# .44 S&W American

The .44 S&W American (commonly called the .44 American) is an American centerfire revolver cartridge.

.44 S&W American
.44 S&W American (center) with .45 ACP (left) and .44 Magnum (Right)
TypeRevolver
Place of originUSA
Production history
Produced1869?-1940?
Specifications
Bullet diameter.434 in (11.0 mm)
Neck diameter.438 in (11.1 mm)
Base diameter.440 in (11.2 mm)
Rim diameter.506 in (12.9 mm)
Case length0.91 in (23 mm)
Overall length1.44 in (37 mm)
Rifling twist1:20
Primer typelarge pistol
Ballistic performance
Bullet mass/type Velocity Energy
205 gr (13 g) (factory load) 682 ft/s (208 m/s) 212 ft⋅lbf (287 J)
218 gr (14 g) 660 ft/s (200 m/s) 196 ft⋅lbf (266 J)
200 gr (13 g) (max) 810 ft/s (250 m/s) 296 ft⋅lbf (401 J)
205 gr (13 g) (Lyman #429478) 800 ft/s (240 m/s) 291 ft⋅lbf (395 J)
Source(s): Barnes & Amber 1972

## Description

Used in the Smith & Wesson Model 3, it was introduced around 1869.[1] Between 1871 and 1873, the .44 Model 3 was used as the standard United States Army sidearm.[1] It was also offered in the Merwin Hulbert & Co. Army revolvers.[1]

It used an outside lubricated heeled bullet and appeared in either Boxer and Berdan priming,[1] and both black and smokeless powder loadings.[1] The heeled bullets make the case is incompatible with later .44 Russian, .44 Special, or .44 Magnum brass, which was made larger in diameter and longer to cover the exposed part of the bullet.

Its power resembles the .41 Long Colt,[1] .32-20 Winchester,[2] or .44-40 Winchester,[3] and it could be used to hunt small game at short range.[2]

The .44 American ceased to be commercially available around 1940. It can be handloaded by shortening and reforming .41 Magnum cases.[1] Original black-powder revolvers should only use black-powder loads; modern powders will generate excessive pressures.[1]

During the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral on October 26, 1881, Wyatt Earp carried an 8-inch .44-caliber 1869 American model Smith & Wesson. Earp had received the weapon as a gift from Tombstone, Arizona mayor and Tombstone Epitaph newspaper editor John Clum.[4]

## References

1. Barnes, p. 167, ".44 S&W American".
2. ^ a b Barnes, ".32-20 Winchester", p. 46.
3. ^ Barnes, ".44-40 Winchester", p. 61.
4. ^ Shillingberg, William B. (Summer 1976). "Wyatt Earp and the Buntline Special Myth". Kansas Historical Quarterly. 42 (2): 113–154.

## Sources

• Barnes, Frank C., ed. by John T. Amber. ".44 S&W American", in Cartridges of the World, pp. 167 & 177. Northfield, IL: DBI Books, 1972. ISBN 0-695-80326-3.
• Barnes, Frank C., ed. by John T. Amber. ".32-20 Winchester" in Cartridges of the World, p. 46. Northfield, IL: DBI Books, 1972. ISBN 0-695-80326-3.
• Barnes, Frank C., ed. by John T. Amber. ".44-40 Winchester" in Cartridges of the World, p. 61. Northfield, IL: DBI Books, 1972. ISBN 0-695-80326-3.
.44 Magnum

The .44 Remington Magnum, or simply .44 Magnum (10.9×33mmR), and frequently .44 Mag, is a rimmed, large-bore cartridge originally designed for revolvers. After its introduction, it was quickly adopted for carbines and rifles. Despite the ".44" designation, guns chambered for the .44 Magnum round, and its parent, the .44 Special, use 0.429 in (10.9 mm) diameter bullets.The .44 Magnum is based on a lengthened .44 Special case, loaded to higher pressures for greater velocity (and thus, energy). The .44 Magnum has since been eclipsed in power by the .454 Casull, and most recently by the .460 S&W Magnum and .500 S&W Magnum, among others; nevertheless, it has remained one of the most popular commercial large-bore magnum cartridges. When loaded to its maximum and with heavy, deeply penetrating bullets, the .44 Magnum cartridge is suitable for short-range hunting of all North American game—though at the cost of heavy recoil and muzzle flash when fired in handguns, less so in carbines and rifles.

.44 Russian

The .44 Russian, also known as the .44 S&W Russian, is a black-powder center-fire metallic revolver cartridge developed by Smith & Wesson in 1870. The .44 Russian design marked the first use of an internally lubricated bullet in modern firearm ammunition.

.44 Special

The .44 Special or .44 S&W Special is a smokeless powder center fire metallic revolver cartidge developed by Smith & Wesson in 1907 as the standard chambering for their New Century revolver, introduced in 1908.

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Cooke Glacier

Cooke Glacier (72°44′S 88°34′W) is a glacier about 6 nautical miles (11 km) long flowing north from the northern end of the Fletcher Peninsula. It was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names after Kirsten Cooke Healey, of the United States Geological Survey (USGS), Woods Hole, Massachusetts, a computer graphics specialist from the mid-1990s onwards for the USGS project that is compiling the Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers and 25 Glaciological and Coastal-Change Maps of Antarctica.

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Glen Glacier (80°44′S 25°16′W) is a glacier at least 7 nautical miles (13 km) long, flowing south in the Shackleton Range of Antarctica to join Recovery Glacier to the west of the Read Mountains. It was first mapped in 1957 by the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition (CTAE) and named for Alexander R. Glen, a member of the Committee of Management of the CTAE, 1955–58.

Hooper Glacier

Hooper Glacier (64°44′S 63°37′W) is a glacier 3 nautical miles (6 km) long, flowing from the col north of Mount William into the west side of Börgen Bay, Anvers Island, in the Palmer Archipelago, Antarctica. It was surveyed by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (FIDS) in 1955, and named by the UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee for Peter R. Hooper of FIDS, leader and geologist at the Arthur Harbour station in 1955 and 1956. Gateway Ridge separates Hooper Glacier from William Glacier.

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In quantum mechanics, the Planck time (tP) is the unit of time in the system of natural units known as Planck units. A Planck time unit is the time required for light to travel a distance of 1 Planck length in a vacuum, which is a time interval of approximately 5.39 × 10 −44 s. The unit is named after Max Planck, who was the first to propose it.

The Planck time is defined as:

${\displaystyle t_{\mathrm {P} }\equiv {\sqrt {\frac {\hbar G}{c^{5}}}}}$

where:

ħ = ​h2π is the reduced Planck constant (sometimes h is used instead of ħ in the definition)
G = gravitational constant
c = speed of light in vacuum

Using the known values of the constants, the approximate equivalent value in terms of the SI unit, the second, is

${\displaystyle 1\ t_{\mathrm {P} }\approx 5.391\,245(60)\times 10^{-44}\ \mathrm {s} ,}$

where the two digits between parentheses denote the standard error of the approximated value.

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Revolvers
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