Ł

Ł or ł, described in English as L with stroke, is a letter of the West Slavic (Polish, Kashubian, and Sorbian), Łacinka (Latin Belarusian), Łatynka (Latin Ukrainian), Wymysorys, Navajo, Dene Suline, Inupiaq, Zuni, Hupa, and Dogrib alphabets, several proposed alphabets for the Venetian language, and the ISO 11940 romanization of the Thai alphabet. In Slavic languages, it represents the continuation of Proto-Slavic non-palatal l (dark L), except in Polish, Kashubian, and Sorbian, where it evolved further into /w/. In most non-European languages, it represents a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative or similar sound.

Latin alphabet Łł

Glyph shape

Łł-handwriting
Upright cursive Ł and ł letters

In normal typefaces, the letter has a stroke approximately in the middle of the vertical stem, passing it at an angle between 70° and 45°, never perpendicularly. In cursive handwriting and typefaces that imitate it, the capital letter has a horizontal stroke through the middle and looks almost exactly the same as the pound sign ⟨£⟩. In the cursive lowercase letter, the stroke is also horizontal and placed on top of the letter instead of going through the middle of the stem, which would not be distinguishable from the letter t. The stroke is either straight or slightly wavy, depending on the style. Unlike ⟨l⟩, the letter ⟨ł⟩ is usually written without a noticeable loop at the top. Most publicly available multilingual cursive typefaces, including commercial ones, feature an incorrect glyph for ⟨ł⟩.[1]

A rare variant of the ⟨ł⟩ glyph is a cursive double-ł ligature, used in words such as Jagiełło, Radziwiłł or Ałłach (archaic: Allah), where the strokes at the top of the letters are joined into a single stroke.[1]

Polish

In Polish, ⟨Ł⟩ is used to distinguish historical dark (velarized) L from clear L. The Polish ⟨Ł⟩ now sounds the same as the English ⟨w⟩, as in water.

In 1440, Jakub Parkoszowic proposed a letter resembling to represent clear L. For dark L he suggested ⟨l⟩ with a stroke running in the opposite direction to the modern version. The latter was introduced in 1514–1515 by Stanisław Zaborowski in his Orthographia seu modus recte scribendi et legendi Polonicum idioma quam utilissimus. L with stroke originally represented a velarized alveolar lateral approximant [ɫ],[2] a pronunciation that is preserved in the eastern part of Poland[3] and among the Polish minority in Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine. This pronunciation is similar to Russian unpalatalised ⟨Л⟩ in native words and grammar forms.

In modern Polish, ⟨Ł⟩ is normally pronounced /w/ (exactly as w in English as a consonant, as in will).[4] This pronunciation first appeared among Polish lower classes in the 16th century. It was considered an uncultured accent by the upper classes (who pronounced ⟨Ł⟩ as /ɫ/) until the mid-20th century when this distinction gradually began to fade.

The shift from [ɫ] to [w] in Polish has affected all instances of dark L, even word-initially or intervocalically, e.g. ładny ("pretty, nice") is pronounced [ˈwadnɨ], słowo ("word") is [ˈswɔvɔ], and ciało ("body") is [ˈtɕawɔ]. Ł often alternates with clear L, such as the plural forms of adjectives and verbs in the past tense that are associated with masculine personal nouns, e.g. małymali ([ˈmawɨ][ˈmali]). Alternation is also common in declension of nouns, e.g. from nominative to locative, tłona tle ([twɔ][naˈtlɛ]).

Polish final Ł also often corresponds to Ukrainian word-final ⟨В⟩ (Cyrillic) and BelarusianЎ⟩ (Cyrillic). Thus, "he gave" is "dał" in Polish, "дав" in Ukrainian, "даў" in Belarusian (all pronounced [daw]), but "дал" [daɫ] in Russian. The old pronunciation [ɫ] of Ł is still fully understandable but is considered theatrical in most regions.

Examples

Historic figures

Some examples of words with 'ł':

In contexts where ⟨Ł⟩ is not available as a glyph, basic L is used instead. Thus, the surname Małecki would be spelled Malecki in a foreign country. Similarly, the stroke is sometimes omitted on the internet, as may happen with all diacritic-enhanced letters. Leaving out the diacritic does not impede communication for native speakers, but it may be confusing for those learning Polish.

In the 1980s, when some computers available in Poland lacked Polish diacritics, it was common practice to use a pound sterling sign (£) for Ł. This practice ceased as soon as DOS-based and Mac computers came with a code page for such characters.

Other languages

In Belarusian Łacinka (both in the 1929[5] and 1962[6][7] versions), ⟨Ł⟩ corresponds to Cyrillic ⟨Л⟩, and is normally pronounced /ɫ/ (almost exactly as in English pull).

In Navajo, ⟨Ł⟩ is used for a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative /ɬ/, like the Welsh ⟨Ll⟩.[8]

⟨Ł⟩ is used in orthographic transcription of Ahtna, an Athabaskan language spoken in Alaska; it represents a breathy lateral fricative.[9][10] It is also used in Tanacross, a related Athabaskan language.[11]

In Venetian, ⟨Ł⟩ is used as substitution for ⟨L⟩ in many words in which the pronunciation of "L" has changed for some dialects, i.e. by becoming voiceless or becoming the sound of the shorter vowel corresponding to /ɰ/ or /ɛ/. For example, "la gondoła" can be pronounced in different Venetian dialects as "la góndola", or "la góndoa", or "la góndoea" with a shorter /ɛ̆/.

When writing IPA for some Scandinavian dialects which involve the pronunciation of a retroflex flap /ɽ/, e.g. in Eastern Norwegian dialects, authors may employ ⟨Ł⟩.

Computer usage

The Unicode codepoints for the letter are U+0142 for the lower case, and U+0141 for the capital.[12] In the LaTeX typesetting system ⟨Ł⟩ and ⟨ł⟩ may be typeset with the commands \L{} and \l{}, respectively. The HTML-codes are Ł and ł for ⟨Ł⟩ and ⟨ł⟩, respectively.

Character Ł ł
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER
L WITH STROKE
LATIN SMALL LETTER
L WITH STROKE
Character encoding decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 321 0141 322 0142
UTF-8 197 129 0xC5 0x81 197 130 0xC5 0x82
Numeric character reference Ł Ł ł ł
CP 852 157 9D 136 88
CP 775 173 AD 136 88
Mazovia 156 9C 146 92
Windows-1250, ISO-8859-2 163 A3 179 B3
Windows-1257, ISO-8859-13 217 D9 249 F9
Mac Central European 252 FC 184 B8

Litecoin

The Ł symbol is often associated with the Litecoin crypto-currency. It represents the largest and most common denomination of Litecoin.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Adam Twardoch (2009-03-09). "Kreska ukośna". Polish Diacritics: how to?. Retrieved 2015-10-01.
  2. ^ Teslar, Joseph Andrew; Teslar,, Jadwiga (1962). A New Polish Grammar (8th Edition, Revised ed.). Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, Ltd. pp. 4–5. ł = English l hard, dental ; ... It is true, of course, that the majority of Poles nowadays pronounce this sound with the lips, exactly like the English w. But this is a careless pronunciation leading eventually to the disappearance of a sound typically Polish (and Russian also ; it has already disappeared from the other Slavonic languages, Czech and Serbian) ... In articulating l, your tongue ... projects considerably beyond the horizontal line separating the gums from the teeth and touches the gums or the palate. To pronounce ł ... the tongue should be held flat and rigid in the bottom of the mouth with the tip just bent upwards sufficiently to touch the edge of the front upper teeth. (On no account should the tongue extend beyond the line separating the teeth from the gums.) Holding the tongue rigidly in this position, a speaker should then pronounce one of the vowels a, o or u, consciously dropping the tongue on each occasion, to obtain the hard ł quite distinct from the soft l.
  3. ^ Swan, Oscar E. (1983). First Year Polish (2nd Edition, Revised and Expanded ed.). Columbus: Slavica Publishers. p. xix. ł (so-called barrel l) is not pronounced like an l except in Eastern dialects and, increasingly infrequently, in stage pronunciation. It is most often pronounced like English w in way, how. "łeb, dała, był, piłka.
  4. ^ Mazur,, B. W. (1983). Colloquial Polish. London: Routledge. p. 5. The sounds below exist in English but are pronounced or rendered differently: c ... h[, ] ch ... j ... ł as w in wet[, ] łach ład słowo[; ] r ... w
  5. ^ Тарашкевіч, Б. (1991). Беларуская граматыка для школ. – Вільня (Выданьне пятае пераробленае і пашыранае ed.). Беларуская друкарня ім. Фр. Скарыны, 1929 ; Мн. : «Народная асвета».
  6. ^ Станкевіч, Ян (1962). Які мае быць парадак літараў беларускае абэцады.
  7. ^ Станкевіч, Ян (2002). Збор твораў у двух тамах. 2. Энцыклапедыкс. ISBN 985-6599-46-6.
  8. ^ Campbell, George L. (1995). Concise Compendium of the World's Languages. London: Routledge. p. 354.
  9. ^ "Ahtna Pronunciation Guide". Native Languages of the Americas. Retrieved 2008-10-05.
  10. ^ Tuttle, Siri G. "Syllabic obstruents in Ahtna Athabaskan" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 23, 2007. Retrieved 2008-10-05.
  11. ^ Holton, Gary (April 2004). "Writing Tanacross Without Special Fonts". Alaska Native Language Center. Retrieved 2008-10-05.
  12. ^ "Unicode Character 'LATIN SMALL LETTER L WITH STROKE' (U+0142)". FileFormat.info. Retrieved 2007-12-20.

External links

2015 Moselle Open – Doubles

Mariusz Fyrstenberg and Marcin Matkowski were the defending champions but chose not to participate this year.Łukasz Kubot and Édouard Roger-Vasselin won the title, defeating Pierre-Hugues Herbert and Nicolas Mahut in the final, 2–6, 6–3, [10–7].

2015 Swedish Open – Men's Doubles

Johan Brunström and Nicholas Monroe were the defending champions, but chose not to participate together. Brunström played alongside Robert Lindstedt, but lost in the quarterfinals to Thomaz Bellucci and João Souza. Monroe teamed up with Artem Sitak, but lost in the semifinals to Juan Sebastián Cabal and Robert Farah.Jérémy Chardy and Łukasz Kubot won the title, defeating Cabal and Farah in the final, 6–7(6–8), 6–3, [10–8].

2015 Topshelf Open – Men's Doubles

Jean-Julien Rojer and Horia Tecău were the defending champions, but lost in the semifinals to Ivo Karlović and Łukasz Kubot.

Karlović and Kubot went on to win the title, defeating Pierre-Hugues Herbert and Nicolas Mahut in the final, 6–2, 7–6(11–9).

2016 Erste Bank Open – Doubles

Łukasz Kubot and Marcelo Melo were the defending champions and successfully defended their title, defeating Oliver Marach and Fabrice Martin in the final, 4–6, 6–3, [13–11].

2016 Gerry Weber Open – Doubles

Raven Klaasen and Rajeev Ram were the defending champions and successfully defended their title, defeating Łukasz Kubot and Alexander Peya in the final, 7–6(7–5), 6–2.

2017 Ricoh Open – Men's Doubles

Mate Pavić and Michael Venus were the defending champions, but Pavić chose to compete in Stuttgart instead. Venus played alongside André Sá, but lost to Łukasz Kubot and Marcelo Melo in the semifinals.

Kubot and Melo went on to win the title, defeating Raven Klaasen and Rajeev Ram in the final, 6–3, 6–4.

2018 Gerry Weber Open – Doubles

Łukasz Kubot and Marcelo Melo were the defending champions and successfully defended their title, defeating Alexander and Mischa Zverev in the final, 7–6(7–1), 6–4.

2018 Sydney International – Men's Doubles

Wesley Koolhof and Matwé Middelkoop were the defending champions, but chose to compete with different partners in Auckland instead.

Łukasz Kubot and Marcelo Melo won the title, defeating Jan-Lennard Struff and Viktor Troicki in the final, 6–3, 6–4.

Belarusian Latin alphabet

The Belarusian Latin alphabet or Łacinka ([laˈt͡sinka], from Belarusian: Лацінка (BGN/PCGN: latsinka) for the Latin script in general) is the common name of the several historical alphabets to render the Belarusian (Cyrillic) text in the Latin script. It is similar to the Sorbian alphabet and incorporates features of the Polish and Czech alphabets.

Finisterre–Huon languages

The Finisterre–Huon languages comprise the largest family within the Trans–New Guinea languages (TNG) in the classification of Malcolm Ross. They were part of the original TNG proposal, and William A. Foley considers their TNG identity to be established. The languages share verbs which are suppletive depending on the person and number of the object, strong morphological evidence that they are related.

Huon and Finisterre, and then the connection between them, were identified by Kenneth McElhanon (1967, 1970). When McElhanon compared notes with his colleague Clemens Voorhoeve, who was working on the languages of southern Irian Jaya, they developed the concept of Trans–New Guinea. Apart from the evidence which unites them, the Finisterre and Huon families are clearly valid language families in their own right, each consisting of several fairly-well defined branches. (See Finisterre languages and Huon languages.)

Ross reconstructs the pronouns as follows:

These are not all coherent: 3sg *ya and *i are found in Huon, for example, while 3sg *wa is found in Finisterre. In other cases, however, the multiple forms are found in both branches.

Inuktitut Braille

Inuktitut Braille is a proposed braille alphabet of the Inuktitut language based on Inuktitut syllabics. Unlike syllabics, it is a true alphabet, with separate letters for consonants and vowels, though vowels are written before the consonants they follow in speech. It was published in 2012 by Tamara Kearney, Manager of Braille Research and Development at the Commonwealth Braille and Talking Book Cooperative. The book ᐃᓕᐊᕐᔪᒃ ᓇᓄᕐᓗ The Orphan and the Polar Bear was the first (and perhaps only) work transliterated into Inuktitut Braille.

Iñupiaq Braille

Iñupiaq Braille is a braille alphabet of the Inupiat language maintained by the Alaskan Department of Education.

List of Belarusian writers

Below is an alphabetical list of famous novelists, poets, and playwrights, who are Belarusian or of Belarusian origin.

List of Polish-language poets

List of poets who have written much of their poetry in the Polish language. See also Discussion Page for additional poets not listed here.

There have been four Polish Nobel Prize laureates in literature: Henryk Sienkiewicz, Władysław Reymont, Czesław Miłosz, Wisława Szymborska. The last two have been poets.

Litecoin

Litecoin (LTC or Ł) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency and open-source software project released under the MIT/X11 license. Creation and transfer of coins is based on an open source cryptographic protocol and is not managed by any central authority. Litecoin was an early bitcoin spinoff or altcoin, starting in October 2011. In technical details, litecoin is nearly identical to Bitcoin.

Navajo Braille

Navajo Braille is the braille alphabet of the Navajo language. It uses a subset of the letters of Unified English Braille, along with the punctuation and formatting of that standard. There are no contractions.

Additional letters, beyond those of English braille, are ⠹ for ł, ⠄ for ' (glottal stop and ejective consonants), the French vowels with grave accents for the Navajo vowels with acute accents (high tone), and ⠨ for ogonek on the following vowel (nasal vowels, e.g. ⠨⠁ for ą, ⠨⠷ for ą́). ⠋ is only used for the digit 6, as the letter 'f' does not exist in the Navajo alphabet.

In numerical order by decade, the letters are:

The alphabet was created by Carol Green and adopted by the Navajo Nation in 2015.

PZL Ł.2

The PZL Ł.2 was the Polish Army cooperation and liaison aircraft, built in 1929 in the Polskie Zakłady Lotnicze (PZL) in Warsaw. Only a small series of 31 aircraft, including prototype, were made, and used by the Polish Air Force in the 1930s. The aircraft was known in Poland for accomplishing of a long-distance tour around Africa in 1931.

Polish alphabet

The Polish alphabet is the script of the Polish language, the basis for the Polish system of orthography. It is based on the Latin alphabet but includes certain letters with diacritics: the kreska or acute accent (ć, ń, ó, ś, ź); the overdot or kropka (ż); the tail or ogonek (ą, ę); and the stroke (ł). The letters q, v and x, which are used only in foreign words, are frequently not considered part of the Polish alphabet. However, prior to the standardization of the Polish language, the letter "x" was sometimes used in place of "ks".Modified variations of the Polish alphabet are used for writing Silesian and Kashubian, whereas the Sorbian languages use a mixture of the Polish and Czech orthographies.

Polish orthography

Polish orthography is the system of writing the Polish language. The language is written using the Polish alphabet, which derives from the Latin alphabet, but includes some additional letters with diacritics. The orthography is mostly phonetic, or rather phonemic – the written letters (or combinations of them) correspond in a consistent manner to the sounds, or rather the phonemes, of spoken Polish. For detailed information about the system of phonemes, see Polish phonology.

Alphabets (list)
Letters (list)
Multigraphs
Keyboard layouts (list)
Standards
Lists

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