Ōmi Province

Ōmi Province (近江国 Ōmi no kuni) is an old province of Japan, which today comprises Shiga Prefecture.[1] It was one of the provinces that made up the Tōsandō circuit. Its nickname is Gōshū (江州).

Lake Biwa, Japan's largest lake, is located at the center of the province. "Ōmi" came from awaumi or "fresh-water sea" and the kanji of "Ōmi" () means "an inlet near the capital" (See also Tōtōmi Province).

The ancient capital was near Ōtsu, which was also a major castle town. In north of Otsu, one of the most important monastery Enryaku-ji is located on Mount Hiei.

Provinces of Japan-Omi
Map of Japanese provinces (1868) with Omi Province highlighted

History

Hōjō Tokimasa, the first shikken of the Kamakura shogunate, was made daimyō of Ōmi Province in the 10th month of Shōji 2 (1200).[2]

During the Sengoku period, the northern part of the province was the fief of Ishida Mitsunari, Tokugawa Ieyasu's opponent at the Battle of Sekigahara, although he spent most of his time in Osaka Castle administering the fief of Toyotomi Hideyoshi's young son. After Ishida's defeat, Tokugawa granted the fief to his allies, the Ii clan, who built the castle and town of Hikone from the ruins of Sawayama.

Takebe taisha was designated as the chief Shinto shrine (ichinomiya) for the province. [3]

Hiroshige Boats on a lake
Ukiyo-e print by Hiroshige of the sailboats at Yahashi, one of the Eight Views of Ōmi, c. 1834

During the Edo period, it was host to five stations of the Tōkaidō and eight stations of the Nakasendō.

The southern part of the province around the town of Kōka (Koga) was the home of the famous Kōga ninja, one of the two main founding schools of ninjutsu.

Historical districts

Notes

  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Ōmi" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 750, p. 750, at Google Books.
  2. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, p. 224., p. 224, at Google Books
  3. ^ "Nationwide List of Ichinomiya," p. 1.; retrieved 2011-08-09

References

  • Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128
  • Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon (Nihon Ōdai Ichiran). Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691.

Other websites

Media related to Omi Province at Wikimedia Commons

Asai

Asai or ASAI may refer to:

Asai (surname), a Japanese surname

Asai clan or Azai clan, a line of daimyō (feudal lords) during Japan's Sengoku period based in Ōmi Province

Asai moonsault, a professional wrestling move

Average Service Availability Index, a reliability index for electric power utilities

American Society of Architectural Illustrators, a professional organization representing the business and artistic interests of architectural illustrators

Advertising Standards Authority for Ireland, the self-regulatory organisation for the advertising industry in Ireland

Azai District, Ōmi

List of Provinces of Japan > Tōsandō > Ōmi Province > Azai District

Azai (浅井郡, Azai-gun) was a district located in Ōmi Province/Shiga Prefecture.

The district is equivalent to the former towns of Nishiazai, Kohoku, Torahime, Biwa, Azai (excluding Sumainiwa), and northern Ibuki.

Azai clan

The Azai clan (Japanese: 浅井氏, Hepburn: Azai-shi) was a line of daimyōs (feudal lords) during Japan's Sengoku period that was based in Ōmi Province (present day Shiga Prefecture). The Azai clan, along with the Asakura clan, opposed Oda Nobunaga in the late 16th century. They were defeated by him at the Battle of Anegawa in 1570, and all but eliminated when their home castle, Odani Castle, was taken three years later.

Azuchi Castle

Azuchi Castle (安土城, Azuchi-jō) was one of the primary castles of Oda Nobunaga. It was built from 1576 to 1579, on the shores of Lake Biwa, in Ōmi Province. Nobunaga intentionally built it close enough to Kyoto that he could watch over and guard the approaches to the capital, but, being outside the city, his fortress would be immune to the fires and conflicts that occasionally consumed the capital. This location was also strategically advantageous in managing the communications and transportation routes between his greatest foes - the Uesugi clan to the north, the Takeda clan in the east, and the Mōri clan to the west.

Battle of Anegawa

The Sengoku period Battle of Anegawa (姉川の戦い, Anegawa no Tatakai) (30 July 1570) occurred near Lake Biwa in Ōmi Province, Japan, between the allied forces of Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu, against the combined forces of the Azai and Asakura clans. It is notable as the first battle that involved the alliance between Nobunaga and Ieyasu, liberated the Oda clan from its unbalanced alliance with the Azai, and saw Nobunaga's prodigious use of firearms. Nobunaga's loyal retainer, Toyotomi Hideyoshi was assigned to lead troops into open battle for the first time.

The battle came as a reaction to Oda Nobunaga's sieges of the castles of Odani and Yokoyama, which belonged to the Azai and Asakura clans. It was also referred to as the Battle of Nomura (野村合戦 Nomura Kassen) by the Oda and Azai clans and the Battle of Mitamura (三田村合戦 Mitamura Kassen) by the Asakura clan.

There is a battlefield memorial marker in Nomura-cho, Nagahama city, in Shiga Prefecture.

Eight Views of Ōmi

The Eight Views of Ōmi (in Japanese: 近江八景 or Ōmi hakkei) are traditional scenic views of Ōmi Province which is now Shiga Prefecture in Japan.

They were inspired by the Eight Views of Xiaoxiang in China which were first painted in the 11th century and then brought to Japan as a popular theme in the 14–15th centuries. The theme was then used to describe Ōmi province in poetry by Prince Konoe Masaie and his son, Prince Hisamichi, in the 15–16th centuries. The Eight Views of Ōmi then became a popular subject for artists such as Suzuki Harunobu and Utagawa Hiroshige. The theme continued to develop, being transposed to other locations and settings in a process which the Japanese called mitate.The sights were depicted by Hiroshige in several different series of ukiyo-e pictures, as well as other artists.They are sometimes erroneously called "Eight Views of Lake Biwa", but the latter were defined to include different locations in 1949 by the government of Shiga Prefecture.

Ii clan

Ii clan (井伊氏, Ii-shi) is a Japanese clan which originates in Tōtōmi Province. It was a retainer clan of the Imagawa family, and then switched sides to the Matsudaira clan of Mikawa Province. A famed 16th-century clan member, Ii Naomasa, adopted son of Ii Naotora, was Tokugawa Ieyasu's son-in-law and one of his most important generals. He received the fief of Hikone in Ōmi Province as a reward for his conduct in battle at Sekigahara. The Ii and a few sub-branches remained daimyō for the duration of the Edo period. Ii Naosuke, the famed politician of the late Edo period, was another member of this clan.

The clan claims descent from Fujiwara no Yoshikado, who had been one of the Daijō daijin during the ninth century.

Kakitsu uprising

The Kakitsu uprising (嘉吉の徳政一揆 or 嘉吉の土一揆, Kakitsu no Tokusei Ikki or Kakitsu no Tsuchi Ikki) was a peasant uprising demanding debt cancellation that occurred in 1441, the 1st year of Kakitsu, in Kyoto and surrounding areas such as Ōmi Province.

Kotō ware

Kotō ware (湖東焼, Kotō-yaki) is a type of Japanese porcelain traditionally made in Hikone, Shiga in the former Ōmi Province.

Kyōgoku Takatsugu

Kyōgoku Takatsugu (京極 高次, 1560 – June 4, 1609) was a daimyō (feudal lord) of Ōmi Province and Wakasa Province during the late Sengoku period of Japan's history.

Oda Nobuharu

Oda Nobuharu (織田 信治, 1549 – October 19, 1570) was a Japanese samurai of the Sengoku period, who served the Oda clan. Nobuharu was the younger brother of Oda Nobunaga. Nobunaga granted him Nobu Castle and its surroundings as a private fief. While fighting the Asakura and Asai, Nobuharu was killed in battle at Usayama Castle (together with Mori Yoshinari, another Oda retainer) in Ōmi Province, in 1570.

His descendants became hatamoto under the Tokugawa shogunate.

Ohatsu

Ohatsu (お初) or Ohatsu-no-kata (お初の方) (1570 – September 30, 1633) was a prominently placed figure in the late Sengoku period. After her husband's death in 1609, Ohatsu remained active in the political intrigues of her day.

Ohatsu's close family ties to both the Toyotomi clan and the Tokugawa clan uniquely positioned her to serve as a conduit between the rivals. She acted as a liaison until 1615 in Siege of Osaka, when the Tokugawa eliminated the Toyotomi.When she married her cousin Kyōgoku Takatsugu in 1587, he was a daimyō in Ōmi Province, holding Ōtsu Castle for the Toyotomi. At this point, Takatsugu was a fudai daimyō (hereditary vassal) of the Toyotomi with a stipend of 60,000 koku annually. After 1600, Takatsugu's allegiances had been transferred to the Tokugawa; and he was rewarded with the fief of Obama in Wakasa Province and an enhanced income of 92,000 koku annually.Her husband's changing fortunes affected Ohatsu's life as well. Surviving record books from luxury goods merchants provide insight into patterns of patronage and taste.

Ohmi Railway

Ohmi Railway Co., Ltd. (近江鉄道株式会社, Ōmi Tetsudō Kabushiki-gaisha) is a Japanese private railway company which operates in Shiga Prefecture, and a member of the Seibu group since 1943. The company is named after the Ōmi Province, the former name of the present-day Shiga. The railway is nicknamed "Gachakon train" (ガチャコン電車, Gachakon densha) by local users because of its noisy sound.

Sasaki Nariyori

Sasaki Nariyori (佐々木 成頼) (976-1003) was the progenitor of the Sasaki clan, having taken the name from his domain in Ōmi Province. He was the great-grandson of Minamoto no Masanobu, progenitor of the Uda Genji.

Sawayama Castle

Sawayama Castle (佐和山城, Sawayama-jō) was a castle in the city of Hikone, Shiga Prefecture, Japan.

This castle was an important military stronghold of Ōmi Province. The Azai clan held this castle in the Sengoku Period. Ishida Mitsunari held it at the end of the 16th century after the ruin of the Azai clan. This castle was attacked by Kobayakawa Hideaki after the Battle of Sekigahara. The castle surrendered at half a day though the brother of Mitsunari, Ishida Masazumi, defended it. Afterwards, Ii Naomasa occupied Sawayama Castle. However, he destroyed it, and moved to Hikone Castle.

Tōsandō

Tōsandō (東山道, literally, "eastern mountain circuit" or "eastern mountain region") is a Japanese geographical term. It means both an ancient division of the country and the main road running through it. It is part of the Gokishichidō system. It was situated along the central mountains of northern Honshu, Tōhoku region.

This term also refers to a series of roads that connected the capitals (国府, kokufu) of each of the provinces that made up the region.

The Tōsandō region encompasses eight ancient provinces.

Ōmi Province

Mino Province

Hida Province

Shinano Province

Kōzuke Province

Shimotsuke Province

Mutsu Province

Dewa ProvinceAfter 711, Tōsandō was understood to include Musashi province.

Zeze ware

Zeze ware (膳所焼, Zeze-yaki) is a type of Japanese pottery traditionally from Ōtsu, in the former Zeze Domain in Ōmi Province.

Ōmi beef

Ōmi beef (近江牛, Ōmi ushi, Ōmi gyū) is wagyū (Japanese beef) originating in the Shiga Prefecture, Japan. Ōmi means Ōmi Province, predecessor of Shiga. Ōmi beef is generally considered one of the three top brands, along with Kobe beef and Matsusaka beef.Ōmi beef is said to be the oldest beef brand in Japan. In Azuchi–Momoyama period, Takayama Ukon who was associated with Ōmi Province treated the warlords to beef. In Edo period, miso-marinated beef was sold and presented to the Tokugawa shogunate as a sustaining medicine by the Hikone Domain. In 1880s, Ōmi beef was sold as "Kobe beef" because it was shipped to Tokyo via Kobe Port, and since the completion of Tōkaidō Main Line, a railway between Shiga and Tokyo, "Ōmi beef" brand had become established gradually.

Ōtsu-juku

Ōtsu-juku (大津宿, Ōtsu-juku) was the last of the sixty-nine stations of the Nakasendō, as well as the last of the fifty-three stations of the Tōkaidō. It was 14 km (9 mi) from the previous post town, Kusatsu-juku, and was located in Ōmi Province. It is currently located in the present-day city of Ōtsu, Shiga Prefecture, Japan.

Kinai
Tōkaidō
Tōsandō
Hokurikudō
San'indō
San'yōdō
Nankaidō
Saikaidō
Hokkaidō
1869–
Pre-Taihō Code
provinces

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.