Śnieżnik Mountains

The Śnieżnik Mountains (Polish: Masyw Śnieżnika, Czech: Králický Sněžník, German: Glatzer Schneegebirge) are a massif in the Eastern Sudetes on the border of the Czech Republic and Poland. On the Polish side it is largely covered by the protected area called Śnieżnik Landscape Park.

2016 Masyw Śnieżnika, Sudety
Panorama of Śnieżnik Mountains

Major Polish towns and villages:

Masyw Snieznika
Location of Śnieżnik Mountains

See also

Great Moravia

Coordinates: 50°12′N 16°48′E / 50.200°N 16.800°E

Eastern Sudetes

The Eastern Sudetes (Polish: Sudety Wschodnie, Czech: Východní Sudety or Jesenická oblast) are the Eastern part of the Sudetes mountains on the border of the Czech Republic and Poland. They stretch from the Kłodzko Valley and the Nysa Kłodzka River in the west down to the Moravian Gate in the east, leading to the Outer Western Carpathians.

European watershed

The main European watershed is the drainage divide ("watershed") which separates the basins of the rivers that empty into the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea from those that feed the Mediterranean Sea, the Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea. It stretches from the tip of the Iberian Peninsula at Gibraltar in the southwest to the endorheic basin of the Caspian Sea in Russia in the northeast.

Geography of Poland

Poland is a country in East-Central Europe with an area of 312,679 square kilometres (120,726 sq. mi.), and mostly temperate climate. Generally speaking, Poland is an almost unbroken plain reaching from the Baltic Sea in the north, to the Carpathian Mountains in the south. Within that plain, terrain variations run in bands east to west.

The Baltic coast has two natural harbors, the larger one in the Gdańsk-Gdynia region, and a smaller one near Szczecin in the far northwest. The northeastern region, also known as the Masurian Lake District with more than 2,000 lakes, is densely wooded and sparsely populated. To the south of the lake district, and across central Poland a vast region of plains extends all the way to the Sudetes on the Czech and Slovak borders southwest, and to the Carpathians on the Czech, Slovak and Ukrainian borders southeast. The central lowlands had been formed by glacial erosion in the Pleistocene ice age. The neighboring countries are Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and Lithuania and the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad to the northeast.

Główny Szlak Sudecki

Główny Szlak Sudecki (full name Główny Szlak Sudecki im. Mieczysława Orłowicza, which means Mieczysław Orłowicz Main Sudetes Trail in Polish) is a public hiking trail in Poland running along the Sudetes. The total length of this route is 350 km and the approximate time to cover it varies between 87 and 90 hours. The trail was constructed in 1947 and throughout its history has been several times modified. It is blazed red.

Jaskinia Niedźwiedzia

Jaskinia Niedźwiedzia (pronounced Yaskeenya Niecwiedza and translated as Bear Cave) - is the longest cave in Śnieżnik Mountains part of Sudety mountains discovered in 1966, located near village Kletno in Poland. Famous from many excavations of the cave bear (Ursus spelaeus).


The Kammweg ("Ridgeway") was a long-distance path opened in 1904 along the crest of the Elster Mountains, Ore Mountains, Bohemian Switzerland, Lusatian Mountains, Ještěd Mountains, Jizera and Giant Mountains, Śnieżnik Mountains and High Ash Mountains. This path was once the longest tourist trail in the German-speaking region of Europe. Since 2011 the ridgeway tradition has been continued with the Ore Mountains-Vogtland Ridgeway (Kammweg Erzgebirge–Vogtland), which runs on the German side of the border.

Krupá (Morava)

Krupá (German: Graupa Bach) is a creek in Šumperk District, Moravia, left tributary of the Morava.

Its length is 19,2 km and its drainage basin covers 112.7 km2. The mean annual discharge at its mouth is 4.48 m³/s.

The Krupá originates in Czech part of the Śnieżnik Mountains, 400 meters above sea level.

The Krupá then goes south toward the town of Staré Město. It flows into the Morava river near Hanušovice town. River keeps its natural character with meanders and original riversides. A river bottom is covered by stones.

A Small hydro power plant is situated on the creek. Amphibolite and gneiss quarry is in a neighborhood of the creek mouth.

Králický Sněžník

Králický Sněžník (Czech: [ˈkraːlɪtskiː ˈsɲɛʒɲiːk]) or Śnieżnik Kłodzki (Polish: [ˈɕɲeʐɲik]) is a mountain in Eastern Bohemia, located on the border between the Czech Republic and Poland. The name Sněžník or Śnieżnik derives from the word for "snow"; the mountain has snow cover for up to eight months a year. In Czech the adjective Králický (from the nearby town of Králíky) is added to distinguish it from the mountain called Děčínský Sněžník (near the town of Děčín). An alternative Polish name is Śnieżnik Kłodzki, from the town of Kłodzko. In German the mountain is known as Glatzer Schneeberg (from Glatz, the German name for Kłodzko), Grulicher Schneeberg (from Gruhlich, the German name for Králíky), or Spieglitzer Schneeberg (from Spieglitz, which is now part of Staré Město).

The mountain is the highest peak of the Śnieżnik massif (called Králický Sněžník in Czech, Masyw Śnieżnika in Polish, Glatzer Schneegebirge in German). It lies between the town Králíky and the Kłodzko Gap that separates it from the Golden Mountains.

The massive was formed during the Tertiary. Sněžník lies on the water divide for the Black Sea (the Morava) and the Baltic Sea (the Nysa Kłodzka). Klepáč, the water divide for the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea, and the North Sea (the Lipkovský Stream) lies 7 km (4 mi) south of Sněžník.

Between 1899 and 1973 a stone view-tower stood on the Silesian side of the mountain top. A statue of a young elephant was put in place of a former chalet.

On the Czech side a state protected natural reservation (Národní přírodní rezervace Králický Sněžník ) was established in 1990. On the Polish side is the protected area of Śnieżnik Landscape Park.

The mountain and neighbouring areas are equipped for ski recreation.

Kłodzko Land

Kłodzko Land (Czech: Kladsko; German: Glatzer Land; Polish: Ziemia kłodzka) is a historical region in southwestern Poland. A Bohemian domain since the 12th century and raised to the County of Kladsko in 1459, it was conquered by Prussia in the First Silesian War of 1740-42 and incorporated into the Province of Silesia by 1818. After World War II it fell to the Republic of Poland according to the 1945 Potsdam Agreement.

Kłodzko Valley

The Kłodzko Valley (Polish: Kotlina Kłodzka, Czech: Kladská kotlina, German: Glatzer Kessel) is a cirque of the Sudetes mountain range in Kłodzko County, south-western Poland, close to the border with the Czech Republic.

It is traversed by the upper Nysa Kłodzka river running from south to north and surrounded by the Table Mountains, Bardzkie Mountains and Bystrzyckie Mountains of the Central Sudetes in the west as well as by the Śnieżnik Mountains, Golden Mountains and Owl Mountains of the Eastern Sudetes in the east. The mountain passes of Kudowa in the west and of Międzylesie in the south lead to Bohemia. In the northwest the Nysa river passes through the Bardzkie Mountains to Bardo in Lower Silesia. The major towns of the valley are Kłodzko, Bystrzyca Kłodzka and Nowa Ruda.

The valley is the central area of the former County of Kladsko and today a popular tourist region both in summer and winter, with numerous hotels and sanatoria.

List of mountain ranges

This is a list of mountain ranges on Earth and a few other astronomical bodies. First, the highest and longest mountain ranges on Earth are listed, followed by more comprehensive alphabetical lists organized by continent. Ranges in the oceans and on other celestial bodies are listed afterwards.

List of types of marble

The following is a list of various types of marble according to location.

(NB: Marble-like stone which is not true marble according to geologists is included, but is indicated by italics and an endnote).

Orlické hory

The Orlické Mountains (Czech: Orlické hory, Polish: Góry Orlickie, German: Adlergebirge) or Eagle Mountains are a mountain range located mainly in northeastern Bohemia in the Czech Republic, forming a subgroup of the Central Sudetes. They follow the border with Klodzko Land in Poland for 25 miles (40 km). The mountains are mainly composed of crystalline rocks, consistent with the makeup of the northern rim of the highlands of Bohemia. The highest point in the range is Velká Deštná, at 1,115 m (3,658 ft).


Poland (Polish: Polska [ˈpɔlska] (listen)), officially the Republic of Poland (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska [ʐɛt͡ʂpɔˈspɔlita ˈpɔlska] (listen)), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres (120,733 sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With a population of approximately 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.

Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north, Belarus and Ukraine to the east, Slovakia and Czech Republic, to the south, and Germany to the west.

The establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin. This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest (about 1,000,000 square kilometres (390,000 sq mi)) and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.

More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic.

Poland is a developed market and regional power. It has the fifth largest economy by GDP (PPP) in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world, simultaneously achieving a very high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with very high standards of living, life quality, safety, education, and economic freedom. Having a developed school educational system, the country also provides free university education, state-funded social security, and a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 14 of which are cultural. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, and the Visegrád Group.


Polanica-Zdrój [pɔlaˈɲit͡sa ˈzdrui̯] (German: Altheide-Bad) is a spa town in Kłodzko County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland. It lies approximately 11 kilometres (7 mi) south-west of Kłodzko, and 89 kilometres (55 mi) south-west of the regional capital Wrocław. As at 2006, the town has a population of 6,900.


Sneznik may refer to:

Děčínský Sněžník, a mountain in the Czech Republic, near Děčín

Králický Sněžník, a mountain in the Eastern Sudetes on the border of the Czech Republic and Poland

Śnieżnik Mountains, a mountain range in the Eastern Sudetes on the border of the Czech Republic and Poland

Snežnik, the highest peak of the Dinaric Alps in Slovenia

Snezhnika, a glacieret in the Pirin Mountains of Bulgaria

Staré Město (Šumperk District)

Staré město (German: Mährisch Altstadt) is a town in Šumperk District, in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic.


The Sudetes (; also known as the Sudeten after their German name; Czech: Krkonošsko-jesenická subprovincie, Sudetská subprovincie, subprovincie Sudety, Sudetská pohoří, Sudetské pohoří, Sudety; Polish: Sudety) are a mountain range in Central Europe. They are the highest part of Bohemian Massif. Stretches from the Saxon capital of Dresden in the northwest, to the Głubczyce plateau (Płaskowyż Głubczycki) in Poland and to the Ostrava Basin and Moravian Gate (Moravská brána) in the Czech Republic in the east. Geographically the Sudetes are a Mittelgebirge with a some characteristics proper of high mountains. Its plateaus and subtle summit relief makes the Sudetes more akin to mountains of Northern Europe than to the Alps.In the west, Sudetes border with the Elbe Sandstone Mountains. The westernmost point of the Sudetes lies in the Dresden Heath (Dresdner Heide), the westernmost part of the West Lusatian Hill Country and Uplands, in Dresden. In the east of the Sudetes, the Moravian Gate and Ostrava Basin separates from the Carpathian Mountains. The Sudetes' highest mountain is Mount Sněžka/Śnieżka (1,603 m/5,259 ft), which is also the highest mountain of the Czech Republic, Bohemia, and Silesia, in the Krkonoše/Karkonosze Mountains, lying on the border between the Czech Republic and Poland. Mount Praděd (1,491 m/4,893 ft) in the Hrubý Jeseník Mountains is the highest mountain of Moravia. Lusatia's highest point (1,072 m/3,517 ft) lies on Mount Smrk/Smrek in the Jizera Mountains, and the Sudetes' highest mountain in Germany, which is also the country's highest mountain east of the River Elbe, is Mount Lausche/Luž (Upper Sorbian: Łysa; 793 m/2,600 ft) in the Zittau Mountains, the highest part of the Lusatian Mountains. The most notable rivers rising in the Sudetes are Elbe, Oder, Spree, Morava, Bóbr, Lusatian Neisse, Eastern Neisse, Jizera and Kwisa. The highest parts of the Sudetes are protected by national parks; Karkonosze and Stołowe in Poland and Krkonoše in the Czech Republic.

The Sudeten Germans (the German-speaking inhabitants of Czechoslovakia) as well as the Sudetenland (the border regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia they inhabited) are named after the Sudetes.

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