Ż

Ż, ż (Z with overdot) is a letter, consisting of the letter Z of the ISO basic Latin alphabet and an overdot.

Polish

Straż Miejska
Signage on Polish municipal police (Straż Miejska) cars uses both the standard form (Ż) and the variant with horizontal stroke (Ƶ)

Ż represents the voiced retroflex fricative [ʐ], somewhat similar to the pronunciation of ⟨g⟩ in "mirage". It usually corresponds to Ж or Ž in most other Slavic languages.

Its pronunciation is the same as the rz digraph, the only difference being that ⟨rz⟩ evolved from a palatalized ⟨r⟩. Ż originates from a palatalized /g/ or /z/.[1]

Ż occasionally devoices to the voiceless retroflex fricative [ʂ], particularly in final position.

Ż should not be confused with ⟨Ź⟩ (or ⟨z⟩ followed by ⟨i⟩), termed "soft zh", the voiced alveolopalatal fricative ([ʑ]).

Examples of ż

żółty  (‘yellow’)
żona  (‘wife’)

Compare ź (z with acute accent):

źle  (‘wrongly, badly’)
źrebię  (‘foal’)

Occasionally, capital Ƶ (Z with horizontal stroke) is used instead of capital Ż for aesthetic purposes, especially in all-caps text and handwriting.

Emilian-Romagnol

Ż is used in Emilian-Romagnol to represent the voiced dental fricative [ð] (or, in some peripheral dialects, the affricates [dð~dz]), e.g. viażèr ([vjaˈðɛːr], "to travel").

Kashubian

Kashubian ż is a voiced fricative like in Polish, but it is postalveolar ([ʒ]) rather than retroflex.

Maltese

Malta - Zurrieq - Triq Sant' Andrija 01 ies
City limit sign of Żurrieq in Malta

In Maltese, ż is pronounced like "z" in English "maze".

Tunisian Arabic

It is used in Tunisian Arabic transliteration for /ð/ (based on Maltese with additional letters).

Computing codes

character Ż ż
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER
Z WITH DOT ABOVE
LATIN SMALL LETTER
Z WITH DOT ABOVE
character encoding decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 379 017B 380 017C
UTF-8 197 187 C5 BB 197 188 C5 BC
Numeric character reference Ż Ż ż ż
CP 852 189 BD 190 BE
CP 775 163 A3 164 A4
Mazovia 161 A1 167 A7
Windows-1250, ISO-8859-2 175 AF 191 BF
Windows-1257, ISO-8859-13 221 DD 253 FD
Mac Central European 251 FB 253 FD

See also

References

  1. ^ Corbett, Greville; Comrie, Bernard (2003). The Slavonic Languages. Routledge. p. 690. ISBN 978-1-136-86137-6. The spelling difference reflects the historical difference between a palatalization of /r/ (for rz) and of /g/ or /z/ (for ż).
Code page 1117

Code page 1117 (also known as CP 1117,IBM 01117) is a code page used under DOS to write the Estonian, Lithuanian and Latvian languages.

Code page 912

Code page 912 (also known as CP 912, IBM 00912) is a code page used under IBM AIX and DOS to write the Albanian, Bosnian, Croatian, Czech, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, and Sorbian languages. It is an extension of ISO/IEC 8859-2.

Dot (diacritic)

When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct ( · ), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' ( ◌̇ ) and 'combining dot below' ( ◌̣ )

which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.

EBCDIC 257

IBM code page 257 (CCSID 257) is an EBCDIC code page used in IBM mainframes.

It supports the following languages:

Albanian (fully compatible with EBCDIC 256 for Albanian texts)

Bosnian

Croatian

Czech

English

German (fully compatible with EBCDIC 256 for German texts)

Hungarian

Polish

Serbian Latin

Slovak

Slovene

Upper Sorbian

Lower Sorbian

EBCDIC 870

IBM code page 870 (CCSID 870) is an EBCDIC code page with full Latin-2-charset used in IBM mainframes.

CCSID 1110 replaces byte 90 ˚ (ring above) with ° (degree sign)

CCSID 1153 is the Euro currency update of code page/CCSID 870. Byte 9F is replacing ¤ with € in that code page.

Kashubian alphabet

The Kashubian or Cassubian alphabet (kaszëbsczi alfabét, kaszëbsczé abecadło) is the script of the Kashubian language, based on the Latin alphabet. The Kashubian alphabet consists of 34 letters:

A, Ą, Ã, B, C, D, E, É, Ë, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, Ł, M, N, Ń, O, Ò, Ó, Ô, P, R, S, T, U, Ù, W, Y, Z, Ż

The Kashubian language also use some digraphs: ch, cz, dz, dż, rz and sz. The digraphs cz, dż, sz, ż are pronounced in a different manner from their Polish counterparts – they are palato-alveolar, not retroflex – but "rz" is pronounced exactly the same as in Polish.

List of Polish artists

The following is a list of some important Polish artists and groups of artists.

Maltese Braille

Maltese Braille is the braille alphabet of the Maltese language. It was in the news in 2005 with the publication of the first braille Bible in Maltese.

Maltese alphabet

The Maltese alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet with the addition of some letters with diacritic marks and digraphs. It is used to write the Maltese language, which evolved from the otherwise extinct Siculo-Arabic dialect, as a result of 800 years independent development. It contains 30 letters: 24 consonants and 6 vowels (a, e, i, o, u, ie).

There are two types of Maltese consonants:

Konsonanti xemxin (sun consonants): ċ d n r s t x ż z

Konsonanti qamrin (moon consonants): b f ġ g għ h ħ j k l m p q v w

Martin Vaculík

Martin Vaculík (born 5 April 1990) is a Slovak motorcycle speedway rider who is riding for the FALUBAZ Zielona Góra in the Polish Speedway Ekstraliga.

Vaculík has a Polish citizenship also. On the 6 May 2008 he gained a Polish speedway licence (Licencja "Ż") at Toruń. Since 4 June he has taken part in the Polish Championships as a Polish domestic rider (as Martin Vaculik).

Polish Braille

Polish Braille (alfabet Braille'a) is a braille alphabet for writing the Polish language. It is based on international braille conventions, with the following extensions:

That is, for letters of the first and second decade of the braille script (a, c, e, l, n, s), a diacritic is written as dot 6, and any dot 3 is removed (or, equivalently, is moved to position 6)—that is, the base letter is moved to the fourth decade. For letters of the third decade (u, y, z), which already have a dot 6, the derivation is a mirror image. Ó is derived from u, which is how it is pronounced (also, the mirror image of o is already taken). Several of these conventions are used in Lithuanian Braille.

Polish alphabet

The Polish alphabet is the script of the Polish language, the basis for the Polish system of orthography. It is based on the Latin alphabet but includes certain letters with diacritics: the kreska or acute accent (ć, ń, ó, ś, ź); the overdot or kropka (ż); the tail or ogonek (ą, ę); and the stroke (ł). The letters q, v and x, which are used only in foreign words, are frequently not considered part of the Polish alphabet. However, prior to the standardization of the Polish language, the letter "x" was sometimes used in place of "ks".Modified variations of the Polish alphabet are used for writing Silesian and Kashubian, whereas the Sorbian languages use a mixture of the Polish and Czech orthographies.

Polish language

Polish (język polski [jɛ̃zɨk ˈpɔlskʲi] (listen), polszczyzna, or simply polski) is a West Slavic language of the Lechitic group. It is spoken primarily in Poland and serves as the native language of the Poles. In addition to being an official language of Poland, it is also used by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 50 million Polish language speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union.

Polish is written with the standard Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script (ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż). Polish is closely related to Czech and Slovak. The language currently has the largest number of speakers of the West Slavic group and is also the second most widely spoken Slavic language.Historically, Polish was known to be lingua franca, important both diplomatically and academically in Central and Eastern Europe. Today, Polish is spoken by over 38.5 million people as their first language in Poland. It is also spoken as a second language in northern Czech Republic and Slovakia, Hungary, western parts of Belarus and Ukraine, and central-western Lithuania. Because of the emigration from Poland during different time periods, most notably after World War II, millions of Polish speakers can be found in countries such as Israel, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, the United Kingdom, Ireland, the United States and New Zealand.

Polish orthography

Polish orthography is the system of writing the Polish language. The language is written using the Polish alphabet, which derives from the Latin alphabet, but includes some additional letters with diacritics. The orthography is mostly phonetic, or rather phonemic – the written letters (or combinations of them) correspond in a consistent manner to the sounds, or rather the phonemes, of spoken Polish. For detailed information about the system of phonemes, see Polish phonology.

Texas Silesian

Texas Silesian (Silesian: teksasko gwara) is a dialect of the Silesian language used by Texas Silesians in American settlements from 1852 to the present. It is a variant of Silesian derived from the Opole dialect. The dialect evolved after Silesian exile around the village of Panna Maria. It contains a distinctive vocabulary for things which were unknown for Polish Silesians.Texas Silesian is lesser influenced by German because its speakers emigrated before the Kulturkampf, which added a lot of germanisms to the continental Silesian The language is tended by its speakers, but they know it only in the spoken form. Texas Silesian has not been replaced by English because the Silesian community is strongly isolated. Nevertheless, Texas Silesian has adopted some words from English.

One of the characteristic features of Texas Silesian phonetics is called mazuration, in which all cz, sz, ż are pronounced [t͡s, s, z], whereas in the stereotypical Silesian of the Katowice urban area they are pronounced [t͡ʂ, ʂ, ʐ]. Texas Silesian has given the name for Cestohowa village in Texas - the name is derived from Polish Częstochowa, but, due to this phonetic process, cz became c.

Windows-1250

Windows-1250 is a code page used under Microsoft Windows to represent texts in Central European and Eastern European languages that use Latin script, such as Polish, Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, Slovene, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian (Latin script), Romanian (before 1993 spelling reform) and Albanian. It may also be used with the German language; German-language texts encoded with Windows-1250 and Windows-1252 are identical.

In modern applications UTF-8 or UTF-16 is a preferred encoding; 0.1% of all web pages use Windows-1250 since August 2017.Windows-1250 is similar to ISO-8859-2 and has all the printable characters it has and more. However a few of them are rearranged (unlike Windows-1252, which keeps all printable characters from ISO-8859-1 in the same place). Most of the rearrangements seem to have been done to keep characters shared with Windows-1252 in the same place as in Windows-1252 but three of the characters moved (Ą, Ľ, ź) cannot be explained this way, since those do not occur in Windows-1252 and could have been put in the same positions as in ISO-8859-2 if ˇ had been put e.g. at 9F. The part that differs from ISO-8859-2 is compared with Windows-1252 in the table below:

Note: The shaded positions at A2, A3, AA, AF, B2, B3, BA, BD and BF are the same as in ISO-8859-2. Positions which are identical in Windows-1252 and Windows-1250 are not shown.

Z with stroke

Ƶ (minuscule: ƶ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, derived from Z with the addition of a stroke.

Zhe (Cyrillic)

Zhe (Ж ж; italics: Ж ж) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

It commonly represents the voiced palato-alveolar sibilant /ʒ/ (listen), or the somewhat similar voiced retroflex sibilant /ʐ/ (listen), like the pronunciation of ⟨su⟩ in "treasure".

Zhe is romanized as ⟨zh⟩ or ⟨ž⟩.

Alphabets (list)
Letters (list)
Multigraphs
Keyboard layouts (list)
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