Ất line

The Ất line (Vietnamese: chi Ất; chi can also be translated to as branch) was the tenth dynasty of Hùng kings of the Hồng Bàng period of Văn Lang (now Viet Nam). Starting approximately 1251 B.C., the line refers to the rule of Hùng Hải Lang and his successors, when the seat of government was centered at Việt Trì.[1]

Ất line
Tenth Dynasty of Hùng kings

Chi Ất
c. 1251 - c. 1162 B.C.
CapitalPhong Châu
GovernmentMonarchy
Hùng king 
• c. 1251 BC–
Hùng Hải Lang
Historical eraHồng Bàng period
• Established
c. 1251 B.C.
• Disestablished
c. 1162 B.C.
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Giáp line
Bính line

History

Hùng Hải Lang was born approximately 1287 B.C., and took the regnal name of Hùng Uy Vương[a] upon becoming Hùng king.[2] The series of all Hùng kings following Hùng Hải Lang took that same regnal name of Hùng Uy Vương to rule over Văn Lang until approximately 1162 B.C.[2]

By about 1200 B.C., a new phase of development of wet-rice cultivation and bronze casting occurred in the Ma River and Red River plains. These developments later contributed to the rise of the Đông Sơn culture, notable for its elaborate bronze drums.[3]

References

  1. ^ Another spellings for the name are "Hùng Nghi Vương" and "Hùng Hy Vương" (the word "Hy" here is not the same as that of Tốn line's Hùng Hy Vương.
  1. ^ Nguyễn Khắc Thuần 2008, p. 14-15.
  2. ^ a b Biệt Lam Trần Huy Bá. (article title unknown). Nguồn Sáng magazine 23 - 1998.
  3. ^ Early history. Retrieved 2014-01-04.

Bibliography

  • Nguyễn Khắc Thuần (2008). Thế thứ các triều vua Việt Nam. Giáo Dục Publisher.
Bính line

The Bính line (Vietnamese: chi Bính; chi can also be translated to as branch) was the eleventh dynasty of Hùng kings of the Hồng Bàng period of Văn Lang (now Viet Nam). Starting approximately 1161 B.C., the line refers to the rule of Hưng Đức Lang and his successors.

Dynasty

A dynasty (UK: , US: ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "house", "family" and "clan", among others. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC.

The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members.

Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt (3100–30 BC) and Imperial China (221 BC–AD 1912), using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, and also to describe events, trends and artifacts of that period (for example, "a Ming-dynasty vase"). The word "dynasty" itself is often dropped from such adjectival references (id est, "a Ming vase").

Until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter usually established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house. This has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant. The earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance. Less frequently, a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic (or polydynastic) system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession.

Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties; modern examples are the Vatican City State, the Principality of Andorra, and the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta. Throughout history, there were monarchs that did not belong to any dynasty; non-dynastic rulers include King Arioald of the Lombards and Emperor Phocas of the Byzantine Empire. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; two modern examples are the monarchies of Malaysia and the royal families of the United Arab Emirates.

The word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is also extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team.

Giáp line

The Giáp line (Vietnamese: chi Giáp; chi can also be translated to as branch) was the ninth dynasty of Hùng kings of the Hồng Bàng period of Văn Lang (now Viet Nam). Starting approximately 1331 B.C., the line refers to the rule of Quân Lang and his successors, when the seat of government was centered at Phú Thọ.

Hồng Bàng dynasty

The Hồng Bàng period (Vietnamese: thời kỳ Hồng Bàng), also called the Hồng Bàng dynasty, was a legendary, semimythical period in Vietnamese history spanning from the political union in 2879 BC of many tribes of the northern Red River Valley to the conquest by An Dương Vương in 258 BC.Vietnamese chronicles from the 15th century, namely the Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư claim that the period began with Kinh Dương Vương as the first Hùng king (Vietnamese: Hùng Vương), a title used in many modern discussions of the ancient Vietnamese rulers of this period. The Hùng king was the absolute monarch of the country (then known as Xích Quỷ and later Văn Lang) and, at least in theory, wielded complete control of the land and its resources.

The history of the Hồng Bàng epoch occurred in a series of eighteen Hùng king dynasties, divided by cultural periods. The Hùng king period was thriving along with the water-rice civilization in the Red River Delta, throughout most of the Bronze Age. Numerous wars were fought in the late stage of the period.

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