The .22 Long Rifle or simply .22 LR (metric designation: 5.6×15mmR) is a long-established variety of .22 caliber rimfire ammunition, and in terms of units sold is still by far the most common ammunition in the world today. It is used in a wide range of rifles, pistols, revolvers, smoothbore shotguns (No. 1 bore), and even submachine guns.
|.22 Long Rifle (.22 LR)|
.22 Long Rifle – subsonic hollow point (left), standard velocity (center), hyper-velocity "Stinger" hollow point (right)
|Place of origin||United States|
|Designer||J. Stevens Arms & Tool Company|
|Parent case||.22 Long|
|Case type||Rimmed, straight|
|Bullet diameter||0.223 in (5.7 mm) - 0.2255 in (5.73 mm)|
|Neck diameter||.226 in (5.7 mm)|
|Base diameter||.226 in (5.7 mm)|
|Rim diameter||.278 in (7.1 mm)|
|Rim thickness||.043 in (1.1 mm)|
|Case length||.613 in (15.6 mm)|
|Overall length||1.000 in (25.4 mm)|
|Test barrel length: 18.5"|
American firearms manufacturer J. Stevens Arms & Tool Company introduced the .22 Long Rifle cartridge in 1887. The round owes its origin to the .22 BB Cap of 1845 and the .22 Short of 1857. It combined the casing of the .22 Long of 1871 with the 40-grain (2.6 g) bullet of the .22 Extra Long of 1880, giving it a longer overall length, a higher muzzle velocity and superior performance as a hunting and target round, rendering both the .22 Long and .22 Extra Long cartridges obsolete. The .22 LR uses a heeled bullet, which means that the bullet is the same diameter as the case, and has a narrower "heel" portion that fits in the case. It is one of the few cartridges that are accepted by a large variety of rifles and handguns.
The .22 LR cartridge is popular among novice shooters and experts alike. Its minimal recoil and relatively low noise make it an ideal cartridge for recreational shooting, small-game hunting, and pest control. .22 LR cadet rifles are commonly used by military cadets and others for basic firearms and marksmanship training. It is used by the Boy Scouts in the United States for the rifle shooting merit badge.
The low recoil of the cartridge makes it ideal for introductory firearms courses. Novice shooters can be surprised or frightened by the noise and recoil of more powerful rounds. Beginners shooting firearms beyond their comfort level frequently develop a habit of flinching in an attempt to counter anticipated recoil. The resulting habit impedes correct posture and follow-through at the most critical phase of the shot and is difficult to correct. With high recoil eliminated, other errors in marksmanship technique are easier to identify and correct.
Available for this round are AR-15 upper receivers and M1911 slide assemblies. Many handgun manufacturers have an upper pistol conversion kit to make it shoot .22 LR ammunition. These conversions allow shooters to practice inexpensively while retaining the handling characteristics of their chosen firearms (with reduced recoil and muzzle blast). Additionally, .22 LR cartridge conversion kits allow practice at indoor ranges which prohibit high-power firearms. Owners of guns that use gas systems, such as AR-15 sport style rifles, normally avoid firing non-jacketed .22 LR cartridge ammunition, as the use of unjacketed ammunition may cause lead-fouling of the gas-port inside the barrel and costly gunsmithing procedures.
A wide variety of .22 LR ammunition is available commercially, and the available ammunition varies widely both in price and performance. Bullet weights among commercially available ammunition range from 20 to 60 grains (1.3 to 3.9 g), and velocities vary from 575 to 1,750 ft/s (175 to 533 m/s). .22 LR is the least costly cartridge ammunition available. Promotional loads for plinking can be purchased in bulk for significantly less cost than precision target rounds. The low cost of ammunition has a substantial effect on the popularity of the .22 LR. For this reason, rimfire cartridges are commonly used for target practice.
.22 LR cartridges are commonly packaged in boxes of 50 or 100 rounds, and is often sold by the 'brick', a carton containing either 10 boxes of 50 rounds or loose cartridges totaling 500 rounds, or the 'case' containing 10 bricks totaling 5,000 rounds. Annual production is estimated by some at 2–2.5 billion rounds. The NSSF estimates that a large percentage of the US production of 10 billion cartridges is composed of .22 LR. Despite the high production figures there have occasionally been shortages of .22 LR cartridge in the continental United States, most notably during the 2008–13 United States ammunition shortage.
Performance depends on barrel length and the type of action. For example, it will often perform differently in a bolt-action rifle than in a semiautomatic rifle. The .22 LR is effective to 150 yd (140 m), though practical ranges tend to be less. After 150 yd, the ballistics of the round are such that it will be difficult to compensate for the large "drop". The relatively short effective range, low report, and light recoil has made it a favorite for use as a target-practice cartridge. The accuracy of the cartridge is good, but not exceptional; various cartridges are capable of the same or better accuracy. A contributing factor in rifles is the transition of even a high-velocity cartridge projectile from supersonic to subsonic within 100 yd (91 m). As the bullet slows, the shock wave caused by supersonic travel overtakes the bullet and can disrupt its flight path, causing minor but measurable inaccuracies.
When zeroed for 100 yd (91 m), the arc-trajectory of the standard high-velocity .22 LR with a 40-gr bullet has a 2.7-inch (69 mm) rise at 50 yd (46 m), and a 10.8-inch (27 cm) drop at 150 yd (140 m). A .22 LR rifle needs to be zeroed for 75 yd (69 m) to avoid overshooting small animals like squirrels at intermediate distances.
As a hunting cartridge, rimfires are mainly used to kill small game up to the size of coyotes. Although proper shot placement can kill larger animals such as deer or hog, it is not recommended because its low power may not guarantee a humane kill. The largest recorded animal killed with a .22 long caliber rifle was a grizzly bear in 1953.
Because a .22 LR bullet is less powerful than larger cartridges, its danger to humans is often underestimated. In fact, a .22 LR bullet is capable of inflicting very serious injuries. Even after flying 400 yd (370 m), a .22 bullet is still traveling about 500 ft/s (150 m/s). Ricochets are more common in .22 LR projectiles than for more powerful cartridges as the combination of unjacketed lead and moderate velocities allows the projectile to deflect – not penetrate or disintegrate – when hitting hard objects at a glancing angle. A .22 LR can ricochet off the surface of water at a low angle of aim. Severe injury may result to a person or object in the line of fire on the opposite shore, several hundred yards away. See The Range of a Handgun Bullet.
Rimfire bullets are generally either plain lead with a wax coating (for standard-velocity loads) or plated with copper or gilding metal (for high-velocity or hyper-velocity loads). The thin copper layer on plated bullet functions as a lubricant reducing friction between the bullet and the barrel, thus reducing barrel wear. Plating also prevents oxidation of the lead bullet. Lead tends to oxidize if stored for long periods. On a plain lead bullet, oxide on the bullet's surface can increase its diameter enough to either prevent insertion of the cartridge into the chamber, or – with high velocity rounds – cause dangerously high pressures in the barrel, potentially rupturing the cartridge case and injuring the shooter; for that reason, standard and subsonic cartridges usually use a wax lubricant on lead bullets.
The variety of .22 LR loads are often divided into four distinct categories, based on nominal velocity:
Subsonic rounds have a muzzle velocity of less than the speed of sound (about 1,080 ft/s (330 m/s)). These rounds are sometimes equipped with extra-heavy bullets of 46–61-grain (3.0–4.0 g) to improve the terminal ballistics of the slower projectile. Conversely, these rounds may contain little more than a primer and an extra-light bullet.
Subsonic rounds are favored by some shooters due to slightly superior accuracy and reduction in noise. Supersonic rounds produce a loud crack which can scare away animals when hunting. Accuracy is reportedly improved with subsonic rounds because a supersonic bullet (or projectile) that slows from supersonic to subsonic speed undergoes drastic aerodynamic changes in this transonic zone that might adversely affect the stability and accuracy of the bullet.
Because the speed of sound in air at 68 °F (20 °C) is about 1,115 ft/s (340 m/s), the subsonic round's muzzle velocity is slightly below the speed of sound under many hunting conditions. However, under cold air conditions at 32 °F (0 °C), the speed of sound drops to 1,088 ft/s (332 m/s), approximately muzzle velocity. Hence, a "subsonic" round used below this temperature may be supersonic, and during the transition from supersonic to subsonic velocity, it may become unstable, reducing accuracy. To counteract this, some cartridge manufacturers have lowered the speed of their subsonic ammunition to 1,030 ft/s (310 m/s) or less.
Various combinations of subsonic rounds and semiautomatic .22 LR firearms result in unreliable cycling of the firearms' actions, as the result of insufficient recoil energy. Some subsonic rounds use heavier bullets (achieving lower velocities) to ensure, as a result of increased bullet mass, that enough energy is produced to cycle common blow-back actions. As an example, the Aguila .22 LR SSS "Sniper SubSonic" round, has a 60-gr bullet on a .22 short case, providing the cartridge the same overall dimensions as a .22 long rifle round. However, other problems may be encountered: the heavier and longer bullet of the Aguila cartridge requires a faster barrel twist (by the Greenhill formula) to ensure the bullet remains stable in flight.
Two performance classes of .22 rimfire subsonic rounds exist. Some subsonic rounds, such as various .22 short and .22 long "CB" rounds, give about 700 ft/s (210 m/s) velocity with a 29-gr bullet providing relatively low impact energy (41 J at muzzle). These may not use any, or only small amounts of gunpowder, and have the characteristics of rounds intended only for indoor training or target practice rather than hunting. Where these are in .22 LR form, it is only to aid feeding in firearms designed for the cartridge, rather than older .22 CB shooting gallery rifles. The Aguila SSS gives about 950 ft/s (290 m/s) velocity with a 60-gr bullet offering energy (163 Joules) equivalent to many high velocity .22 long rifle rounds using standard 40-gr bullets. Other heavy-bullet subsonic rounds give similar performance, and are intended for hunting of small game, or control of dangerous animals, while avoiding excessive noise.
The velocity of standard-velocity .22 LR rounds varies between manufacturers. Some standard velocity ammo may be slightly supersonic-around 1,125 ft/s (343 m/s), other ammo such as CCI Standard Velocity .22 LR ammunition is rated at 1,070 ft/s (330 m/s). Most standard velocity ammo has a bullet weight of 40 gr (2.6 g). Standard-velocity cartridges generate near or slightly supersonic velocities. These rounds generally do not develop these velocities in handguns because their short barrels do not take full advantage of the slower burning powder.
The .22 long rifle round was originally loaded with black powder. The first smokeless powder loads were intended to match the standard velocity of the original black-powder rounds. Smokeless powder is more efficient than black powder, and the cartridge cases could hold more powder. Smokeless powder loads, called "high speed" or "high velocity", were offered by the major ammunition makers, giving a typical velocity increase of 8% (1,200 feet per second (370 m/s) to 1,300 feet per second (400 m/s)) while still using the standard 40-gr solid or 36-gr hollow-point lead bullet.
Many .22 LR cartridges use bullets lighter than the standard 40 gr, fired at even higher velocities. Hyper-velocity bullets usually weigh around 30 to 32 gr (1.9 to 2.1 g) and can have a muzzle velocity of 1,400 to 1,800 feet per second (430 to 550 m/s). This higher velocity is partially due to the use of lighter bullets.
The CCI Stinger was the first hyper-velocity .22 LR cartridge, and provided a significant increase in velocity and energy over standard rimfire rounds. The Stinger case is longer than that of the long rifle (about .71 in (18 mm) versus .595 in (15.1 mm) for the long rifle), but the plated hollow point bullet is lighter and shorter at 32 gr (2.1 g), giving the same overall length as the long rifle cartridge. (This longer case can cause ejection problems in some guns.) A powder with a slower burning rate is used to make the most use of the length of a rifle barrel. Most .22 long rifle powders increase velocity up to about 19 in (480 mm) of barrel. The powder used in the Stinger increases velocity up to the longest .22 barrel length tested by the NRA, 26 in (660 mm).
Later hyper-velocity rounds were introduced by other makers, based on the long rifle case with lighter bullets in the 30-gr weight range and slow-burning rifle powder loadings. The overall length of many of these cartridges was less than the overall length of the standard 40-gr bullet long rifle cartridge. One example is the Remington Viper; another is the Federal Spitfire.
The CCI Velocitor hyper-velocity round uses the standard long rifle case size and a standard weight 40 gr (2.6 g) bullet of proprietary hollow-point design to augment expansion and trauma. This cartridge has a muzzle velocity of 1,435 ft/s (437 m/s) and matches the overall length of the standard long rifle cartridge.
Special .22 LR caliber shot cartridges (No. 1 bore) usually loaded with No. 12 shot, have also been made. These are often called "snake shot," "bird shot" and "rat-shot" due to their use in very short range pest control. Such rounds have either a longer brass case that is crimped closed, or a translucent plastic "bullet" that contains the shot and shatters upon firing. In specially made .22-bore shotguns, the shot shells can be used for short-range skeet shooting and trap shooting at special, scaled-down, clay targets.
During World War II, a full metal jacket bullet version of the .22 LR was developed as the T-42 for the silenced High Standard HDM pistol. The US Army Air Corps procured the Savage Model 24 .22 LR/.410 combination gun as an air crew survival weapon included in the E series of suvival and sustenance kits, primarily to forage for game for food. The .22 LR full metal jacket bullet ammunition was issued with these firearms for military use to comply with treaty restrictions on expanding bullets.
The 1961 Army/Air Force Technical Manual/Order on ammunition lists three types of rimfire CARTRIDGE, CALIBER .22: Ball, Long Rifle:
The first type specifies standard or target velocity .22 LR while the second is common high velocity commercial ammo. While these soft lead round nose bullet types were suitable for training or target practice, they are not legal for use in a war zone. Since .22 LR air crew survival weapons would probably be used in a war zone and could be used for defense, the M24 round is loaded with a hard lead-antimony alloy core with a gilding metal jacket.
The traditional .22 rimfire cartridges (BB, CB, short, long, extra long, and long rifle) differ in construction from more modern cartridges in the way the bullet is constructed and held in the case. Bullets for traditional .22 rimfires are the same outside diameter as the case but are constructed with a narrower cupped "heel" on the base of the bullet which is inserted into the case. The case mouth is then crimped around the heel, leaving exposed the majority of the bullet bearing surface that contacts the barrel of the gun. The bearing surface of .22 rimfire bullets is often lubricated and the surface is exposed to contamination. This was a common design in the early black powder cartridge era.
In later cartridges including the .22 WRF and .22 Magnum rimfires and modern centerfires, the bullet body is a uniform diameter and the bearing surface is inserted completely within the neck of the cartridge case, held in place by tension from the case neck around the bullet bearing surface (in some cartridges the case mouth maybe also be crimped into a cannelure (groove) in the bullet). The heeled bullet cartridge is considered weaker than the uniform diameter bullet cartridge which encloses the bearing surface of the bullet within the cartridge neck. Overall reliability of heeled bullet rimfire ammunition is high, but it is lower than the reliability of most centerfire ammunition.
The .22 LR uses a straight-walled case. Depending upon the type and the feed mechanism employed, a firearm that is chambered for .22 LR may also be able to safely chamber and fire the following shorter rimfire cartridges:
The .22 Long Rifle may also be used in firearms chambered for the obsolete .22 Extra Long.
Today, rimfire rounds are mainly used for hunting small pests, for sports shooting, for plinking, and for inexpensive training. The .22 LR is the choice for several shooting events: biathlon, bullseye, plus divisions of benchrest shooting, metallic silhouette and pin shooting, most high school, collegiate, Boy Scouts of America, Project Appleseed, 4H shooting events, and many others. It is also used in the precision Rifle and Pistol shooting events at the Olympic Games. Good quality rimfire ammunition can be quite accurate. The main advantages are low cost, low recoil, low noise and high accuracy-to-cost ratio. The main disadvantage is its low power; it is better suited for use on small game and other small animals.
As a defensive cartridge, it is considered inadequate, though the small size allows very lightweight, easily concealable handguns which can be carried in circumstances where anything larger would be impractical. Despite their limitations, people can use .22 LR pistols and rifles for defense, and are common simply because they are prevalent, inexpensive, and widely available.
Most semi-automatic rifles firing .22 LR cartridges will often only work properly when firing standard or high velocity rimfire ammunition, as the low recoil of subsonic rounds is insufficient to cycle the weapon's action. Rifles with manual actions do not have this problem. Due to the low bolt thrust of the .22 LR cartridge, most self-loading firearms chambered for the cartridge use the direct blowback operation system.
The tiny case of the .22 LR and the subsonic velocities (when using subsonic ammunition) make it well suited for use with a firearm suppressor (also known as silencers or sound moderators). The low volume of powder gases means that .22 LR suppressors are often no larger than a bull barrel; the Ruger 10/22 and Ruger MK II are common choices, because of their reliability and low cost, and the resulting product is often nearly indistinguishable from a bull barrel model (although weighing far less). Where firearm suppressors are only minimally restricted, a .22 LR firearm with a suppressor is often favored for plinking, as it does not require hearing protection or disturb the neighbors. Local government agencies sometimes use suppressed rimfire weapons for animal control, since dangerous animals or pests can be dispatched in populated areas without causing undue alarm.
The .22 LR has also seen limited usage by police and military snipers. Its main advantage in this role is its low noise, but it is usually limited to urban operations because of its short range.
The Israeli military used a suppressed .22 LR rifle in the 1990s for riot control and to "eliminate disturbing dogs prior to operations", though it is now used less often as it has been shown to be more lethal than previously suspected. Some other examples include the use of suppressed High Standard HDM pistols by the American OSS, which was the predecessor organization of the CIA. Francis Gary Powers was issued a suppressed High Standard for the flight in which he was shot down. Suppressed Ruger MK II pistols were used by the US Navy SEALs in the 1990s.
.22 long rifle maximum C.I.P. cartridge dimensions. All sizes in millimetres (mm).
The common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is 406 mm (1:16 in), six grooves, land width = 2.16 mm, Ø lands = 5.38 mm, Ø grooves = 5.58 mm.
According to the official C.I.P. (Commission Internationale Permanente pour l'Epreuve des Armes à Feu Portatives) rulings the .22 long rifle can handle up to 170.00 MPa (24,656 psi) Pmax piezo pressure. In C.I.P. regulated countries every rifle cartridge combo has to be proofed at 125% of this maximum C.I.P. pressure to certify for sale to consumers.
Because the .22 long rifle round commonly uses a heeled lead or lightly plated bullet, the nominal bullet diameter is larger than the nominal bore diameter to prevent excessive lead fouling that can occur when shooting lead bullets that are the same or slightly smaller than the groove diameter. SAAMI specifies a nominal bullet diameter of 0.2255 with a tolerance of -0.004, while the specified bore diameter is 0.222. In practice, 0.224 or slightly larger bullets are common, with barrel groove diameters commonly around 0.223.
Note: actual velocities are dependent on many factors, such as barrel length of a given firearm and manufacturer of a given batch of ammunition, and will vary widely in practice. The above velocities are typical.
After the bullet glanced off of the water, its remaining velocity was 1195 fps. Only 43 fps were lost... The missile remains lethal after a ricochet.
From the Mossad (Israel's intelligence agency) to US Navy SEALs, the silenced Ruger is now reported the favored tool for clandestine operations.
For other .22 calibre variants, see .22 (disambiguation)..22 Long is a variety of .22 caliber (5.6 mm) rimfire ammunition. The .22 Long is the second-oldest of the surviving rimfire cartridges, dating back to 1871, when it was loaded with a 29 grain (1.9 g) bullet and 5 grains (0.32 g) of black powder, 25% more than the .22 Short it was based on. It was designed for use in revolvers, but was soon chambered in rifles as well, in which it gained a strong reputation as a small game cartridge, and sold very well.In 1887 the .22 Long case was combined with the heavier 40 grain (2.6 g) bullet of the .22 Extra Long of 1880 to produce the .22 Long Rifle giving a longer overall length, a higher muzzle energy and superior performance as a hunting and target round, rendering the .22 Long and .22 Extra Long obsolete. Many firearms designed for the .22 Long Rifle will chamber and fire the shorter round, though the .22 Long generally does not generate sufficient energy to operate semi-automatic guns. The one prominent survivor of the .22 Long is the .22 CB Long, a long-cased version of the .22 CB.While the original .22 Long loading used the same powder charge as the .22 Long Rifle, the .22 Long bullet was significantly lighter, and the combination did not result in higher velocities for the .22 Long when fired from a rifle. The large barrel volume to chamber volume ratio of a .22 rimfire rifle means that the powder gasses have expanded as far as they can well before the bullet reaches the muzzle of a normal length rifle barrel, and the light .22 Long bullet has less inertia than the .22 Long Rifle. This means that the .22 Long bullet (and to a lesser extent the .22 Long Rifle in most loadings) actually slows down significantly before it exits the barrel. For farmers, or for those who only hunted small game such as squirrel or cottontail rabbit, the differences in performance between the .22 Long and .22 Long Rifle cartridges were of little importance. The quieter report and lower penetration of the .22 Long cartridge were often seen as desirable qualities.
Since the .22 Long Rifle performs as well in a short handgun barrel as the .22 Long and outperforms it significantly in a long rifle barrel, the development of the .22 Long Rifle assured the .22 Long's path to obsolescence.
Descendants of the .22 Long still live on. Modern Hypervelocity loadings of the .22 Long Rifle use bullets as light as 30 grains (1.9 g), and modern blends of powder to make full use of a rifle barrel to generate velocities far higher than normal loads, and chamber pressures high enough to cycle semi-automatic firearms reliably. The most well known of these is the CCI Stinger, which actually goes so far as to stretch the case length slightly, so that with the short, light bullet, the overall length is still within the max overall length for the .22 Long Rifle.
The .22 Long is still produced as it survived the change over to smokeless powders. CCI currently loads a high-velocity .22 Long with a MV of 1215 fps and a ME of 95 ft. lbs..22 Short
.22 Short is a variety of .22 caliber (5.6 mm) rimfire ammunition. Developed in 1857 for the first Smith & Wesson revolver, the .22 rimfire was the first American metallic cartridge. The original loading was a 29 or 30 gr (0.066 or 0.069 oz; 1.879 or 1.944 g) bullet and 4 gr (0.0091 oz; 0.2592 g) of black powder. The original .22 rimfire cartridge was renamed .22 Short with the introduction of the .22 Long in 1871.Developed for self defense, the modern .22 Short, though still used in a few pocket pistols and mini-revolvers, is mainly used as a quiet round for practice by the recreational shooter. The .22 Short was popularly used in shooting galleries at fairs and arcades; several rifle makers produced "gallery" models for .22 Short exclusively. Due to its low recoil and good inherent accuracy, the .22 Short was used for the Olympic 25 meter rapid fire pistol event until 2004, and they were allowed in the shooting part of modern pentathlon competitions before they switched to air pistols.Several makes of starter pistols use .22 Short blank cartridges. Some powder-actuated nail guns use the .22 Short cartridge as a power source..22 caliber
22 caliber, or 5.6mm caliber, refers to a common firearms bore diameter of 0.22 inch (5.6 mm). Both .22 Long Rifle and 5.56×45mm NATO are very widely used, and it is also a popular air gun pellet caliber.
.22 inch rimfire variations include:
.22 Long Rifle (LR), the most common cartridge type of this caliber, often referred to simply as ".22 caliber"
.22 BB (Bulleted Breech Cap)
.22 CB (Conical Ball Cap)
.22 CB cap, an American rimfire cartridge
.22 Long, same length, but lighter bullet than .22 LR
.22 Extra Long, an American rimfire rifle and handgun cartridge
.22 Short, used mostly in pocket pistols and mini-revolvers
.22 Winchester Rimfire, an American rimfire rifle cartridge
.22 WMR, (.22 Winchester Magnum Rimfire) a cartridge that is longer and more powerful than a .22 LR
.22 Winchester Automatic, an American rimfire rifle cartridge.22 inch centerfire cartridges include:
5.56×45mm NATO, an intermediate cartridge widely used in AR-15 style rifles
.22 Accelerator, a special loading of the .30-30, .308, and .30-06 cartridges that is manufactured by Remington
.22 Eargesplitten Loudenboomer, a cartridge for a rifle
.22 Hornet, a powerful variation, also known as 5.6×35R mm 5.728mm
.22 Remington Jet, an American centerfire revolver and rifle cartridge
.22 BR Remington, a wildcat cartridge commonly used in varmint hunting and benchrest shooting
.22 Savage Hi-Power, a.k.a. 5.6×52R, .22 Savage Hi-power, .22 Imp, a cartridge similar to the 22 Hornet introduced by Savage in 1912
.22 Spitfire, an American rifle cartridge
.22 PPC, a firearm cartridge used primarily in benchrest shooting
.22 TCM (a.k.a. .22 Micro-Mag), a 9mm diameter case necked to a .22 caliber bullet and designed to load into standard 9mm magazinesAGM-1 Carbine
The AGM-1 is a bullpup, semi-automatic carbine produced in Italy. The carbine is readily convertible from 9×19mm Parabellum to .45 ACP as well as .22 Long Rifle. It features a set trigger and a heavy, target-type barrel. The magazines for the 9×19mm Parabellum variant are interchangeable with the Browning Hi-Power pistol.Beretta 70
The Beretta 70 is a magazine-fed, single-action semi-automatic pistol series designed and produced by Beretta of Italy, which replaced the earlier 7.65mm Beretta M1935 pistol. Some pistols in this series were also marketed as the Falcon, New Puma, New Sable, Jaguar, and Cougar (not to be confused with the later Beretta 8000, which was also marketed as Cougar). The gun is notable for its appearances in film, and is also the first compact Beretta pistol to feature several improvements commonly found in Beretta pistols for the rest of the century.Chiappa M6 Survival Gun
The Chiappa M6 Survival Gun is an over and under combination gun that comes in four versions; with a 12 gauge or 20 gauge shotgun barrel over a .22 Long Rifle or .22 Magnum barrel. It has a similar appearance to the original M6 Aircrew Survival Weapon, however it's a unique design that uses a skeletonized metal buttstock that surrounds a polypropylene foam insert. It also uses double triggers and an enclosed firing mechanism.
In addition, it comes with "X Caliber" adapter sleeves that fit inside the shotgun barrels allowing it to fire a wide range of handgun, rifle and shotgun ammunition.List of firearms
This is an extensive list of small arms—including pistols, shotguns, sniper rifles, submachine guns, personal defense weapons, assault rifles, battle rifles, designated marksman rifles, carbines, machine guns, flamethrowers, multiple barrel firearms, grenade launchers, and anti-tank rifles—that includes variants.List of pistols
This is a list of pistols.
The table is sortable.Remington Model 522 Viper
The model 522 Viper is a semi-automatic rifle chambered for the .22 Long Rifle cartridge. The Viper uses mostly polymer in construction; only the barrel, bolt and a few small parts are steel.Rimfire ammunition
Rimfire ammunition refers to a type metallic firearm cartridges. It is called rimfire because the firing pin of a gun strikes and crushes the base's rim to ignite the primer. Invented in 1845, by Louis-Nicolas Flobert, the first rimfire metallic cartridge was the .22 BB Cap (aka: 6mm Flobert) cartridge, which consisted of a percussion cap with a bullet attached to the top. While many other different cartridge priming methods have been tried since the 19th century, only rimfire technology and centerfire technology survive today. The .22 Long Rifle introduced in 1887, is in terms of units sold is by far the most common ammunition in the world today.