Șerban Țițeica (March 27 [O.S. March 14] 1908 – May 28, 1985) was a Romanian quantum physicist. The third and final child of mathematician Gheorghe Țițeica, he was born in Bucharest, where he attended Mihai Viteazul National College. He then went to the University of Bucharest, graduating in 1929 with a degree in Physics and Chemistry and another in Mathematics. He studied at Leipzig University from 1930 to 1934 under Werner Heisenberg, earning a doctorate in 1935. He taught at Politehnica University of Bucharest from 1935 to 1941 as assistant professor, and was then a professor at the University of Iași (1941-1948) and of Bucharest (1949-1977). He became a titular member of the Romanian Academy in 1955 and served as its vice president from 1963 until his death in his native city.
The following is an academic genealogy of theoretical physicists and is constructed by following the pedigree of thesis advisors. If an advisor did not exist, or if the field of physics is unrelated, an academic genealogical link can be constructed by using the university from which the theoretical physicist graduated.
An academic genealogy tree lists the physicists' PhD (or in some cases BA/MA) date and school, if known. Nobel Prize winners are indicated by †. If physicists are advised by mathematicians, their genealogy can be readily traced using the Mathematics Genealogy Project.
For the meaning of "s.v.", see here.Dicționar enciclopedic român
The Dicționar enciclopedic român is a Romanian encyclopedia published by Editura Politica between 1962 and 1966. It contained many specialized articles as well as biographical articles on topics in Romanian and universal culture.Gheorghe Țițeica
Gheorghe Țițeica (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈɡe̯orɡe t͡siˈt͡sejka]; 4 October 1873 in Turnu Severin – 5 February 1939) publishing as George or Georges Tzitzeica) was a Romanian mathematician with important contributions in geometry. He is recognized as the founder of the Romanian school of differential geometry.
He showed an early interest in science, as well as music and literature. Țițeica was an accomplished violinist, having studied music since childhood: music was to remain his hobby. While studying at the Carol I High School in Craiova, he contributed to the school's magazine, writing the columns on mathematics and studies of literary critique. After graduation, he obtained a scholarship at the preparatory school in Bucharest, where he also was admitted as a student of the mathematics department of the Faculty of Sciences. In June 1895, he graduated with a Bachelor of Mathematics.
In the summer of 1896, after a stint as a substitute teacher at the Bucharest theological seminary, Țițeica passed his exams for promotion to a secondary school position, becoming teacher in Galaţi.
In 1897, on the advice of teachers and friends, Țițeica completed his studies at a preparatory school in Paris. Among his mates were Henri Lebesgue and Paul Montel. On June 30, 1899 he defended his doctoral thesis titled Sur les congruences cycliques et sur les systemes triplement conjugues, on the framework of oblique curvature, before a board of examiners led by Gaston Darboux.
Upon his return to Romania, Țițeica was appointed assistant professor at the University of Bucharest. He was promoted to full professor on 4 May 1900, retaining this position until his death in 1939. He also taught mathematics at the Polytechnic University of Bucharest. In 1913, at age 40, Țițeica was elected as a permanent member of the Romanian Academy, replacing Spiru Haret. Later he was appointed in leading roles: in 1922, vice-president of the scientific section, in 1928, vice-president and in 1929 secretary general. Țițeica was also president of the Mathematical Association of Romania, of the Romanian Association of Science and of the Association of the development and the spreading of science. He was a vice-president of the Polytechnics Association of Romania and member of the High Council of Public Teaching.
Țițeica was elected correspondent of the Association of Sciences of Liège and doctor honoris causa of the University of Warsaw. He was the president of the geometry section at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Toronto (1924), Zürich (1932), and Oslo (1936). In 1926, 1930 and 1937 he gave a series of lectures as titular professor at the Faculty of Sciences in Sorbonne. He also gave many lectures at the University of Brussels (1926) and the University of Rome (1927).
Țițeica wrote about 400 articles, of which 96 are scientific projects, most addressing problems of differential geometry. Carrying on the researches of the American geometer of German origin Ernest Wilczynski, Țițeica discovered a new category of surfaces and a new category of curves which now carry his name; his contributions represent the beginning of a new chapter in mathematics, namely the affine differential geometry. He also studied R-networks in n-dimensional space, defined through Laplace equations.
Țițeica had three children, the youngest of whom was the physicist Șerban Țițeica.Joint Institute for Nuclear Research
The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Russian: Объединённый институт ядерных исследований, ОИЯИ), in Dubna, Moscow Oblast (110 km north of Moscow), Russia, is an international research center for nuclear sciences, with 5500 staff members, 1200 researchers including 1000 Ph.Ds from eighteen member states (including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus and Kazakhstan). Most scientists, however, are eminent Russian scientists.
The Institute has seven laboratories, each with its own specialisation: theoretical physics, high energy physics (particle physics), heavy ion physics, condensed matter physics, nuclear reactions, neutron physics, and information technology. The institute has a division to study radiation and radiobiological research and other ad hoc experimental physics experiments.
Principal research instruments include a nuclotron superconductive particle accelerator (particle energy: 7 GeV), three isochronic cyclotrons (120, 145, 650 MeV), a phasotron (680 MeV) and a synchrophasotron (4 GeV). The site has a neutron fast-pulse reactor (1500MW pulse) with nineteen associated instruments receiving neutron beams.List of Romanian inventors and discoverers
This is a list of Romanian Inventions and Discoveries of Romanian people or inventors/discoverers of Romanian heritage in alphabetical order.List of Romanians
This is a list of some of the most prominent Romanians. It contains historical and important contemporary figures (athletes, actors, directors etc.).
Most of the people listed here are of Romanian ethnicity, whose native tongue is Romanian. There are also a few mentioned who were born in Romania and can speak Romanian, though not of Romanian ethnicity.Mihai Gavrilă
Mihai Gavrilă (Romanian pronunciation: [miˈhaj ɡaˈvrilə]; b. October 16, 1929, Cluj) is a Romanian quantum physicist, member of the Romanian Academy since 1974. He made fundamental contributions to quantum theories of electromagnetic interactions with atoms. His parents were Ion and Florica Gavrilă (née Vișoiu). His father taught medicine and his mother taught English at the University of Cluj.Romania
Romania ( (listen) ro-MAY-nee-ə; Romanian: România [romɨˈni.a] (listen)) is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldova to the east. It has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres (92,046 sq mi), Romania is the 12th largest country and also the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having almost 20 million inhabitants. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest, and other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Craiova, and Brașov.
The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km (1,775 mi), coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta. The Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m (8,346 ft).Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bukovina, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, and Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, and Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and, consequently, in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards democracy and a market economy.
The sovereign state of Romania is a developing country and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index. It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7% (2017), the highest in the EU at the time. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, and is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom. It has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, and part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language.Romanian Academy
The Romanian Academy (Romanian: Academia Română) is a cultural forum founded in Bucharest, Romania, in 1866. It covers the scientific, artistic and literary domains. The academy has 181 acting members who are elected for life.
According to its bylaws, the academy's main goals are the cultivation of Romanian language and Romanian literature, the study of the national history of Romania and research into major scientific domains. Some of the academy's fundamental projects are the Romanian language dictionary (Dicționarul explicativ al limbii române), the dictionary of Romanian literature, and the treatise on the history of the Romanian people.Science and technology in Romania
On May 14, 1981 Romania became the 11th country in the world to have an astronaut in space. That astronaut, Dumitru Prunariu is today's president of Romanian Space Agency.
Henri Coandă was a Romanian inventor and pioneer of aviation. He discovered the Coanda effect of fluidics.
George Emil Palade is a Romanian-born cell biologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974 for his study of internal organization of such cell structures as mitochondria, chloroplasts, the Golgi apparatus, and for the discovery of the ribosomes. He also won the National Medal of Science in 1986.
George Constantinescu created the theory of sonics, while Lazăr Edeleanu was the first chemist to synthesize amphetamine and also invented the modern method of refining crude oil.
Several mathematicians distinguished themselves as well, among them: Acad. Gheorghe Țițeica, Spiru Haret, Acad. Grigore Moisil (multi-valued logics), Acad. Miron Nicolescu, Acad. Nicolae Popescu (category theory applications to rings and modules, and number theory; Popesco-Gabriel Theorem), George Georgescu (Łukasiewicz logic algebras in categories), Florin Boca (quantum groups and C*-algebras), Liliana Elena Popescu (category theory and computing/modelling theory), Madalina Buneci (groupoid and double groupoid representations) and Ştefan Odobleja; the latter is also regarded as the ideological father behind cybernetics.
Notable Romanian physicists and inventors also include: Horia Hulubei in atomic physics, Șerban Țițeica in theoretical physics, especially thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, Mihai Gavrilă in quantum theory, Alexandru Proca known for the first meson theory of nuclear forces and Proca's equations of the vectorial mesonic field, formulated independently of the pion theory of Nobel laureate Hideki Yukawa (who predicted the existence of the pion in 1947), Ştefan Procopiu known for the first theory of the magnetic moment of the electron in 1911 (now known as the Bohr-Procopiu magneton), Theodor V. Ionescu- the inventor of a multiple-cavity magnetron in 1935, a hydrogen maser in 1947, 3D imaging for cinema/television in 1924, quantum emission in hot plasmas and hot deuterium plasma beams for controlled nuclear fusion in 1969, Ionel Solomon known for the nuclear magnetic resonance theory in solids in 1955, Solomon equations, solid state physics, semiconductors in 1979, and photovoltaics since 1988, Mircea Sabău and Florentina I. Mosora known for their contributions to Nuclear Medicine, Petrache Poenaru, Nicolae Teclu and Victor Toma, with the latter known for the invention and construction of the first Romanian computer, the CIFA-1 in 1955. At the beginning of the second millennium, there was a boom in Romania in the number of computer programmers. Romania is reported to be among the countries with the highest number of computer programmers in the world. Some examples of successful software include RAV (Romanian AntiVirus) which was bought in 2003 by Microsoft for use in their development of Windows Defender; or BitDefender which is considered the number one antivirus software and internet security software at TopTenReviews.University of Bucharest
The University of Bucharest (Romanian: Universitatea din București), commonly known after its abbreviation UB in Romania, is a public university founded in 1864 by decree of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza to convert the former Saint Sava Academy into the current University of Bucharest, making it the second oldest modern university in Romania. It is one of the five members of the Universitaria Consortium (the group of elite Romanian universities).The University of Bucharest offers study programmes in Romanian and English and is classified as an advanced research and education university by the Ministry of Education. In the 2012 QS World University Rankings, it was included in the top 700 universities of the world, together with three other Romanian universities.Werner Heisenberg
Werner Karl Heisenberg (; German: [ˈvɛɐ̯nɐ ˈhaɪzn̩ˌbɛɐ̯k]; 5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics. He published his work in 1925 in a breakthrough paper. In the subsequent series of papers with Max Born and Pascual Jordan, during the same year, this matrix formulation of quantum mechanics was substantially elaborated. He is known for the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which he published in 1927. Heisenberg was awarded the 1932 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the creation of quantum mechanics".He also made important contributions to the theories of the hydrodynamics of turbulent flows, the atomic nucleus, ferromagnetism, cosmic rays, and subatomic particles, and he was instrumental in planning the first West German nuclear reactor at Karlsruhe, together with a research reactor in Munich, in 1957. He was a principal scientist in the Nazi German nuclear weapon project during World War II. He travelled to occupied Copenhagen where he met and discussed the German project with Niels Bohr.
Following World War II, he was appointed director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics, which soon thereafter was renamed the Max Planck Institute for Physics. He was director of the institute until it was moved to Munich in 1958, when it was expanded and renamed the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics.
Heisenberg was also president of the German Research Council, chairman of the Commission for Atomic Physics, chairman of the Nuclear Physics Working Group, and president of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.Țițeica
Țițeica is a Romanian-language surname that may refer to:
Gheorghe Țițeica (1873-1939), mathematician
Șerban Țițeica (1908-1985), physicist, son of Gheorghe