The .NET Foundation is an organization incorporated on March 31, 2014, by Microsoft to improve open-source software development and collaboration around the .NET Framework. It was launched at the annual Build 2014 conference held by Microsoft. The foundation is license-agnostic, and projects that come to the foundation are free to choose any open-source license, as defined by the Open Source Initiative (OSI). The foundation uses GitHub to host the open-source projects it manages.
Anyone who has contributed to .NET Foundation projects can apply to be a .NET Foundation member. Members can vote in elections for the board of the directors and will preserve the health of the organization.
The foundation began with twenty-four projects under its stewardship including .NET Compiler Platform ("Roslyn") and the ASP.NET family of open-source projects, both open-sourced by Microsoft Open Technologies, Inc. (MS Open Tech). Xamarin contributed six of its projects including the open source email libraries MimeKit and MailKit. As of April 2019, it is the steward of 556 projects, including: .NET Core, Entity Framework (EF), Managed Extensibility Framework (MEF), Umbraco, MSBuild, NuGet, Orchard CMS and WorldWide Telescope. Many of these projects are also listed under Outercurve Foundation project galleries.
|Founded||March 31, 2014|
|Legal status||501(c)(6) organization|
|Headquarters||Redmond, Washington, U.S.|
.NET Framework (pronounced as "dot net") is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows. It includes a large class library named as Framework Class Library (FCL) and provides language interoperability (each language can use code written in other languages) across several programming languages. Programs written for .NET Framework execute in a software environment (in contrast to a hardware environment) named the Common Language Runtime (CLR). The CLR is an application virtual machine that provides services such as security, memory management, and exception handling. As such, computer code written using .NET Framework is called "managed code". FCL and CLR together constitute the .NET Framework.
FCL provides user interface, data access, database connectivity, cryptography, web application development, numeric algorithms, and network communications. Programmers produce software by combining their source code with .NET Framework and other libraries. The framework is intended to be used by most new applications created for the Windows platform. Microsoft also produces an integrated development environment largely for .NET software called Visual Studio.
.NET Framework began as proprietary software, although the firm worked to standardize the software stack almost immediately, even before its first release. Despite the standardization efforts, developers, mainly those in the free and open-source software communities, expressed their unease with the selected terms and the prospects of any free and open-source implementation, especially regarding software patents. Since then, Microsoft has changed .NET development to more closely follow a contemporary model of a community-developed software project, including issuing an update to its patent promising to address the concerns.
.NET Framework led to a family of .NET platforms targeting mobile computing, embedded devices, alternative operating systems, and web browser plug-ins. A reduced version of the framework, .NET Compact Framework, is available on Windows CE platforms, including Windows Mobile devices such as smartphones. .NET Micro Framework is targeted at very resource-constrained embedded devices. Silverlight was available as a web browser plugin. Mono is available for many operating systems and is customized into popular smartphone operating systems (Android and iOS) and game engines. .NET Core targets the Universal Windows Platform (UWP), and cross-platform and cloud computing workloads..NET Micro Framework
The .NET Micro Framework (NETMF) is a .NET Framework platform for resource-constrained devices with at least 256 KB of flash and 64 KB of random-access memory (RAM). It includes a small version of the .NET Common Language Runtime (CLR) and supports development in C#, Visual Basic .NET, and debugging (in an emulator or on hardware) using Microsoft Visual Studio. NETMF features a subset of the .NET base class libraries (about 70 classes with about 420 methods), an implementation of Windows Communication Foundation (WCF), a GUI framework loosely based on Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF), and a Web Services stack based on Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) and Web Services Description Language (WSDL). NETMF also features added libraries specific to embedded applications. It is free and open-source software released under Apache License 2.0.
The Micro Framework aims to make embedded development easier, faster, and less costly by giving embedded developers access to the modern technologies and tools used by desktop application developers. Also, it allows desktop .NET developers to use their skills in embedded systems, enlarging the pool of qualified embedded developers.
The Micro Framework is part of the .NET Foundation. Announced at the Build 2014 conference, the foundation was created as an independent forum to foster open development and collaboration around the growing set of open-source technologies for .NET.BPDFamily.com
BPDFamily.com is an online support group for the family members of individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). The group is one of the first "cyber" support groups to be recognized by the medical providers and receive professional referrals.BPDFamily.com provides articles and message boards for family members to learn and share their experiences. The articles explain borderline personality disorder in understandable terms, and the discussion groups help to normalize the experiences of family members. The site appeals to family members who care about someone with borderline personality disorder, but are frustrated with the relationship demands and conflict.The site educates its members on concepts developed by Shari Manning PhD, Margalis Fjelstad PhD, Robert O. Friedel MD, and the NEA-BPD Family Connections Program and reached out to academia for collaborations. The site has an interactive web program that teaches the basic principles of cognitive behavioral therapy.The website and support group are certified as a reputable health information resource by the Health On the Net Foundation.Funding has come from benefactors and member donations.In 2015, BPDFamily.com reached 100,000 members as was listed by Alexa Internet as the most visited BPD website in the world, and it ranked 19th among all mental health websites.Common Language Infrastructure
The Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) is an open specification (technical standard) developed by Microsoft and standardized by ISO and ECMA that describes executable code and a runtime environment that allows multiple high-level languages to be used on different computer platforms without being rewritten for specific architectures. This implies it is platform agnostic. The .NET Framework, .NET Core, Mono, DotGNU and Portable.NET are implementations of the CLI.Contributor License Agreement
A Contributor License Agreement (CLA) defines the terms under which intellectual property has been contributed to a company/project, typically software under an open source license.Drugs.com
Drugs.com is an online pharmaceutical encyclopedia which provides drug information for consumers and healthcare professionals, primarily in the USA.Global Library of Women's Medicine
The Global Library of Women's Medicine is a free and public online reference library launched on 20 November 2008. Its purpose is to provide expert support to obstetricians, gynecologists, and reproductive health professionals.
The site is contributed to by over 750 specialists and its main feature is 446 specially commissioned chapters on most aspects of women's medicine, constantly reviewed and updated. The site also includes a section on laboratory tests, a video library of surgical procedures, a collection of color atlases of visual medicine, lectures, and sections on safer motherhood and women's reproductive rights.
There is also an interactive option, allowing specialists to submit their own commentaries for peer review.
The editor-in-chief is Sabaratnam Arulkumaran, who succeeded John J. Sciarra (Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University).
The website has been certified to be "fully compliant with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information" by the Health On the Net Foundation.Health Net
Health Net, Inc., a Centene company, is an American health care insurance provider. HMO, POS, insured PPO and government contracts subsidiaries provide health benefits to approximately 5.9 million individuals in all 50 states and the District of Columbia through group, individual, Medicare, Medicaid, Tricare and Veterans Affairs programs. Health Net's behavioral health services subsidiary, MHN, provides behavioral health, substance abuse and employee assistance programs (EAPs) to approximately 7.3 million individuals in various states, including the company's own health plan members. The company's subsidiaries also offer managed health care products related to prescription drugs, and offer managed health care product coordination for multi-region employers and administrative services for medical groups and self-funded benefits programs. In July 2015, Centene announced its intention to acquire Health Net for $6.8 billion. St. Louis-based Centene completed its acquisition of Health Net in March 2016.Health Net's dual headquarters are located in St. Louis, Missouri and Woodland Hills, Los Angeles, California.Health On the Net Foundation
Health On the Net Foundation (HON) is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995 under the auspices of the Geneva Department of Employment, Social Affairs and Health and based in Geneva, Switzerland. This came about following the gathering of 60 of the world's foremost experts on telemedicine to discuss the growing concerns over the unequal quality of online health information. The unanimous conclusion of this gathering was to create a permanent body that would, in the words of the program, "promote the effective and reliable use of the new technologies for telemedicine in healthcare around the world". The HON Foundation became one of the first organizations to guide both lay users and medical professionals to reliable sources of health information in cyberspace.Jockey Club (United States)
The Jockey Club is the breed registry for Thoroughbred horses in the United States and Canada. It is dedicated to the improvement of Thoroughbred breeding and racing and fulfills that mandate by serving many segments of the industry through its subsidiary companies and by supporting numerous industry initiatives.
The Jockey Club, formed on February 9, 1894, is the keeper of the American Stud Book. It came into existence after James R. Keene spearheaded a drive in support of racehorse trainers who had complained about the Board of Control that governed racing in New York State.List of formerly proprietary software
This is a list of notable software packages which were published under a proprietary software license but later released as free and open-source software, or into the public domain.
In some cases, the company continues to publish proprietary releases alongside the non-proprietary version.Microsoft .NET strategy
The Microsoft .NET strategy is a 2000s software development and marketing plan of Microsoft Corporation. Steve Ballmer described it as the company's "most ambitious undertaking since Internet Strategy Day in 1995". In support of this strategy, between 2000 and 2002, Microsoft released ".NET" branded updates to its works, including Visual Studio .NET, Visual Basic .NET, .NET Passport, .NET My Services, .NET Framework, ASP.NET and ADO.NET. A Windows .NET Server was also announced. Microsoft had plans to include Microsoft SQL Server, Microsoft Exchange Server and MSN into this strategy.By 2003, however, the .NET strategy had dwindled into a failed branding campaign because the brand had failed to articulate what Microsoft had in mind in the first place. As such, Windows .NET Server was released under the title of Windows Server 2003. Since then, Visual Studio and .NET Passport have been stripped of ".NET" in their brandings. However, Microsoft and the rest of the computing industry use ".NET" to indicate close association with .NET Framework, e.g. .NET Compiler Platform, .NET Foundation and .NET Reflector.Miguel de Icaza
Miguel de Icaza (born November 23, 1972) is a Mexican-American programmer, best known for starting the GNOME, Mono, and Xamarin projects.Mono (software)
Mono is a free and open-source project to create an Ecma standard-compliant .NET Framework-compatible software framework, including a C# compiler and a Common Language Runtime. Originally by Ximian, it was later acquired by Novell, and is now being led by Xamarin, a subsidiary of Microsoft and the .NET Foundation. The stated purpose of Mono is not only to be able to run Microsoft .NET applications cross-platform, but also to bring better development tools to Linux developers. Mono can be run on many software systems including Android, most Linux distributions, BSD, macOS, Windows, Solaris, and even some game consoles such as PlayStation 3, Wii, and Xbox 360.
The Mono project has been controversial within the open-source community, as it implements portions of .NET Framework that may be covered by Microsoft patents. Although standardized portions of .NET Framework are covered under Microsoft Open Specification Promise—a covenant stating that Microsoft will not assert its patents against implementations of its specifications under certain conditions—other portions are not, which led to concerns that the Mono project could become the target of patent infringement lawsuits. Following Microsoft's open-sourcing of several core .NET technologies since 2014 and its acquisition of Xamarin in the beginning of 2016, an updated patent promise has been issued for the Mono project (§ Mono and Microsoft's patents).
The logo of Mono is a stylized monkey's face, mono being Spanish for monkey.Orchard Project
Orchard is a free, open source, community-focused content management system written in ASP.NET platform using the ASP.NET MVC framework. Its vision is to create shared components for building ASP.NET applications and extensions, and specific applications that leverage these components to meet the needs of end-users, scripters, and developers.
Orchard is delivered as part of the ASP.NET Open Source Gallery under the .NET Foundation. It is licensed under a New BSD license, which is approved by the Open Source Initiative (OSI). The predecessor of Orchard was Microsoft Oxite.Outercurve Foundation
The Outercurve Foundation is an independent 501(c)(6) non-profit corporation founded by Microsoft. Its goal is to "enable the exchange of code and understanding among software companies and open source communities." They run several software projects, some of which are connected to the .NET Framework.It was founded on September 10, 2009 as the CodePlex Foundation, led mostly by Microsoft employees and affiliates. The free software community considered the site subversive and suspected Microsoft's goal was to make people dependent on Windows and other software owned by Microsoft. The name Outercurve Foundation was adopted In September 2010. In November 2010 changes to by-laws were made and the board was expanded. Over the years, the site has mostly hosted software for Windows, promoted software patents, and hired people away from free software projects. Outercurve now serves the larger free and open-source community as a generalized low-overhead foundation for projects and organizations. Projects contributed by the group to the .NET Foundation include Nuget, Kudu and the ASP.NET AJAX library.Outercurve directors filed articles of dissolution to the Washington Secretary of State on April 22, 2017.Quackwatch
Quackwatch is a United States-based website, self-described as a "network of people" founded by Stephen Barrett, which aims to "combat health-related frauds, myths, fads, fallacies, and misconduct" and to focus on "quackery-related information that is difficult or impossible to get elsewhere". Since 1996 it has operated the alternative medicine watchdog website quackwatch.org, which advises the public on unproven or ineffective alternative medicine remedies. The site contains articles and other information criticizing many forms of alternative medicine.Quackwatch cites peer-reviewed journal articles and has received several awards. The site has been developed with the assistance of a worldwide network of volunteers and expert advisors. It has received positive recognition and recommendations from mainstream organizations and sources. It has been recognized in the media, which cite quackwatch.org as a practical source for online consumer information. The success of Quackwatch has generated the creation of additional affiliated websites; as of 2019 there were 21 of them.Roslyn (compiler)
.NET Compiler Platform, also known by its nickname Roslyn, is a set of open-source compilers and code analysis APIs for C# and Visual Basic .NET languages from Microsoft.The project notably includes self-hosting versions of the C# and VB.NET compilers – compilers written in the languages themselves. The compilers are available via the traditional command-line programs but also as APIs available natively from within .NET code. Roslyn exposes modules for syntactic (lexical) analysis of code, semantic analysis, dynamic compilation to CIL, and code emission.WorldWide Telescope
WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is an open-source set of applications, data and cloud services, originally created by Microsoft Research but now an open source project hosted on GitHub. The .NET Foundation holds the copyright and the project is managed by the American Astronomical Society and has been supported by grants from the Moore Foundation and National Science Foundation. WWT displays astronomical, earth and planetary data allowing visual navigation through the 3-dimensional (3D) Universe. Users are able to navigate the sky by panning and zooming, or explore the 3D universe from the surface of Earth to past the Cosmic microwave background (CMB), viewing both visual imagery and scientific data (academic papers, etc.) about that area and the objects in it. Data is curated from hundreds of different data sources, but its open data nature allows users to explore any third party data that conforms to a WWT supported format. With the rich source of multi-spectral all-sky images it is possible to view the sky in many wavelengths of light. The software utilizes Microsoft's Visual Experience Engine technologies to function. WWT can also be used to visualize arbitrary or abstract data sets and time series data.
WWT is completely free and currently comes in two versions: a native application that runs under Microsoft Windows (this version can use the specialized capabilities of a computer graphics card to render up to a half million data points), and a web client based on HTML5 and WebGL. The web client uses a responsive design which allows people to use it on smartphones and on desktops. The Windows desktop application is a high-performance system which scales from a desktop to large multi-channel full dome digital planetariums.The WWT project began in 2002, at Microsoft Research and Johns Hopkins University. Database researcher Jim Gray had developed a satellite Earth-images database (Terraserver) and wanted to apply a similar technique to organizing the many disparate astronomical databases of sky images. WWT was announced at the TED Conference in Monterey, California in February 2008. As of 2016, WWT has been downloaded by at least 10 million active users."As of February 2012 the earth science applications of WWT are showcased and supported by the Layerscape community collaboration website, also created by Microsoft Research. Since WWT has gone to Open Source Layerscape communities have been brought into the WWT application and re-branded simply "communities".