Š

The grapheme Š, š (S with caron) is used in various contexts representing the sh sound usually denoting the voiceless postalveolar fricative or similar voiceless retroflex fricative /ʂ/. In the International Phonetic Alphabet this sound is denoted with ʃ or ʂ, but the lowercase š is used in the Americanist phonetic notation, as well as in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet. It represents the same sound as the Turkic letter Ş and the Romanian letter Ș (S-comma).

For use in computer systems, Š and š are at Unicode codepoints U+0160 and U+0161 (Alt 0138 and Alt 0154 for input), respectively. In HTML code, the entities Š and š can also be used to represent the characters.

Latin alphabet Šš
Š in upper- and lowercase

Primary usage

The symbol originates with the 15th-century Czech alphabet as introduced by the reforms of Jan Hus. From there, it was adopted into the Croatian alphabet by Ljudevit Gaj in 1830, and other alphabets of languages such as Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Bosnian, Belarusian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Macedonian (as auxiliary alphabet), Montenegrin, Slovak, Slovene, Serbian, Karelian, Sami, Veps, Sorbian and some forms of Bulgarian. Some languages in this list also use the Cyrillic script where the "ш" represents the "š" in the Latin alphabet.

Also, š occurs in Finnish and Estonian, but only in loanwords. On occasion, it is possible to replace š with sh but only when it is technically impossible to typeset the accented character.[1]

Outside of Europe, the "š" is also used in Lakota, Cheyenne, and Cree (in dialects such as Moose Cree), and some African languages such as Northern Sotho and Songhay.

It is used in the Persian Latin alphabet, equivalent to ش. Its Hindi language equivalent is

Transliteration

The symbol is also used as the romanisation of Cyrillic ш in ISO 9 and scientific transliteration and deployed in the Latinic writing systems of Macedonian, Bulgarian, Serbian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, and Bashkir. It is also used in some systems of transliterating Georgian to represent ⟨შ⟩ (/ʃ/).

In addition, the grapheme transliterates cuneiform orthography of Sumerian and Akkadian /ʃ/ or /t͡ʃ/, and (based on Akkadian orthography) the Hittite /s/ phoneme, as well as the /ʃ/ phoneme of Semitic languages, transliterating shin (Phoenician Phoenician sin.png and its descendants), the direct predecessor of Cyrillic ш.

Computing code

Character Š š
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S WITH CARON LATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH CARON
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 352 U+0160 353 U+0161
UTF-8 197 160 C5 A0 197 161 C5 A1
Numeric character reference Š Š š š
Named character reference Š š

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Finnish orthography and the characters š and ž
Algerian Arabic

Algerian Arabic (known as Darja or Dziria in Algeria), is a language derived from a variety of the Arabic language spoken in northern Algeria. It belongs to the Maghrebi Arabic language continuum and as such it is partially mutually intelligible with Tunisian and Moroccan.

Like other varieties of Maghrebi Arabic, Algerian language have a mostly Semitic vocabulary, with significant Berber and Latin (African Romance) substrates and numerous loanwords from French, Ottoman Turkish and Spanish.

Algerian Arabic is the native language of 75% to 80% of Algerians, and is mastered by 85% to 100% of them. It is essentially a spoken language used in daily communication and entertainment, while Classical Arabic is generally reserved for official use and education.

Avestan phonology

This article deals with the phonology of Avestan. Avestan is one of the Iranian languages and retained archaic voiced alveolar fricatives. It also has fricatives rather than the aspirated series seen in the closely related Indo-Aryan languages.

Caron

A caron (), háček or haček ( or ; plural háčeks or háčky) also known as a hachek, wedge, check, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, is a diacritic ( ˇ ) commonly placed over certain letters in the orthography of some Baltic, Slavic, Finnic, Samic, Berber, and other languages to indicate a change in the related letter's pronunciation (c > č; [ts] > [tʃ]).

The use of the haček differs according to the orthographic rules of a language. In most Slavic and European languages it indicates present or historical palatalization, iotation, or postalveolar articulation. In Salishan languages, it often represents a uvular consonant (x vs. x̌ ; [x] vs. [χ])

When placed over vowels symbols, the caron can indicate a contour tone, for instance the falling and then rising tone in the Pinyin romanization of Mandarin Chinese.

It is also used to decorate symbols in mathematics, where it is often pronounced ("check").

It looks similar to a breve (˘), but has a sharp tip, like an inverted circumflex (ˆ), while a breve is rounded.

The left (downward) stroke is usually thicker than the right (upward) stroke in serif typefaces.

Code page 922

Code page 922 (also known as CP 922, IBM 00922) is a code page used under IBM AIX and DOS to write the Estonian. It is an extension and modification of ISO/IEC 8859-1, where the letters Ð/ð and Þ/þ used for Icelandic are replaced by the letters Š/š and Ž/ž respectively.

Cree language

Cree (also known as Cree–Montagnais–Naskapi) is a dialect continuum of Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories to Alberta to Labrador. If classified as one language, it is the aboriginal language with the highest number of speakers in Canada. The only region where Cree has any official status is in the Northwest Territories, alongside eight other aboriginal languages. There, Cree is spoken mainly in Fort Smith and Hay River.

Dialects of Fars

Dialects of Pars are a group of southwestern and northwestern Iranian dialects spoken in the central Pars province. The southwestern dialects can be divided into three families of dialects according to geographical distribution and local names: Southwestern (Lori), South-central (Kuhmareyi) and Southeastern (Larestani). Under linguistic typology a part of the dialects of the region can be classified as follows:

And the extinct old Kazeruni and Old Shirazi (Sherazi) dialects. This group of dialects is not to be confused with the standard Persian, the official language of Iran; and they are not restricted to the present border of Fars province.

EBCDIC 256

IBM code page 256 (CCSID 256) is an EBCDIC code page used in IBM mainframes. It supports all of Latin-1-charset except for the middle dot (·) (required to support Catalan), copyright sign (©) superscript one (¹), multiplication sign (×), division sign (÷). EBCDIC 500 replaces the Peseta Sign (₧) (not in ISO 8859-1) with the middle dot, the florin sign (ƒ) with the copyright sign, the dotless i (ı) with the superscript one, the double low line (‗) with the multiplication sign, and the en space with the division sign to include all of ISO 8859-1 (but in an arrangement similar to this code page).

It supports the following:

Afrikaans

Albanian

Basque

Breton

Corsican

Dutch (If IJ/ij is typed as two characters)

English

Estonian (Š, š, Ž and ž missing, but only in loanwords)

Faroese

Finnish (Š, š, Ž and ž missing, but only in loanwords)

French (Œ, œ, and Ÿ missing)

Galician

German

Icelandic

Irish

Indonesian

Italian

Kurdish

Leonese

Luxembourgish

Malay

Manx

Norwegian

Occitan

Portuguese

Rhaeto-Romanic

Scottish Gaelic

Scots

Southern Sami

Spanish

Swahili

Swedish

Tagalog

Walloon

Hansa-Brandenburg B.I

The Hansa-Brandenburg B.I was an unarmed military trainer and reconnaissance biplane of World War I, flown by the Austro-Hungarian Air Service. Early models were known internally to the Hansa-Brandenburg firm as the type D, while later models with a more powerful engine were designated FD. This aircraft was one of the earliest designs of Ernst Heinkel, who was working for Hansa-Brandenburg at the time. It was an entirely conventional two-bay biplane with staggered wings of unequal span. The pilot and observer sat in tandem in a long open cockpit.

The aircraft was produced under license by Aero, both during the war and afterwards (when it became known as the Aero Ae 01), and also by Letov, as the Š10. Experience gained with this design would provide Aero with the basis for a number of derivative civil and military designs throughout the 1920s.

The design formed the basis for the C.I and C.II armed reconnaissance types.

Letov Š-16

The Letov Š-16 was a Czechoslovak single-engined, two-seat biplane bomber. It was designed by Alois Šmolík at Letov Kbely. The Š-16 first flew in 1926.

Letov Š-18

The Letov Š-18 was a Czechoslovak single-engined, two-seat biplane trainer. It was designed by Alois Smolík at Letov Kbely. The Š-18 first flew in 1925.

The aircraft was quite successful and sold well, both to private pilots and to flying clubs. Apart from the basic variant, there was also still the type Š-118, which was equipped with a Walter NZ-85 engine (85 hp, 63 KW). Some machines were exported to Bulgaria. The Czechoslovakian Air Force used the type 1925 to 1930 as a beginner trainer aircraft.

A complete reconstruction of the fuselage led to the Š-218, which had a steel tube frame and was equipped with a Walter NZ-120 engine (120 hp, 88 KW). The first flight of this type took place in 1926.

In 1929, one Š-218 Smolik was presented at Helsinki International Air Show. The Finnish Air Force showed interest in the type and purchased it in March, 1930, in order to test it. Nine more were soon ordered along with the manufacturing license. The nine aircraft ordered from Czechoslovakia arrived at Kauhava Aviation School in May–June, 1931. The Finnish State Aircraft Factory manufactured 29 slightly modified aircraft in three series. The first ten were ready in 1933, the second series of ten aircraft were ready in 1935, and nine more were in 1936. The Finnish version, which was equipped with a Bramo radial engine of 145 hp (110 kW) could develop a maximum speed of 155 km/h (83 knots, 96 mph). The type was in service with the Finnish Air Force as a primary trainer between 1930 - 1945. One aircraft is still preserved at the Finnish Aviation museum in Vantaa and one replica is being built in Finland (as of 2005).

Letov Š-28

The Letov Š-28 was a Czechoslovak single-engined, two-seat reconnaissance aircraft. It was manufactured by Letov Kbely in a number of versions with different powerplants. The most important version was the Š-328, which was produced in relatively high quantities (412 planes produced).

Letov Š-31

The Letov Š-31 was a fighter aircraft produced in Czechoslovakia in the early 1930s in a number of variants. All of the aircraft had metal tubular framing and fabric covering with a metal engine cowling.

The first flight of the definitive and highly altered Š.231 version was on March 17, 1933. After testing at the Czechoslovak flight facility at Prague-Lethany, modifications were undertaken to improve the machine’s performance. It entered production the following year and began equipping Czech fighter units in June 1936. The machines however did not remain in frontline fighter status with the Czechoslovak Air Force until the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1939.

The sole Š.331 and 22 out of 24 produced Š.231s were sold to representatives of the Spanish Republican government. Reports of their combat record in the Spanish Civil War are vague, but at least three machines survived the war and were used by victorious Nationalists. The operational performance and ultimate fate of the Š.331 is unrecorded.

List of Croatian-language poets

Below is a list of poets who wrote or write much of their poetry in the Croatian language.

List of aircraft (La–Lh)

This is a list of aircraft in alphabetical order beginning with 'La' through 'Lh'.

List of football clubs in Estonia

The following is a list of football clubs in Estonia.

Lithuanian Braille

Lithuanian Braille is the braille alphabet of the Lithuanian language.

Proto-Semitic language

Proto-Semitic is a hypothetical reconstructed language ancestral to the historical Semitic languages. A 2009 study proposes that it was spoken from about 3750 BCE in the Levant during the Early Bronze Age. There is no consensus regarding the location of the Proto-Semitic urheimat; scholars hypothesize that it may have originated in the Arabian Peninsula, the Levant, the Sahara, or the Horn of Africa.

The Semitic language family is considered part of the broader macro-family of Afroasiatic languages.

Romanization of Macedonian

The Romanization of Macedonian is the transliteration of text in the Macedonian language from the Macedonian Cyrillic alphabet into the Latin alphabet. Romanization can be used for various purposes, such as rendering of proper names in foreign contexts, or for informal writing of Macedonian in environments where Cyrillic is not easily available. Official use of Romanization by Macedonian authorities is found, for instance, on road signage and in passports. Several different codified standards of transliteration currently exist and there is widespread variability in practice.

Š-L-M

Shin-Lamedh-Mem is the triconsonantal root of many Semitic words, and many of those words are used as names. The root meaning translates to "whole, safe, intact, unharmed, to go free, without blemish". Its earliest known form is in the name of Shalim, the ancient god of dusk of Ugarit. Derived from this are meanings of "to be safe, secure, at peace", hence "well-being, health" and passively "to be secured, pacified, submitted".

Arabic: س ل م‎ S-L-M (Maltese: S-L-M)

East Semitic S-L-M

South Semitic "S-L-M"

Ge'ez: ሰላም S-L-M

Northwest Semitic Š-L-M

Canaanite Š-L-M (c.f. Shalem)

Hebrew: שלם‎ Š-L-M

Aramaic: ܫܠܡ‎ Š-L-MArabic salām (سَلاَم), Maltese sliem, Hebrew Shalom (שָׁלוֹם), Ge'ez sälam (ሰላም), Syriac šlama (pronounced Shlama, or Shlomo in the Western Syriac dialect) (ܫܠܡܐ) are cognate Semitic terms for 'peace', deriving from a Proto-Semitic *šalām-.

Given names derived from the same root include Solomon (Süleyman), Absalom, Selim, Salem, Salim, Salma, Salmah, Salman, Selimah, Shelimah, Salome, etc.

Arabic, Maltese, Hebrew and Aramaic have cognate expressions meaning 'peace be upon you' used as a greeting:

Arabic as-salāmu ʻalaykum (السلام عليكم) is used to greet others and is an Arabic equivalent of 'hello'. The appropriate response to such a greeting is "and upon you be peace" (wa-ʻalaykum as-salām).

Hebrew shālôm ʻalêḵem, (שלום עליכם) is the equivalent of the Arabic expression, the response being עליכם שלום ʻalêḵem shālôm, 'upon you be peace'.

Maltese sliem għalikom.

Neo-Aramaic (ܫܠܡ ܥܠܘܟ) šlama 'lokh, classically ܫܠܡ ܠܟ, šlām lakh.

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