Ĵ

Ĵ or ĵ (J circumflex) is a letter in Esperanto orthography representing the sound [ʒ].

While Esperanto orthography uses a diacritic for its four postalveolar consonants, as do the Latin-based Slavic alphabets, the base letters are Romano-Germanic. Ĵ is based on the French pronunciation of the letter j to better preserve the shape of borrowings from that language (such as ĵurnalo from journal) than Slavic ž would.

Ĵ is the fourteenth letter of the Esperanto alphabet. Although it is written as jx and jh respectively in the x-system and h-system workarounds, it is normally written as J with a circumflex: ĵ.

Jcircumflex
J with circumflex in Doulos SIL

Usage

In mathematics

  • The letter is sometimes used to denote a unit vector in mathematics.

Character mappings

Character Ĵ ĵ
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER J WITH CIRCUMFLEX LATIN SMALL LETTER J WITH CIRCUMFLEX
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 308 U+0134 309 U+0135
UTF-8 196 180 C4 B4 196 181 C4 B5
Numeric character reference Ĵ Ĵ ĵ ĵ

See also

2015 Cape Verdean Football Championships

The 2015 Cape Verdean Football Championship season was the 36th beginner level competition of the first-tier football in Cape Verde. Its started on 9 May and finished on 11 July. The tournament was organized by the Cape Verdean Football Federation. The schedule including its matches were created on Saturday January 10. CS Mindelense won the eleventh title and became the second club after Sporting Praia to win three in a row. Neither clubs participated in the CAF Champions League competition in 2016 and in the 2016 CAF Confederation Cup. This was the second ever and most recent finals competition that two clubs came from the same island as well as the same city.

CS Mindelense was the defending team of the title. A total of 12 clubs participated in the competition, one from each island league and one who won the last season's title.

The biggest win was Mindelense who scored 6-0 over Sporting Clube from Brava. In Group A, only one club scored more than ten goals while four clubs in Group B scored more than ten, the top two scored 14 each and the 3rd and 4th place clubs scored 12 each. Mindelense became the third and recent club to win all five matches in a six club group stage, Derby also done theirs for the second and most recent time.ĵ

The finals had two of its matches ended in a draw with a goal each, this was the first time that happened. The winner was decided on penalty kicks and Mindelense won 4-3 on penalty kicks, this was the first that ended in a penalty shootout in 21 years, the next occurred in the following season.

Circumflex

The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin and Greek scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus "bent around"—a translation of the Greek περισπωμένη (perispōménē). The circumflex in the Latin script is chevron-shaped ( ˆ ), while the Greek circumflex may be displayed either like a tilde ( ˜ ) or like an inverted breve ( ̑ ).

In English the circumflex, like other diacritics, is sometimes retained on loanwords that used it in the original language (for example, crème brûlée).

The diacritic is also used in mathematics, where it is typically called a hat or roof or house.

Code page 853

Code page 853 (also known as CP 853 or IBM 00853) is a code page used under DOS to write Turkish, Maltese, and Esperanto. It includes all characters from ISO 8859-3.

Domari language

Domari is an endangered Indic language, spoken by older Dom people scattered across the Middle East and North Africa. The language is reported to be spoken as far north as Azerbaijan and as far south as central Sudan, in Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Syria and Lebanon. Based on the systematicity of sound changes, we know with a fair degree of certainty that the names Domari and Romani derive from the Indic word ḍom. The language itself actually derives from an Indo-Aryan language. It shares many similarities to Punjabi and Rajasthani, two languages that originated in India. The Arabs referred to them as nawar as they were a nomadic people that originally immigrated to the Middle East from India.Domari is also known as "Middle Eastern Romani", "Tsigene", "Luti", or "Mehtar". There is no standard written form. In the Arab world, it is occasionally written using the Arabic script and has many Arabic and Persian loanwords. Descriptive work was done by Yaron Matras, who published a comprehensive grammar of the language along with an historical and dialectological evaluation of secondary sources (Matras 2012).

Domari is an endangered language and is currently being shifted away from in younger generations, according to Yaron Matras. In certain areas such as Jerusalem, only about 20% of these Dom people, known as “Middle Eastern Gypsies”, speak the Domari language in everyday interactions. The language is mainly spoken by the elderly in the Jerusalem community. The younger generation are more influenced by Arabic, therefore most only know basic words and phrases. The modern-day community of Doms in Jerusalem was established by the nomadic people deciding to settle inside the Old City from 1940 until it came under Israeli administration in 1967 (Matras 1999).

EBCDIC 905

IBM code page 905 (CCSID 905) is an EBCDIC code page with full Latin-3-charset used in IBM mainframes.

Esperantido

An Esperantido is a constructed language derived from Esperanto. Esperantido originally referred to the language which is now known as Ido. The word Esperantido is derived from Esperanto plus the affix -id- (-ido), which means a "child (born to a parent), young (of an animal) or offspring" (ido). Hence, Esperantido literally means an "offspring or descendant of Esperanto".

A number of Esperantidos have been created to address a number of perceived flaws or weaknesses in Esperanto, or in other Esperantidos, attempting to improve their lexicon, grammar, pronunciation, and orthography. Others were created as language games or to add variety to Esperanto literature.

Esperanto Braille

Esperanto Braille is the braille alphabet of the Esperanto language. One Esperanto Braille magazine, Aŭroro, has been published since 1920, and another, Esperanta Ligilo, since 1904.

Esperanto orthography

Esperanto is written in a Latin-script alphabet of twenty-eight letters, with upper and lower case. This is supplemented by punctuation marks and by various logograms, such as the numerals 0–9, currency signs such as $, and mathematical symbols.

Twenty-two of the letters are identical in form to letters of the English alphabet (q, w, x, and y being omitted). The remaining six have diacritic marks, ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ, and ŭ (that is, c, g, h, j, and s circumflex, and u breve).

In handwritten Esperanto, the diacritics pose no problem. However, since they do not appear on standard alphanumeric keyboards, various alternative methods have been devised for representing them in printed and typed text. The original method was a set of digraphs now known as the "h-system", but with the rise of computer word processing, the so-called "x-system" has become equally popular. These systems are described below. However, with the advent of Unicode, the need for such work-arounds has lessened.

Esperanto phonology

Esperanto is a constructed international auxiliary language. The creator of Esperanto, L. L. Zamenhof, illustrated Esperanto pronunciation by comparing its letters with their equivalents in several major European languages and declaring a principle of "one letter, one sound".

With over a century of use, Esperanto has developed a phonological norm, including accepted details of phonetics, phonotactics, and intonation, so that it is now possible to speak of proper Esperanto pronunciation and properly formed words independently of the languages originally used to describe Esperanto. This norm diverges only minimally from the original ideal of "one letter, one sound"; that is, it accepts only minor allophonic variation.Before Esperanto phonotactics became fixed, foreign words were adopted with spellings that violated the apparent intentions of Zamenhof and the norms that would develop later, such as poŭpo ('poop deck'), ŭato ('Watt'), and matĉo ('sports match'). Many of these coinages have proven to be unstable, and have either fallen out of use or been replaced with pronunciations more in keeping with the developing norms, such as pobo for poŭpo, vato for ŭato, and maĉo for matĉo. On the other hand, the word jida ('Yiddish'), which was also sometimes criticized on phonotactical grounds but had been used by Zamenhof, is well established.

J

J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its normal name in English is jay or, now uncommonly, jy . When used for the palatal approximant, it may be called yod ( or ) or yot ( or ).

JX

JX may refer to:

People:

JX (artist), an early alias of DJ Jake Williams, who is more recently known as Rex the Dog

J. X. Williams, a pseudonym used by several different authors during the 1960s for many adult novels

Jesus ChristTechnology:

Roland JX-3P, a MIDI capable synthesizer keyboard which debuted in 1983

JX (operating system), a Java operating system

IBM JX, a personal computer that based on IBM PCjr, released in Japan, in 1984Other uses

Jx or jx, a digraph in the Esperanto x-system orthography, representing the consonant sound [ʒ], normally spelled as Ĵ or ĵ in the Esperanto alphabet

Jambojet IATA designator code

Jiangxi, a province of China (Guobiao abbreviation JX)

Latin Extended-A

Latin Extended-A is a Unicode block and is the third block of the Unicode standard. It encodes Latin letters from the Latin ISO character sets other than Latin-1 (which is already encoded in the Latin-1 Supplement block) and also legacy characters from the ISO 6937 standard.

The Latin Extended-A block has been in the Unicode Standard since version 1.0, with its entire character repertoire, except for the Latin Small Letter Long S, which was added during unification with ISO 10646 in version 1.1.

Mac OS Maltese/Esperanto encoding

Mac OS Maltese/Esperanto, called MacOS Esperanto in older sources, is a character encoding for Esperanto, Maltese and Turkish created by Michael Everson on August 15 1997, based on the Mac OS Turkish encoding. It is used in his fonts, but not on official Mac OS fonts.ISO/IEC 8859-3 supports the same languages with a different layout.

Orbital elements

Orbital elements are the parameters required to uniquely identify a specific orbit. In celestial mechanics these elements are generally considered in classical two-body systems, where a Kepler orbit is used. There are many different ways to mathematically describe the same orbit, but certain schemes, each consisting of a set of six parameters, are commonly used in astronomy and orbital mechanics.

A real orbit (and its elements) changes over time due to gravitational perturbations by other objects and the effects of relativity. A Keplerian orbit is merely an idealized, mathematical approximation at a particular time.

Proto-Esperanto

Proto-Esperanto (Esperanto: Pra-Esperanto) is the modern term for any of the stages in the evolution of L. L. Zamenhof's language project, prior to the publication of Unua Libro in 1887.

Proto-Indo-Iranian language

Proto-Indo-Iranian or Proto-Indo-Iranic is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Iranian/Indo-Iranic branch of Indo-European. Its speakers, the hypothetical Proto-Indo-Iranians, are assumed to have lived in the late 3rd millennium BC, and are often connected with the Sintashta culture of the Eurasian Steppe and the early Andronovo archaeological horizon.

Proto-Indo-Iranian was a satem language, likely removed less than a millennium from the late Proto-Indo-European language, its ancestor, and in turn removed less than a millennium from the Vedic Sanskrit of the Rigveda, its descendant. It is the ancestor of the Indo-Aryan languages, the Iranian languages, and the Nuristani languages.

Tittle

A tittle or superscript dot is a small distinguishing mark, such as a diacritic or the dot on a lowercase i or j. The tittle is an integral part of the glyph of i and j, but diacritic dots can appear over other letters in various languages. In most languages, the tittle of i or j is omitted when a diacritic is placed in the tittle's usual position (as í or ĵ), but not when the diacritic appears elsewhere (as į, ɉ).

Udi language

The Udi language, spoken by the Udi people, is a member of the Lezgic branch of the Northeast Caucasian language family. It is believed an earlier form of it was the main language of Caucasian Albania, which stretched from south Dagestan to current day Azerbaijan. The Old Udi language is also called the Caucasian Albanian language and possibly corresponds to the "Gargarian" language identified by medieval Armenian historians. Modern Udi is known simply as Udi.

The language is spoken by about 4,000 people in the Azerbaijani village of Nij in Qabala rayon, in Oghuz rayon, as well as in parts of the North Caucasus in Russia. It is also spoken by ethnic Udis living in the villages of Debetavan, Bagratashen, Ptghavan, and Haghtanak in Tavush Province of northeastern Armenia and in the village of Zinobiani (former Oktomberi) in the Kvareli Municipality of the Kakheti province of Georgia.

Udi is endangered, classified as "severely endangered" by UNESCO's Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger.

Ĥ

Ĥ or ĥ is a consonant in Esperanto orthography, representing a voiceless velar fricative [x] or voiceless uvular fricative [χ]. Its name in Esperanto is ĥo (pronounced /xo/).

It is also used in the revised Demers/Blanchet/St Onge orthography for Chinook Jargon.In the case of the minuscule, some fonts place the circumflex centred above the entire base letter h, others over the riser of the letter, and others over the shoulder.

Ĥ is the eleventh letter of the Esperanto alphabet. Although it is written as hx and hh respectively in the x-system and h-system workarounds, it is normally written as H with a circumflex: ĥ.

Alphabets (list)
Letters (list)
Multigraphs
Keyboard layouts (list)
Standards
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