Şırnak Province

The Şırnak Province (Turkish: Şırnak ili, Kurdish: Parêzgeha Şirnex‎) is a Turkish province in Southeastern Anatolia Region. Şırnak borders Iraq and Syria. Şırnak was legally separated from Siirt province on May 16, 1990. This law also attached several districts from neighboring provinces of Siirt and Mardin, making them part of Şırnak, including Cizre and Silopi.

As of 2013, the province had an estimated population of 475,255 people.[3] The majority of the province's population is Kurdish.[4]

The 2015–16 Şırnak clashes were held in Şırnak City, and its districts Cizre, Idil and Silopi.

Şırnak Province

Şırnak ili
Damlabaşı, Şırnak Province
Damlabaşı, Şırnak Province
Location of Şırnak Province in Turkey
Location of Şırnak Province in Turkey
CountryTurkey
RegionSoutheast Anatolia
SubregionMardin
Government
 • Electoral districtŞırnak
Area
 • Total7,172 km2 (2,769 sq mi)
Population
 (2018)[1]
 • Total524,190
 • Density73/km2 (190/sq mi)
Area code(s)0486[2]
Vehicle registration73

Geography

Midin
Midin

The province borders Siirt Province to the north, Van Province to the northeast, Mardin Province to the west, Batman Province to the northwest, Syria to the southwest, and Iraq to the southeast.[5] Şırnak Province has some mountainous regions in the west and the south, but the majority of the province consists of plateaus, resulting from the many rivers that cross it. These include the Tigris, and its tributaries Hezil and Kızılsu, and also Çağlayan. The most important mountains are the Cudi (2089 m),[6] the Gabar, the Namaz and the Altın. Şırnak is the poorest province of Turkey with an average of TL 508 per capita.

Districts

Şırnak province is divided into 7 districts (capital district in bold):[3]

Background

Şırnak has been a focal point in Turkey's struggle against Kurdish separatist organization PKK.

Turkey's anti-terror operations against PKK began in 1984.[7] In 2013, PKK leader Abdullah Ocalan announced a ceasefire from the Turkish prison of Imrali,[8] where he has been serving a life sentence since 1999.[9]

The peace process collapsed in 2015.[10] Turkey's President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan said,

It is not possible for us to continue the peace process with those who threaten our national unity and brotherhood.

— Recep Tayyip Erdoğan[11]

Turkish Forces' operation, 1992

On 18 August 1992 Turkish forces attacked the city, killing 54 people, mostly children and women. For three days homes were burned, livestock were killed, and people were killed. 20,000 out of 25,000 residents fled the city, Amnesty International reported.[12][13]

During the operation, a curfew was imposed in the town and when it finally ended, the whole city was in ruins.

While the town was under bombardment, there was no way to get an account of what was happening in the region as journalists were prevented from entering the city centre which was completely burned down by the security forces. Şırnak was under fire for three days and tanks and cannons were used to hit buildings occupied by civilians.[14]

On 26 August 1992, Amnesty International sent requests to then Prime Minister, Süleyman Demirel, Interior Minister Ismet Sezgin, Emergency Legislation Governor Ünal Erkan and Şırnak province governor Mustafa Mala, to immediately initiate an independent and impartial inquiry into the events, to ensure no-one was mistreated in police custody and to make their findings public.

2016 Clashes

On March 14, 2016 a curfew was declared in Şırnak province. This marked the start of an 80 day long operation against Kurdish militant separatists in the province. The curfew remained in place for 9 months.[15] 2,044 buildings were destroyed during the military operation.[16]

References

  1. ^ "Population of provinces by years - 2000-2018". Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  2. ^ Area codes page of Turkish Telecom website (in Turkish)
  3. ^ a b "Şırnak". Citypopulation.de. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
  4. ^ Watts, Nicole F. (2010). Activists in Office: Kurdish Politics and Protest in Turkey (Studies in Modernity and National Identity). Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-295-99050-7.
  5. ^ Google (20 September 2014). "Şırnak Province" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
  6. ^ Siirt 1973 (in Turkish). Ajans-Türk Matbaacilak Sanayii. 1973. p. 102.
  7. ^ "Turkey's Southeast Beginning to Resemble Syria". al-monitor. June 13, 2016. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  8. ^ "Kurdish Leader Abdullah Ocalan Declares Ceasefire With Turkey". The Guardian. March 21, 2013. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  9. ^ "U.S. Helped Turkey Find and Capture Kurd Rebel". The New York Times. February 20, 1999. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  10. ^ "Turkey's Peace Process Floundered By Violence". Al Jazeera. August 1, 2015. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  11. ^ "Erdogan Says Kurdish Peace Talks Impossible To Continue". Al Jazeera. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  12. ^ amnesty.org
  13. ^ 18 AUGUST 1992: WHEN ŞIRNAK WAS TURNED INTO A DEAD CITY
  14. ^ nytimes
  15. ^ "Turkey's Şırnak Now Nothing But Rubble". Al-Monitor. December 2, 2016. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  16. ^ "Şırnak'ta hasar tespiti yappıldı!..2 bin 44 ev yıkıldı". dogan haber ajansi (in Turkish). November 16, 2016. Retrieved December 31, 2016.

Coordinates: 37°26′58″N 42°34′28″E / 37.44944°N 42.57444°E

Balli Dam

The Balli Dam is a gravity dam under construction on the Ortasu River (a tributary of the Hezil River) in Uludere district of Şırnak Province, southeast Turkey. Under contract from Turkey's State Hydraulic Works, construction on the dam began in 2008 and a completion date has not been announced.The reported purpose of the dam is water storage and it can also support an 8.36 MW hydroelectric power station in the future. Another purpose of the dam which has been widely reported in the Turkish press is to reduce the freedom of movement of Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) militants. Blocking and flooding valleys in close proximity to the Iraq–Turkey border is expected to help curb cross-border PKK smuggling and deny caves in which ammunition can be stored. A total of 11 dams along the border; seven in Şırnak Province and four in Hakkâri Province were implemented for this purpose. In Şırnak they are the Silopi, Şırnak and Uludere Dams downstream of the Balli Dam and the Kavşaktepe, Musatepe and Çetintepe Dams upstream on the Ortasu River. In Hakkari are the Gölgeliyamaç (since cancelled) and Çocuktepe Dams on the Güzeldere River and the Aslandağ and Beyyurdu Dams on the Bembo River.

Beytüşşebap

Beytüşşebap (Ottoman Turkish: بيت شباب‎) is a district of Şırnak Province of Turkey.

Cizre

Cizre (pronounced [ˈdʒizɾe]; Kurdish: Cizîr‎ or Cizîra Botan, Arabic: جزيرة ابن عمر‎ Jazīrat Ibn ʿUmar, Classical Syriac: ܓܙܝܪܐ‎ Gzirā or Gziro) is a town and district of Şırnak Province in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, on the border with Syria, just to the northwest of the Turkish–Syrian–Iraqi tripoint.

Cizre Dam

The Cizre Dam is a proposed dam on the Tigris River north of Cizre, Turkey. The Cizre Dam is to be built in conjunction and downstream of the Ilisu Dam. The Cizre Dam is also one of the planned dams of Turkey's Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP). The purpose of the Cizre Dam is irrigation, hydro-power and to control the tailwaters of the Ilisu Dam.

A tender for the Cizre Dam was unsuccessfully issued in May 2008 but another issue on 15 May 2014 left Zorlu Energy as the winning bidder. The Cizre Dam will have a hydro-power capacity of 240 MW and will provide irrigation for 121,000 hectares.

Güçlükonak

Güçlükonak (Kurdish: Basê‎) is a district of Şırnak Province of Turkey.

Hezil Suyu

The Hezil Suyu (Arabic: نهر الهيزل‎ Nahr al-Hayzal, or Hezil Çayı or the Nizil river, in Turkish language suyu means water of) is a river in south-eastern Turkey in the Eastern Anatolia Region which flows entirely in the Şırnak Province and is part of the natural border between Turkey and the Kurdistan region of Iraq. Just before it forms the border, it is dammed by the Silopi Dam. Just west of the city of Zakho in Iraq, it joins the Little Khabur river, which then forms the border.

The Hezil Suyu river is not to be mistaken with the Little Khabur river

which is tributary to the Tigris river

and flows east of Zakho city and goes through the Zakho city joining its tributary the Hezil Suyu west of Zakho city.

September 2012 Beytüşşebap attack

The September 2012 Beytüşşebap attack occurred on the night of September 2, 2012. According to Governor of Şırnak Province, the attack began 22.00, and he said that as a result of the attack nine Turkish soldiers died and eight soldiers were injured. One of the injured soldiers died later in Şırnak Hospital. In the following days clashes were reported to continue.

Silopi

Silopi is a district of Şırnak Province in Turkey's Southeastern Anatolia Region, close to the borders of Iraq and Syria. The district, composed of Silopi center, 3 depending townships with own municipalities and 23 villages has an urban population of 73,400 (2009 census).The Habur frontier gate, the only major crossing between Turkey and Iraq, is situated within the district of Silopi and is a decisive factor in the region's economy, both in Turkey and in beyond the Iraqi border. Queues of lorries waiting for customs and security clearance that sometimes reach a few dozens of kilometers on the motorway connecting the two countries are a common sight. The Khabur River, which carries the same name as the frontier gate, crosses in the district territory and joins the Tigris here. The Kirkuk-Ceyhan Oil Pipeline also crosses the district.

On August 7, 2015, clashes between Turkish security forces and the Kurdish militant PKK group may have killed three people. Government reports claimed "terrorists" were killed, while pro-Kurdish Peoples' Democratic Party lawmaker Faysal Sariyildiz said that the casualties were civilians and that he had seen no sign of armed militants, according to Reuters. Conflict between PKK and the Turkish government in this region has escalated since late July 2015.

Silopi Dam

The Silopi Dam is a gravity dam on the Hezil River about 24 km (15 mi) northeast of Silopi in Şırnak Province, southeast Turkey. Under contract from Turkey's State Hydraulic Works, İLCİ Holding A.Ş began construction on the dam in 2008 and it was completed in November 2012.The reported purpose of the dam is water storage for drinking supply and it can also support a 2.4 MW hydroelectric power station in the future. In January 2013 a project to deliver water from the dam through 39.3 km (24 mi) of pipes to a water treatment plant Silopi began. The pipeline is expected to be complete in 2014 and the water treatment should be operational in 2015. Another purpose of the dam which has been widely report in the Turkish press is to reduce the freedom of movement of Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) militants. Blocking and flooding valleys in close proximity to the Iraq–Turkey border is expected to help curb cross-border PKK smuggling and deny caves to which ammunition can be stored in. A total of 11 dams along the border; seven in Şırnak Province and four in Hakkâri Province were implemented for this purpose. In Şırnak they are the Şırnak Dam upstream of the Silopi Dam on the Ortasu River and further upstream is the Uludere, Balli, Kavşaktepe, Musatepe and Çetintepe Dams also on the Ortasu River. In Hakkari are the Gölgeliyamaç (since cancelled) and Çocuktepe Dams on the Güzeldere River and the Aslandağ and Beyyurdu Dams on the Bembo River.

State road D.400 (Turkey)

D-400 is an east–west state road in southern Turkey. The 2,057-kilometre (1,278 mi) road starts at Datça in the southwest corner of the Anatolian peninsula. The road ends at the Iranian border at Esendere.

D-400 runs through the cities of Marmaris, Fethiye, Antalya, Alanya, Mersin, Adana, Gaziantep, Şanlıurfa, and Hakkâri and links to Road 16 in Iran. Between Nizip and Cizre, D-400 is part of the European route .

Tigris

The Tigris (; Sumerian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼 Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼 Idiqlat; Arabic: دجلة‎ Dijlah [didʒlah]; Syriac: ܕܹܩܠܵܬ‎ Deqlaṯ; Armenian: Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ; Hebrew: חידקל Ḥîddeqel, biblical Hiddekel; Turkish: Dicle; Kurdish: Dîcle, Dîjla دیجلە‎) is the eastern of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates. The river flows south from the mountains of southeastern Turkey through Iraq and empties into the Persian Gulf.

Uludere

Uludere is a district in Şırnak Province, Turkey.

Uludere Dam

The Uludere Dam is a gravity dam under construction on the Ortasu River (a tributary of the Hezil River) in Uludere district of Şırnak Province, southeast Turkey. Under contract from Turkey's State Hydraulic Works, Hidrokon began construction on the dam in 2008 and a completion date has not been announced.The reported purpose of the dam is water storage and it can also support a 3.5 MW hydroelectric power station in the future. Another purpose of the dam which has been widely reported in the Turkish press is to reduce the freedom of movement of Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) militants. Blocking and flooding valleys in close proximity to the Iraq–Turkey border is expected to help curb cross-border PKK smuggling and deny caves in which ammunition can be stored. A total of 11 dams along the border; seven in Şırnak Province and four in Hakkâri Province were implemented for this purpose. In Şırnak they are the Silopi and Şırnak Dams downstream of the Uludere Dam and the Balli, Kavşaktepe, Musatepe and Çetintepe Dams upstream on the Ortasu River. In Hakkari are the Gölgeliyamaç (since cancelled) and Çocuktepe Dams on the Güzeldere River and the Aslandağ and Beyyurdu Dams on the Bembo River.

Çetintepe Dam

The Çetintepe Dam is a gravity dam under construction on the Ortasu River (a tributary of the Hezil River) in Uludere district of Şırnak Province, southeast Turkey. Under contract from Turkey's State Hydraulic Works, Ozerka Insatt began construction on the dam in 2008 and a completion date has not been announced.The reported purpose of the dam is water storage and it can also support a 2 MW hydroelectric power station in the future. Another purpose of the dam which has been widely reported in the Turkish press is to reduce the freedom of movement of Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) militants. Blocking and flooding valleys in close proximity to the Iraq–Turkey border is expected to help curb cross-border PKK smuggling and deny caves in which ammunition can be stored. A total of 11 dams along the border; seven in Şırnak Province and four in Hakkâri Province were implemented for this purpose. In Şırnak they are the Silopi, Şırnak, Uludere, Balli, Kavşaktepe and Musatepe Dams downstream of the Çetintepe Dam. In Hakkari are the Gölgeliyamaç (since cancelled) and Çocuktepe Dams on the Güzeldere River and the Aslandağ and Beyyurdu Dams on the Bembo River.

Şırnak

Şırnak (Kurdish: Şirnex) is a town in southeastern Turkey. It is the capital of Şırnak Province, a new province that split from the Hakkari province. The Habur border gate with Iraq which is one of Turkey's main links to Middle Eastern countries is also on Şırnak.

Şırnak (electoral district)

Şırnak is an electoral district of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. It elects four members of parliament (deputies) to represent the province of the same name for a four-year term by the D'Hondt method, a party-list proportional representation system.

Şırnak Airport

Şırnak Şerafettin Elçi Airport (IATA: NKT, ICAO: LTCV) (Turkish: Şırnak Şerafettin Elçi Havalimanı) is a public airport near Cizre, a town in Şırnak Province, Turkey. The airport was opened to public/civil air traffic on 26.July.2013, the airport is 60 km (37 mi) away from Şırnak town centre. It is named in honor of native politician Şerafettin Elçi (1938-2012).

Şırnak Dam

The Şırnak Dam is a gravity dam on the Ortasu River (a tributary of the Hezil River) about 25 km (16 mi) southeast of Şırnak town in Şırnak Province, southeast Turkey. Under contract from Turkey's State Hydraulic Works, AGE Inşaat began construction on the dam in 2008 and it was completed in 2012.The reported purpose of the dam is water storage and it can also support a 5 MW hydroelectric power station in the future. Another purpose of the dam which has been widely reported in the Turkish press is to reduce the freedom of movement of Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) militants. Blocking and flooding valleys in close proximity to the Iraq–Turkey border is expected to help curb cross-border PKK smuggling and deny caves in which ammunition can be stored. A total of 11 dams along the border; seven in Şırnak Province and four in Hakkâri Province were implemented for this purpose. In Şırnak they are the Silopi Dam downstream of the Şırnak Dam on the Hezil River and upstream is the Uludere, Balli, Kavşaktepe, Musatepe and Çetintepe Dams on the Ortasu River. In Hakkari are the Gölgeliyamaç (since cancelled) and Çocuktepe Dams on the Güzeldere River and the Aslandağ and Beyyurdu Dams on the Bembo River.

Şırnak Province of Turkey
Districts

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