-logy

-logy is a suffix in the English language, used with words originally adapted from Ancient Greek ending in -λογία (-logia).[1] The earliest English examples were anglicizations of the French -logie, which was in turn inherited from the Latin -logia.[2] The suffix became productive in English from the 18th century, allowing the formation of new terms with no Latin or Greek precedent.

The English suffix has two separate main senses, reflecting two sources of the -λογία suffix in Greek:[3]

  • a combining form used in the names of school or bodies of knowledge, e.g. theology (loaned from Latin in the 14th century) or sociology. In words of the type theology, the suffix is derived originally from -λογ- (-log-) (a variant of -λεγ-, -leg-), from the Greek verb λέγειν (legein, "to speak").[4] The suffix has the sense of "the character or deportment of one who speaks or treats of [a certain subject]", or more succinctly, "the study of [a certain subject]".[5] (The Ancient Greek noun λόγος lógos mentioned below can also be translated, among other things, as "subject matter".[6])
  • the root word nouns that refer to kinds of speech, writing or collections of writing, e.g. eulogy or trilogy. In words of this type, the "-logy" element is derived from the Greek noun λόγος (logos, "speech", "account", "story").[4] The suffix has the sense of "[a certain kind of] speaking or writing".[7]

Philology is an exception: while its meaning is closer to the first sense, the etymology of the word is similar to the second sense.[8]

-logy versus -ology

In English names for fields of study, the suffix -logy is most frequently found preceded by the euphonic connective vowel o so that the word ends in -ology.[9] In these Greek words, the root is always a noun and -o- is the combining vowel for all declensions of Greek nouns. However, when new names for fields of study are coined in modern English, the formations ending in -logy almost always add an -o-, except when the root word ends in an "l" or a vowel, as in these exceptions:[10] analogy, dekalogy, disanalogy, genealogy, genethlialogy, herbalogy (a variant of herbology), mammalogy, mineralogy, paralogy, petralogy (a variant of petrology); elogy; antilogy, festilogy; trilogy, tetralogy, pentalogy; palillogy, pyroballogy; dyslogy; eulogy; and brachylogy.[7] Linguists sometimes jokingly refer to haplology as haplogy (subjecting the word haplology to the process of haplology itself).

Additional usage as a suffix

Per metonymy, words ending in -logy are sometimes used to describe a subject rather than the study of it (e.g. technology). This usage is particularly widespread in medicine; for example, pathology is often used simply to refer to "the disease" itself (e.g. "We haven't found the pathology yet") rather than "the study of a disease".

Books, journals, and treatises about a subject also often bear the name of this subject (e.g. the scientific journal Ecology).

When appended to other English words, the suffix can also be used humorously to create nonce words (e.g. beerology as "the study of beer"). As with other classical compounds, adding the suffix to an initial word-stem derived from Greek or Latin may be used to lend grandeur or the impression of scientific rigor to humble pursuits, as in cosmetology ("the study of beauty treatment") or cynology ("the study of dog training").

See also

References

  1. ^ List of ancient Greek words ending in -λογία on Perseus
  2. ^ "-logy." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. retrieved 20 Aug. 2008.
  3. ^ "-logy." Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. retrieved 20 Aug. 2008.
  4. ^ a b "-logy." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. Oxford University Press, 1986. retrieved 20 August 2008.
  5. ^ "-logy." Online Etymology Dictionary. retrieved 20 Aug. 2008
  6. ^ Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert. "A Greek–English Lexicon". Perseus Project. Tufts University. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
  7. ^ a b "-logy." The Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition. Oxford University Press, 1989. retrieved 20 August 2008.
  8. ^ "Philology." Online Etymology Dictionary. retrieved 14 Jul. 2011
  9. ^ Eric Partridge, Origins, 2nd edition, New York, Macmillan, 1959
  10. ^ Words Ending In ogy : Words Ending With ogy

External links

Actinology

Actinology is the study of the chemical effects of high-energy visible light and ultraviolet light. Actinology is derived from Greek aktino, meaning a radiant force, and the English suffix logy, meaning the study of.

Aretalogy

Aretalogy (Greek: Αρεταλογία), from ἀρετή (aretḗ, “virtue”) + -logy, is a form of sacred biography where a deity's attributes are listed, in the form of poem or text, in the first person.

Horology

Horology ("the study of time", related to Latin horologium from Greek ὡρολόγιον, "instrument for telling the hour", from ὥρα hṓra "hour; time" and -o- interfix and suffix -logy) is the study of the measurement of time. Clocks, watches, clockwork, sundials, hourglasses, clepsydras, timers, time recorders, marine chronometers and atomic clocks are all examples of instruments used to measure time. In current usage, horology refers mainly to the study of mechanical time-keeping devices, while chronometry more broadly includes electronic devices that have largely supplanted mechanical clocks for the best accuracy and precision in time-keeping.

People interested in horology are called horologists. That term is used both by people who deal professionally with timekeeping apparatus (watchmakers, clockmakers), as well as aficionados and scholars of horology. Horology and horologists have numerous organizations, both professional associations and more scholarly societies. The largest horological membership organisation globally is the NAWCC, the National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors, which is USA based, but also has local chapters elsewhere.

III – Tri-Logy

III – Tri-Logy is the third and final studio album from the Finnish group Kingston Wall. The album name is sometimes cited as Tri-Logy or Tri~Logy.

This album was originally released under the band's own record label, Trinity, in autumn 1994. It was also licensed and released in Japan by Japanese Zero record label. Both of these prints have been sold out in the 1990s and are considered somewhat collector's items. In the original print, the front cover featured a Kingston Wall logo as a sticker on the jewel case.

In 1998, Finnish record label Zen Garden (later SonyBMG Finland) re-released the whole Kingston Wall discography as remastered versions along with a 2-disc limited print-version of each album which included a Bonus CD featuring rare/unreleased studio and live material. These 2-disc versions have also been sold out and are considered collectibles. The album is still available as a remastered 1-disc version from Zen Garden (2006). To date, Tri-Logy is the only original Kingston Wall album available on iTunes in the United States.

Jan Antonín Losy

Jan Antonín Losy, Count of Losinthal (German: Johann Anton Losy von Losinthal); also known as Comte d'Logy (Losi or Lozi), (c. 1650 – 22 August 1721 ) was a Bohemian aristocrat, Baroque lute player and composer from Prague. His lute works combine the French style brisé with a more Italian cantabile style. He was probably the most significant lutenist-composer in Bohemia at the height of the lute's popularity there.

Kingston Wall

Kingston Wall was a psychedelic/progressive rock group from Helsinki, Finland, originally formed in 1987. Influenced by such artists as Jimi Hendrix, Led Zeppelin and Pink Floyd, the group combined eastern themes, mysticism and vivid psychedelia with acid rock.

The band consisted of Petri Walli (guitars, lead vocals), Jukka Jylli (bass, backing vocals) and Sami Kuoppamäki (drums, percussion). Walli took the most active role in the band. He formed the group, composed most of the songs and wrote all the lyrics. He was also Kingston Wall's producer and manager and ran the band's own Trinity record label.

List of Greek morphemes used in English

Greek morphemes are parts of words originating from the Greek language. This article lists Greek morphemes used in the English language.

Logy Bay-Middle Cove-Outer Cove

Logy Bay-Middle Cove-Outer Cove is a town in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Located about 10 minutes' drive from downtown St. John's and adjacent to the Town of Torbay on the eastern tip of the Avalon Peninsula.

Logy Bay Road

Logy Bay Road also known as Newfoundland and Labrador Route 30, is a major road in the city of St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador. It leads from the east end of St. John's to Logy Bay.

Microbial cytology

Microbial cytology is the study of microscopic and submicroscopic details of microorganisms. Origin of "Microbial" 1880-85; < Greek mīkro- micro- small + bíos life). "Cytology" 1857; < Cyto-is derived from the Greek "kytos" meaning "hollow, as a cell or container." + -logy meaning "the study of"). Microbial cytology is analyzed under a microscope for cells which were collected from a part of the body. The main purpose of microbial cytology is to see the structure of the cells, and how they form and operate.

Narcology

Narcology (from Ancient Greek ναρκόω, "Ι benumb" + -λογία, "-logy, branch of study"); Russian: наркология, Russian pronunciation: [nərkɐˈɫoɡʲɪɪ̯ə]) is a Russian and former Soviet Republics medical specialty that deals with the treatment of drug addiction. The study of etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical aspects of alcohol use disorder, drug use disorder, and toxicomania (nonnarcotic-substance abuse or substance dependence in Russia).The practitioner of narcology is referred to as an narcologist (Russian: нарколог) or psychiatrist/narcologist (Russian: психиатр-нарколог).

In the United States, the comparable term is addiction medicine.

The medical discipline of narcology in the Russian Federation is a branch of psychiatry.

Nephrology

Nephrology (from Greek nephros "kidney", combined with the suffix -logy, "the study of") is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the kidneys: the study of normal kidney function and kidney disease, the preservation of kidney health, and the treatment of kidney disease, from diet and medication to renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation).

Nephrology also studies systemic conditions that affect the kidneys, such as diabetes and autoimmune disease; and systemic diseases that occur as a result of kidney disease, such as renal osteodystrophy and hypertension. A physician who has undertaken additional training and become certified in nephrology is called a nephrologist.

The term "nephrology" was first used in about 1960. Before then, the specialty was usually referred to as "kidney medicine."

Petrology

Petrology (from the Greek πέτρος, pétros, "rock" and λόγος, lógos, "subject matter", see -logy) is the branch of geology that studies rocks and the conditions under which they form. Petrology has three subdivisions: igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary petrology. Igneous and metamorphic petrology are commonly taught together because they both contain heavy use of chemistry, chemical methods, and phase diagrams. Sedimentary petrology is, on the other hand, commonly taught together with stratigraphy because it deals with the processes that form sedimentary rock.Lithology was once approximately synonymous with petrography, but in current usage, lithology focuses on macroscopic hand-sample or outcrop-scale description of rocks while petrography is the speciality that deals with microscopic details.

In the petroleum industry, lithology, or more specifically mud logging, is the graphic representation of geological formations being drilled through, and drawn on a log called a mud log. As the cuttings are circulated out of the borehole they are sampled, examined (typically under a 10× microscope) and tested chemically when needed.

Pomology

Pomology (from latin pomum (fruit) + -logy) is a branch of botany that studies and cultivates fruit. The denomination fruticulture—introduced from Romance languages (from Latin fructus and cultura)—is also used.

Pomological research is mainly focused on the development, enhancement, cultivation and physiological studies of fruit trees. The goals of fruit tree improvement include enhancement of fruit quality, regulation of production periods, and reduction of production cost. One involved in the science of pomology is called a pomologist.

Rie Murakawa

Rie Murakawa (村川 梨衣, Murakawa Rie, born June 1, 1990) is a Japanese voice actress, singer and radio personality from Saitama Prefecture, Japan. She is affiliated with Tokyo Actor's Consumer's Cooperative Society. She is known for her roles as Hotaru Ichijō in Non Non Biyori, Escha Malier in Atelier Escha & Logy: Alchemists of the Dusk Sky, Aoi Futaba in Vividred Operation, and Ram in Re:Zero − Starting Life in Another World.

Murakawa made her solo debut as singer on June 1, 2016 with the double A-side single "Sweet Sensation/Baby, My First Kiss", released under the Nippon Columbia record label. Her stints hosting the radio programs Etotama Radio ~ Soruraru Kure Nya! ~ and Non Non Biyori Web Radio Non Non Dayori Repeat! Nanon led her to winning the Best Funny Radio (Rookie) and Best Comfort Radio (General) awards at the 2nd Aniraji Awards in 2016. She released her first solo album in January 2017, and she released her second solo album in February 2018.

Torbay Road

Torbay Road also known as Newfoundland and Labrador Route 20, is a road that leads from St. John's to the town of Torbay. Torbay Road begins in the east end of St. John's, where Kenna's Hill forks into two branches: Torbay Road and Logy Bay Road.

Within the city of St. John's, Torbay Road is both a major arterial road and a significant commercial area, with many strip malls as well as the Torbay Road Mall and, north of the Trans-Canada Highway, the Stavanger Drive big-box retail area. The road is heavily travelled in the mornings and evenings as workers commute into and out of the city. Due to the congestion on the road through the town of Torbay, a bypass road was built. Completed in late 2011, the two-lane bypass runs from Torbay, with access to the major intersecting roads of Indian Meal Line and Bauline Line, and terminating at Flatrock.

Route 20 officially terminates at the Cape St. Francis lighthouse.

War studies

War studies, sometimes called polemology, is the multi-disciplinary study of war. The word derives from Ancient Greek πόλεμος (pólemos, "war") + -logy".

Polemology is distinct from military history in that it encompasses a variety of fields:

Laws of war

Philosophy of war

Ethics of war

Just war theory

Deterrence theory

Psychology of war

Post traumatic stress disorder

Psychological operations

Military history

Military science

Motivations, conduct and effect of war

Economics of war

Sociology of war

Sociology of the military

International relations

International relations theory

Political science

Anthropology

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