guide: A handbook for authors and translators in the European Commission (PDF) (8th ed.). European Commission. 3 November 2017. p. 32.
4. ^ "How many is a billion?". OxfordDictionaries.com. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
5. ^ "billion,thousand million,milliard". Google Ngram Viewer. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
6. ^ "How Much is a Billion?". Math Forum. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
7. ^ "Cosmic Detectives". European Space Agency. 2 April 2013.
8. ^ Panken, Eli (27 July 2016). "Apple Announces It Has Sold One Billion iPhones". NBCNews.com. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
9. ^ Seethamaram, Deep (27 July 2016). "Facebook Posts Strong Profit and Revenue Growth". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
10. ^ Burke, Jeremy (16 June 2015). "How the World Became A Giant Ant Colony". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
11. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A003617 (Smallest n-digit prime)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
12. ^ a b Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A093112 (a(n) = (2^n-1)^2 - 2)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
13. ^ a b Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A093069 (a(n) = (2^n + 1)^2 -)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
14. ^ a b c Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A001006 (Motzkin numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
15. ^ a b c Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A000129 (Pell numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
16. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A000110 (Bell or exponential numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
17. ^ a b c Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A001190 (Wedderburn-Etherington numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
18. ^ a b Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A003226 (Automorphic numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2019-04-06.
19. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A054377 (Primary pseudoperfect numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
20. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A005165 (Alternating factorials)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
21. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A004490 (Colossally abundant numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
22. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A002201 (Superior highly composite numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
23. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A000396 (Perfect numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
24. ^ "Greatest prime number with 10 digits". Wolfram Alpha. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
2011 Korean Tour

The 2011 Korean Tour was the first season of the Korean Tour to carry Official World Golf Ranking points. The season consisted of 17 events, five of which were co-sanctioned by other tours. All the tournament had prize funds of at least 300 million won (approximately US$300,000). Four had prize funds of 1 billion won (US$1 million) while the Ballantine's Championship has a prize fund of 2.2 million euros (approximately US$3.1 million). Total prize money for the tour was approximately 12 billion won (US$12 million).

2012 Korean Tour

The 2012 Korean Tour was the second season of the Korean Tour to carry Official World Golf Ranking points. The season consisted of 13 events, seven of which were co-sanctioned by other tours. All the tournament had prize funds of at least 400 million won (approximately US$350,000). Four had prize funds of 1 billion won (US$900,000) while the Ballantine's Championship has a prize fund of 2.2 million euros (approximately US$2.9 million). 2018 Korean Tour The 2018 Korean Tour is the eighth season of the Korean Tour to carry Official World Golf Ranking points. The season consists of 17 events, three of which are co-sanctioned by the Asian Tour. All the tournament have prize funds of at least 500 million won (approximately US$480,000). Nine have prize funds of 1 billion won ($960,000) or more. Billion A billion is a number with two distinct definitions: 1,000,000,000, i.e. one thousand million, or 109 (ten to the ninth power), as defined on the short scale. This is now the meaning in both British and American English. 1,000,000,000,000, i.e. one million million, or 1012 (ten to the twelfth power), as defined on the long scale. This is one thousand times larger than the short scale billion, and equivalent to the short scale trillion. This is the historic definition of a billion in British English.American English has always used the short scale definition in living memory but British English once employed both versions. Historically, the United Kingdom used the long scale billion but since 1974, official UK statistics have used the short scale. Since the 1950s, the short scale has been increasingly used in technical writing and journalism, although the long scale definition still enjoys some limited usage.Other countries use the word billion (or words cognate to it) to denote either the long scale or short scale billion. For details, see Long and short scales – Current usage. Another word for one thousand million is milliard, but this is used much less often in English than billion. Most other European languages — including Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, French, Georgian, German, Hungarian, Italian, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Slovak, Spanish and Swedish — use milliard (or a related word) for the short scale billion, and billion (or a related word) for the long scale billion. Thus for these languages billion is thousand times larger than the modern English billion. However, in Russian, milliard (миллиард) is used for the short scale billion, and trillion (триллион) is used for the long scale billion. Billion (disambiguation) Billion is a name for a large number. It may refer specifically to: 1,000,000,000 (109, one thousand million), the short scale definition now standard usage in both British and American English 1,000,000,000,000 (1012, one million million), the long scale definition used formerly in Britain and currently in certain other languagesBillion may also refer to: Billions (TV series), a Showtime series Billions (film), a 1920 silent comedy Billion (company), a Taiwanese modem manufacturer Jack Billion (born 1939), 2006 Democratic Party candidate for governor of South Dakota Mr. Billion, a 1977 film by Jonathan Kaplan "Billions" (song), a song on Russell Dickerson's album Yours Billionaire A billionaire, in countries that use the short scale number naming system, is a person with a net worth of at least one billion (1,000,000,000, i.e. a thousand million) units of a given currency, usually major currencies such as the United States dollar, the euro or the pound sterling. Additionally, a centibillionaire (or centi-billionaire) has been deemed applicable to a billionaire worth one hundred billion dollars (100,000,000,000), a mark first achieved in 2017 by Amazon founder Jeff Bezos, with a net worth of$112 billion in a report issued in early 2018. The American business magazine Forbes produces a global list of known U.S. dollar billionaires every year and updates an Internet version of this list in real time. The American oil magnate John D. Rockefeller became the world's first confirmed U.S. dollar billionaire in 1916, and still holds the title of history's wealthiest individual.As of 2018, there are over 2,200 U.S. dollar billionaires worldwide, with a combined wealth of over US$9.1 trillion, up from US$7.67 trillion in 2017. According to a 2017 Oxfam report, the top eight richest billionaires own as much combined wealth as "half the human race".

Chung Sang Eo

The K745 Chung Sang Eo (Blue Shark) torpedo (Hangul: 청상어 어뢰) is a light anti-submarine torpedo developed for the Republic of Korea Navy in 2004. The Blue Shark torpedo can be deployed from surface ships, ASW helicopters and maritime patrol aircraft. Production cost for each torpedo is at about ₩ 1,000,000,000.Blue Shark torpedoes are fitted to the Incheon class frigate (FFX).

Data-rate units

In telecommunications, data-transfer rate is the average number of bits (bitrate), characters or symbols (baudrate), or data blocks per unit time passing through a communication link in a data-transmission system. Common data rate units are multiples of bits per second (bit/s) and bytes per second (B/s). For example, the data rates of modern residential high-speed Internet connections are commonly expressed in megabits per second (Mbit/s).

File size

File size is a measure of how much data a computer file contains or, alternately, how much storage it consumes. Typically, file size is expressed in units of measurement based on the byte. By convention, file size units use either a metric prefix (as in megabyte and gigabyte) or a binary prefix (as in mebibyte and gibibyte).When a file is written to a file system, which is the case in most modern devices, it may consume slightly more disk space than the file requires. This is because the file system rounds the size up to include any unused space left over in the last disk sector used by the file. (A sector is the smallest amount of space addressable by the file system. The size of a disk sectors is several hundred or several thousands bytes.) The wasted space is called slack space or internal fragmentation. Although smaller sector sizes allow for denser use of disk space, they decrease the operational efficiency of the file system.

The maximum file size a file system supports depends not only on the capacity of the file system, but also on the number of bits reserved for the storage of file size information. The maximum file size in the FAT32 file system, for example, is 4,294,967,295 bytes, which is one byte less than four gibibytes.

Kilobyte (KB) (JEDEC), is sometimes referred to unambiguously as kibibyte (KiB)(IEC). Sometimes kB, with lower cased SI-prefix k- for kilo (1000), is used, then always equaling 1000 bytes.

A file system may display all sizes with the metric system with only kB on small files indicating it, while some file systems/operating systems would display sizes in, the traditionally used on computers, binary system for all sizes, e.g. KB, even if hard disk manufacturers may prefer to use the metric system (for e.g. GB = 1,000,000,000 bytes and TB = 1000 GB), to show higher capacity numbers for their products.

File transfers (e.g. "downloads") may use rates of units of bytes (e.g. MB/s) in binary rather than metric system, while networking hardware, such as WiFi, always uses the metric system (Mbits/s, Gbits/s etc.). of units of bits (and it needs to send more than the files themselves, so some overhead needs to be factored in), making superficially similar terms very incompatible.

Indian numbering system

The Indian numbering system is used in the Indian subcontinent (Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka) and in Burma. The terms lakh (100,000 or 1,00,000 in Indian notation) and crore (10,000,000 or 1,00,00,000) are used in Indian English to express large numbers. For example, in India 150,000 rupees is called 1.5 lakh rupees, written ₹1,50,000; while 30,000,000 (thirty million) rupees is called 3 crore rupees, written ₹3,00,00,000 with commas at the thousand, lakh, and crore levels; and 1,000,000,000 (one billion) rupees is called 100 crore rupees or one arab अरब, written ₹1,00,00,00,000. There are also words for numbers larger than 1 crore, but these are not commonly used and unfamiliar to most speakers. In common parlance, the thousand, lakh, crore terminology repeats for larger numbers: thus 1,000,000,000,000 (one trillion) becomes 1 lakh crore, written as 10,00,00,00,00,000.

The Indian number-word system corresponds to the western system for the first six powers of ten: one, ten, one hundred, one thousand, ten thousand. For higher powers, the names no longer correspond. In the Indian system, the next powers of ten are called one lakh, ten lakh, one crore, ten crore, one hundred crore, and so on: there are the single words lakh = 105 and crore = 107. In the Western system, the next powers of ten are called one hundred thousand, one million, ten million, one hundred million, one billion, and so on: there are the single words million = 106, billion = 109, trillion = 1012, etc.

The written numbers differ only in the placement of commas, which group the digits into powers of one hundred in the Indian system (except for the first thousand), and into powers of one thousand in the Western system. The Indian and English systems both use the decimal point and the comma digit-separator, while some other countries using the Western number-word system use the decimal comma, and the space or point to separate digits in powers of one thousand.

KJ Choi Invitational

The KJ Choi Invitational is a golf tournament on the Korean Tour. It was co-sanctioned by the Asian Tour from 2011 to 2013. It was played for the first time in October 2011 at the Haesley Nine Bridges Golf Club in Yeoju, South Korea. The tournament is hosted by South Korean golfer K. J. Choi, who also won the first two events. The purse in 2018 was ₩1,000,000,000.

Missing-digit sum

Missing-digit sums are integer numbers that are equal to the sum of numbers created by deleting one or more digits at a time from the original number. For example, the OEIS lists these two integers as missing-digit sums in base ten:

1,729,404 = 729404 (missing 1) + 129404 (missing 7) + 179404 (missing 2) + 172404 + 172904 + 172944 + 172940

1,800,000 = 800000 (missing 1) + 100000 (missing 8) + 180000 (missing first 0) + 180000 + 180000 + 180000 + 180000Missing-digit sums are therefore a subset of narcissistic numbers, when these are defined as numbers that are equal to some manipulation of their own digits (for example, 153 and 132 are narcissistic numbers in base ten because 153 = 13 + 53 + 33 and 132 = 13 + 32 + 12 + 31 + 23 + 21).

Monte Agliale Supernovae and Asteroid Survey

The Monte Agliale Supernovae and Asteroid Survey (MASAS) is an offshoot of the Monte Agliale Supernovae Search (MASS), conducted from the Monte Agliale Astronomical Observatory.

It has netted, on September 11, 2000 (IAUC 7494, September 22, 2000), the discovery by Matteo M. M. Santangelo of supernova SN 2000dl in the distant galaxy UGC 1191, near the center of the galaxy cluster Abell 240. The distance is estimated at roughly 1,000,000,000 light-years, making it the 'first' most distant supernova discovered by an amateur.

Nanosecond

A nanosecond (ns) is an SI unit of time equal to one thousand-millionth of a second (or one billionth of a second), that is, 1/1,000,000,000 of a second, or 10−9 seconds.

The term combines the prefix nano- with the basic unit for one-sixtieth of a minute.

A nanosecond is equal to 1000 picoseconds or ​1⁄1000 microsecond. Time units ranging between 10−8 and 10−7 seconds are typically expressed as tens or hundreds of nanoseconds.

Time units of this granularity are commonly encountered in telecommunications, pulsed lasers, and related aspects of electronics.

OneAsia

OneAsia is a men's professional golf tour based in the Asia-Pacific region. The tour was founded in 2009 as a joint venture between the PGA Tour of Australasia, the China Golf Association, the Korean Golf Association and the Korean PGA. The Japan Golf Tour has been invited to participate in the project in 2012 and has co-sanctioned the Indonesia Open, Indonesia PGA Championship and Thailand Open. OneAsia is a rival to the longer established Asian Tour, with which it has poor relations. From 2010 to 2017, the OneAsia Tour had world ranking status in its own right.

Early 2018 saw an extensive restructuring of the organisation with a new management team put in place. To start their new season they co-sanctioned the Solaire Philippine Open, organised a Q School and had plans for a further four tournaments in 2018 but these were not played.

Promotional United States fake currency

Promotional United States fake currency is faux "currency" that makes no assertion of being legal tender. This money is often created by individuals as a way to promote practical jokes, or social statements. It is legal to print so long as it makes no assertion, whether by appearance or statement, of authenticity. Promotional United States fake currency is not to be confused with counterfeit currency or conflated with legitimate currency that has been demonetized.

Solar System model

Solar System models, especially mechanical models, called orreries, that illustrate the relative positions and motions of the planets and moons in the Solar System have been built for centuries. While they often showed relative sizes, these models were usually not built to scale. The enormous ratio of interplanetary distances to planetary diameters makes constructing a scale model of the Solar System a challenging task. As one example of the difficulty, the distance between the Earth and the Sun is almost 12,000 times the diameter of the Earth.

If the smaller planets are to be easily visible to the naked eye, large outdoor spaces are generally necessary, as is some means for highlighting objects that might otherwise not be noticed from a distance. The objects in such models do not move. Traditional orreries often did move and some used clockworks to make the relative speeds of objects accurate. These can be thought of as being correctly scaled in time instead of distance.

Tera-

Tera is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting multiplication by 1012 or 1000000000000 (one trillion short scale; one billion long scale). It has the symbol T. Tera is derived from Greek word τέρας teras, meaning "monster". The unit prefix was confirmed for use in the International System of Units (SI) in 1960.

Examples of its use:

terahertz radiation: electromagnetic waves within the band of frequencies from 0.3 to 3 THz. Visible light is around 500 THz.

terabit and terabyte, units used in data storage.

teragram: equal to 109 kg. The Great Pyramid of Giza has a mass of about 6 Tg.

terasecond: approximately 31,558 years

teralitre: equal to 109 m3. Lake Zurich contains about 4 TL of water.

terawatt: used to measure total human energy consumption. In 2010 it was 16 TW (TJ/s).

terametre (= 1,000,000,000 km): Light travels 1.079 Tm in one hour.

Tmcft

Tmcft, (Tmc ft), (TMC), (tmc), is the abbreviation of one thousand million cubic feet (1,000,000,000 = 109 = 1 billion), commonly used in India in reference to volume of water in a reservoir

or river flow.

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