Mustafa İsmet İnönü (Turkish pronunciation: [isˈmet ˈinœny]; 24 September 1884 – 25 December 1973) was a Turkish general and statesman, who served as the second President of Turkey from 10 November 1938 to 27 May 1950, when his Republican People's Party was defeated in Turkey's second free elections. He also served as the first Chief of the General Staff from 1922 to 1924, and as the first Prime Minister after the declaration of the Republic, serving three terms: from 1923 to 1924, 1925 to 1937, and 1961 to 1965. As President, he was granted the official title of "Millî Şef" (National Chief).
When the 1934 Surname Law was adopted, Mustafa Kemal gave him a surname taken from İnönü, where he commanded the forces of Army of Grand National Assembly as the Minister of the Chief of the General Staff (Erkân-ı Harbiye-i Umumiye Reis Vekili) during the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922. Afterwards these battles became to be known as the First Battle of İnönü and Second Battle of İnönü.
|2nd President of Turkey|
11 November 1938 – 27 May 1950
|Prime Minister||Celal Bayar|
Ahmet Fikri Tüzer
|Preceded by||Mustafa Kemal Atatürk|
|Succeeded by||Celal Bayar|
|1st Prime Minister of Turkey|
20 November 1961 – 20 February 1965
|Preceded by||Emin Fahrettin Özdilek|
|Succeeded by||Suat Hayri Ürgüplü|
4 March 1925 – 25 October 1937
|President||Mustafa Kemal Atatürk|
|Preceded by||Ali Fethi Okyar|
|Succeeded by||Celal Bayar|
30 October 1923 – 22 November 1924
|President||Mustafa Kemal Atatürk|
|Preceded by||Ali Fethi Okyar (as Prime Minister of the Government of the Grand National Assembly)|
|Succeeded by||Ali Fethi Okyar|
|2nd Leader of the Republican People's Party|
10 November 1938 – 8 May 1972
|Preceded by||Mustafa Kemal Atatürk|
|Succeeded by||Bülent Ecevit|
|Chief of the General Staff of Turkey|
20 May 1920 – 3 August 1921
|Preceded by||Office established|
|Succeeded by||Fevzi Çakmak|
|Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkey|
26 October 1922 – 21 November 1924
|Prime Minister||Rauf Orbay|
Ali Fethi Okyar
|Preceded by||Yusuf Kemal Tengirşenk|
|Succeeded by||Şükrü Kaya|
|Member of the Grand National Assembly|
15 October 1961 – 20 November 1972
|Constituency||Malatya (1961, 1965, 1969)|
14 May 1950 – 27 May 1960
|Constituency||Malatya (1950, 1954, 1957)|
28 June 1923 – 10 November 1938
|Constituency||Edirne (1923, 1927, 1931, 1935)|
24 September 1884
İzmir, Aidin Vilayet, Ottoman Empire
|Died||25 December 1973 (aged 89)|
|Cause of death||Heart attack|
|Resting place||Anıtkabir, Ankara|
|Political party||Republican People's Party|
|Children||4, including Erdal İnönü|
|Allegiance|| Ottoman Empire (1903–1920)|
|Branch/service||Turkish Land Forces|
|Battles/wars||World War I|
Turkish War of Independence
İsmet İnönü was born in İzmir, Aidin Vilayet to Hacı Reşit (Turkish: [hadʒɯ ɾeʃit]) and Cevriye (Turkish: [dʒevɾije]) (later Cevriye Temelli), and was of Turkicized Kurdish descent on his father's side and of Turkish descent through his mother. Hacı Reşit was retired from the First Examinant Department of Legal Affairs Bureau of the War Ministry (Harbiye Nezareti Muhakemat Dairesi Birinci Mümeyyizliği), who was born in Malatya and a member of Kümüroğulları family of Bitlis. Cevriye was a daughter of Müderris (professor) Hasan Efendi who belonged to the ulema and was a member of a Turkish family of Razgrad. Due to his father's assignments, the family moved from one city to another. Thus, Ismet completed his primary education in Sivas and graduated Sivas Military Junior High School (Sivas Askerî Rüştiyesi) in 1894. And then he studied at Sivas School for Civil Servants (Sivas Mülkiye İdadisi) for a year.
Ismet graduated from the Imperial School of Military Engineering (Mühendishane-i Berrî-i Hümâyûn) in 1903 as gunnery officer, and received his first military assignment in the Ottoman Army. He joined the Committee of Union and Progress. He won his first military victories by suppressing two major revolts against the struggling Ottoman Empire, first in Rumelia and later in Yemen, whose leader was Yahya Muhammad Hamid ed-Din. He served as a military officer during the Balkan Wars on the Ottoman-Bulgarian front. During World War I, he served with the Ottoman military rank of Miralay (arbitrarily the equivalent of Colonel or Senior Colonel (Brigadier)) and worked under Mustafa Kemal Pasha during his assignments at the Caucasus and Palestine fronts.
During the war, on 13 April 1916, Ismet married Mevhibe, who was a daughter of an Ashraf (Eşraf) of Ziştovi (present day Svishtov) Zühtü Efendi. They had three children: Ömer, Erdal and Özden (married to Metin Toker).
After losing the Battle of Megiddo against General Edmund Allenby during the last days of World War I, he went to Constantinople (Istanbul) and was assigned Undersecretary of the Ministry of War and then General Secretary of the Documentation in the Military Council.
After the military occupation of Constantinople on 16 March 1920, he decided to pass to Anatolia to join the Turkish National Movement. He and his chief of staff Major Saffet (Arıkan) wore soldier uniform and left Maltepe in the evening of 19 March 1920 and arrived at Ankara on 9 April 1920.
He was appointed the commander of the Western Front of the Army of the Grand National Assembly (GNA), a position in which he remained during the Turkish War of Independence. He was promoted to the rank of Mirliva (arbitrarily the equivalent of Brigadier General or Major General; the most junior General rank with the title Pasha in the Ottoman and pre-1934 Turkish Army) after winning the First Battle of İnönü which took place between 9 and 11 January 1921. He also won the subsequent Second Battle of İnönü which was fought between 26 and 31 March 1921. During the Turkish War of Independence he was also a member of the GNA in Ankara.
İnönü was replaced by Mustafa Fevzi Pasha, who was also the Prime Minister and Minister of Defense at the time, as the Chief of Staff of the Army of the GNA after the Turkish forces lost major battles against the advancing Greek Army in July 1921, as a result of which the cities Afyonkarahisar, Kütahya and Eskişehir were temporarily lost. He participated as a staff officer (with the rank Brigadier General) to the later battles, until the final Turkish victory in September 1922.
The Lausanne conference convened in late 1922 to settle the terms of a new treaty that would take the place of the Treaty of Sèvres. Inönü became famous for his stubborn resolve in determining Ankara's position as the legitimate, sovereign government of Turkey. After delivering his position, Inönü turned off his hearing aid during the speeches of British foreign secretary Lord Curzon. When Curzon had finished, Inönü reiterated his position as if Curzon had never said a word.
İnönü later served as the Prime Minister of Turkey for several terms, maintaining the system that Mustafa Kemal had put in place. He acted after every major crisis (such as the rebellion of Sheikh Said or the attempted assassination in Izmir against Mustafa Kemal) to restore peace in the country.
He tried to manage the economy with heavy-handed government intervention, especially after the 1929 economic crisis, by implementing an economic plan inspired by the Five Year Plan of the Soviet Union. In doing so, he took much private property under government control. Due to his efforts, to this day, more than 70% of land in Turkey is still owned by the state.
Desiring a more liberal economic system, Atatürk dissolved the government of İnönü and appointed Celâl Bayar, the founder of the first Turkish commercial bank Türkiye İş Bankası, as Prime Minister.
After the death of Atatürk on 10 November 1938, İnönü was viewed as the most appropriate candidate to succeed him, and was elected the second President of the Republic of Turkey. He enjoyed the official title of "Millî Şef", i.e. "National Chief".
World War II broke out in the first year of his presidency, and both the Allies and the Axis pressured İnönü to bring Turkey into the war on their side. The Germans sent Franz von Papen to Ankara in April 1939 while the British sent Hughe Knatchbull-Hugessen and the French René Massigli. On 23 April 1939, Turkish Foreign Minister Şükrü Saracoğlu told Knatchbull-Hugessen of his nation's fears of Italian claims of the Mediterranean as Mare Nostrum and German control of the Balkans, and suggested an Anglo-Soviet-Turkish alliance as the best way of countering the Axis. In May 1939, during the visit of Maxime Weygand to Turkey, İnönü told the French Ambassador René Massigli that he believed that the best way of stopping Germany was an alliance of Turkey, the Soviet Union, France and Britain; that if such an alliance came into being, the Turks would allow Soviet ground and air forces onto their soil; and that he wanted a major programme of French military aid to modernize the Turkish armed forces. The signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact on 23 August 1939 drew Turkey away from the Allies; the Turks always believed that it was essential to have the Soviet Union as an ally to counter Germany, and thus the signing of the German-Soviet pact undercut completely the assumptions behind Turkish security policy. With the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, İnönü chose to be neutral in World War II as taking on Germany and the Soviet Union at the same time would be too much for Turkey, through he signed a treaty of alliance with Britain and France on 19 October 1939. It was only with France's defeat in June 1940 that İnönü abandoned the pro-Allied neutrality that he had followed since the beginning of the war. A major embarrassment for the Turks occurred in July 1940 when the Germans captured and published documents from the Quai d'Orsay in Paris showing the Turks were aware of Operation Pike as the Anglo-French plan in the winter of 1939-40 to bomb the oil fields in the Soviet Union from Turkey was codenamed, which was intended by Berlin to worsen relations between Ankara and Moscow. In turn, worsening relations between the Soviet Union and Turkey were intended to drive Turkey into the arms of the Reich. After the publication of the French documents relating to Operation Pike, İnönü had to fire Saracoğlu as Foreign Minister following Soviet complaints and signed an economic treaty with Germany that placed Turkey within the German economic sphere of influence, but İnönü would go no further towards the Axis.
In the first half of 1941, Germany which was intent upon invading the Soviet Union went out of its way to improve relations with Turkey as the Reich hoped for a benevolent Turkish neutrality when the German-Soviet war began. At the same time, the British had great hopes in the spring of 1941 when they dispatched an expeditionary force to Greece that İnönü could be persuaded to enter the war on the Allied side as the British leadership had high hopes of creating a Balkan front that would tie down German forces, and which thus led a major British diplomatic offensive with the Foreign Secretary Sir Anthony Eden visiting Ankara several times to meet with İnönü. İnönü always told Eden that the Turks would not join the British forces in Greece, and the Turks would only enter the war if Germany attacked Turkey. For his part, Papen offered İnönü parts of Greece if Turkey were to enter the war on the Axis side, an offer İnönü declined. In May 1941 when the Germans dispatched an expeditionary force to Iraq to fight against the British, İnönü refused Papen's request that the German forces be allowed transit rights to Iraq.
British Prime Minister Winston Churchill travelled to Ankara on 30 January 1943 for a conference with President İnönu, to urge Turkey's entry into the war on the allied side. Churchill met secretly with İnönü in January 1943, inside a railroad car at the Yenice Station near Adana. However, by December 4–6, 1943, İnönü felt confident enough about the outcome of the war, that he met openly with Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill at the Second Cairo Conference. Until 1941, both Roosevelt and Churchill had thought that Turkey's continuing neutrality would serve the interests of the Allies by blocking the Axis from reaching the strategic oil reserves of the Middle East. But the early victories of the Axis up to the end of 1942 caused Roosevelt and Churchill to re-evaluate a possible Turkish participation in the war on the side of the Allies. Turkey had maintained a decently-sized Army and Air Force throughout the war, and Churchill wanted the Turks to open a new front in the Balkans. Roosevelt, on the other hand, still believed that a Turkish attack would be too risky, and an eventual Turkish failure would have disastrous effects for the Allies.
İnönü knew very well the hardships which his country had suffered during decades of incessant war between 1908 and 1922 and was determined to keep Turkey out of another war as long as he could. The young Turkish Republic was still re-building, recovering from the losses due to earlier wars, and lacked any modern weapons and the infrastructure to enter a war to be fought along and possibly within its borders. İnönü based his neutrality policy during the Second World War on the premise that Western Allies and the Soviet Union would sooner or later have a falling out after the war. Thus, İnönu wanted assurances on financial and military aid for Turkey, as well as a guarantee that the United States and the United Kingdom would stand beside Turkey in the event of a Soviet invasion of the Turkish Straits after the war. In August 1944 İnönü broke off diplomatic relations with Germany and on 5 January 1945, İnönü severed diplomatic relations with Japan. Shortly afterwards, İnönü allowed Allied shipping to use the Turkish straits to send supplies to the Soviet Union and on 25 February 1945 he declared war on Germany and Japan.
The post-war tensions and arguments surrounding the Turkish Straits would come to be known as the Turkish Straits crisis. The fear of Soviet invasion and Joseph Stalin's unconcealed desire for Soviet military bases in the Turkish Straits eventually caused Turkey to give up its principle of neutrality in foreign relations and join NATO in February 1952.
Under international pressure to transform the country to a democratic state, İnönü presided over the infamous 1946 elections, where voting was carried out under the gaze of onlookers who could determine which voters had voted for which parties, and where secrecy prevailed as to the subsequent counting of votes. Free and fair national elections had to wait till 1950, and on that occasion İnönü's government was defeated.
In the 1950 campaign, the leading figures of the opposition Democrat Party used the following slogan: "Geldi İsmet, kesildi kısmet" ("Ismet arrived, [our] fortune left" ). İnönü presided over the peaceful transfer of power to the Democratic Party of Celâl Bayar and Adnan Menderes. For ten years he served as the leader of the opposition before returning to power as Prime Minister after the 1961 election, held after the military coup-d'etat in 1960.
Even though the pro-Menderes opposition was forbidden to contest the 1961 election (most of its leaders who were still alive were in prison), İnönü's forces still did not gain enough seats in the legislature to win a majority. Therefore they had to form coalition governments until 1965. İnönü lost both the 1965 and 1969 general elections to a much younger man, Süleyman Demirel, but he remained leader of the party till 1972, whereupon he was defeated by leadership rival Bülent Ecevit.
A highly educated man, İnönü was able to speak fluently Arabic, English, French and German in addition to his native Turkish. He died on 25 December 1973 of a heart attack, at the age of 89, and was interred opposite to Atatürk's mausoleum at Anıtkabir in Ankara.
| Chief of Turkish General Staff
Yusuf Kemal Tengirşenk
| Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkey
Ali Fethi Okyar
| Prime Minister of Turkey
Ali Fethi Okyar
Ali Fethi Okyar
| Prime Minister of Turkey
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
| President of Turkey
Emin Fahrettin Özdilek
| Prime Minister of Turkey
Suat Hayri Ürgüplü
|Party political offices|
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
| Leader of the Republican People's Party (CHP)
Events in the year 1959 in Turkey.26th government of Turkey
The 26th government of Turkey (20 November 1961 – 25 June 1962), also known as the first coalition government of Turkey and the eight government of İsmet İnönü, was the first civilian government following the 1960 Turkish coup d'état. The prime minister, İsmet İnönü, was the leader of the Republican People's Party (CHP) and a former president of Turkey. The CHP was joined in coalition by the Justice Party (AP).27th government of Turkey
The 27th government of Turkey (25 June 1962 – 25 December 1963) is the second coalition government in the history of Turkey. The prime minister, İsmet İnönü, was the leader of Republican People's Party (CHP) and a former president.28th government of Turkey
The 28th government of Turkey (25 December 1963 – 20 February 1965) is the third coalition government of Turkey. The prime minister, İsmet İnönü, was the leader of Republican People's Party (CHP) and a former president.7th government of Turkey
The 7th government of Turkey (5 May 1931 – 1 March 1935) was a government in the history of Turkey. It is also called the sixth İnönü government.8th government of Turkey
The 8th government of Turkey (1 March 1935 – 1 November 1937) was a government in the history of Turkey. It is also called the seventh İnönü government.Armistice of Mudanya
The Armistice of Mudanya (in Turkish: Mudanya Mütarekesi) was an agreement between Turkey (the Grand National Assembly of Turkey) on the one hand, and Italy, France and Britain on the other hand, signed in the Ottoman town of Mudanya, in the province of Bursa, on 11 October 1922. The Kingdom of Greece acceded to the armistice on 14 October 1922.Cebeci İnönü Stadium
Cebeci İnönü Stadium (Turkish: Cebeci İnönü Stadı) is a multi-purpose stadium in Ankara, Turkey. It is currently used mostly for football matches and was the home stadium of Hacettepespor. The stadium holds 15,000 people and was built in 1967. It was named after the Turkish statesman İsmet İnönü.Erdal İnönü
Erdal İnönü (6 June 1926 – 31 October 2007) was a Turkish theoretical physicist and politician, who served as the interim Prime Minister of Turkey between 16 May and 25 June 1993. He also served as the Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey from 1991 to 1993 and as the Minister of Foreign Affairs from March to October 1995. He served as the leader of the Social Democracy Party (SODEP) from 1983 to 1985 and later the Social Democratic Populist Party (SHP) from 1986 to 1993. He was the son of the 2nd President of Turkey, İsmet İnönü.
İnönü initially founded the SODEP in 1983 with the intention of contesting the 1983 general election. However, the National Security Council that had been established following the 1980 military coup banned İnönü from standing for office. Standing down as chairman in order to be replaced by a politician that could seek office, İnönü was succeeded by Cezmi Kartay. However, SODEP was banned completely from contesting the election, resulting in İnönü taking over as leader for a second time shortly after. His party contested the 1984 local elections and came second with 23.4% of the vote. SODEP merged with the People's Party in 1985 and İnönü became the leader of the new Social Democratic Populist Party (SHP) in 1986. In the 1986 parliamentary by-elections, the SHP came third with 22.7% of the vote and İnönü was elected as a Member of Parliament for İzmir. He was the only successful SHP candidate.
Following the 1991 general election, the SHP formed a coalition with Süleyman Demirel's True Path Party (DYP) and İnönü became Deputy Prime Minister. He briefly served as the acting Prime Minister in 1993 after Demirel was elected President. After the DYP elected Tansu Çiller as their leader and she formed a government, İnönü continued as Deputy Prime Minister until he resigned as party leader in 1993. He later served as Foreign Minister in 1995 until he stepped down as an MP in the 1995 general election.First Battle of İnönü
The First Battle of İnönü (Turkish: Birinci İnönü Muharebesi) took place between 6 and 11 January 1921 near İnönü in Hüdavendigâr Vilayet (present-day Eskişehir Province, Turkey) during the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22), also known as the western front of the larger Turkish War of Independence. This was the first battle for the Army of the Grand National Assembly that was newly built standing army (Düzenli ordu) in place of irregular troops.Macit Özcan Sports Complex
The Macit Özcan Sports Complex (Turkish: Macit Özcan Spor Kompleksi) is a multi-sport complex located at Yenişehir district in Mersin, Turkey. It is named after Macit Özcan, the mayor of Greater Mersin.
The complex is situated to the west of İsmet İnönü Boulevard. Its bird's flight distance to Mediterranean Sea coast is about 4.5 km (2.8 mi) and to Müftü River is 2 km (1.2 mi). The Nevin Yanıt Athletics Complex is to the south of Macit Özcan Complex.
Built on an area of 76,000 m2 (820,000 sq ft), the complex consists of three football fields, three tennis courts, three basketball courts and one Olympic-size and two smaller swimming pools. There is also an aerobic center and a gymnasium for the visitors in addition to a hotel, a restaurant and a conference hall at the site.During the 2013 Mediterranean Games, the complex hosted the water polo events on June 19–26.Malatya İnönü Stadium
Malatya İnönü Stadium (Turkish: Malatya İnönü Stadı) is a multi-purpose stadium in Malatya, Turkey. It is currently used mostly for football matches and was the home ground of Malatyaspor, currently playing in the Malatya Arena. The stadium holds 13,000 people. It was named after the Turkish statesman İsmet İnönü.Mevhibe İnönü
Mevhibe İnönü (September 22, 1897 – February 29, 1992) was the First Lady of Turkey from November 11, 1938 until May 27, 1950 during the presidency of her husband İsmet İnönü.Pembe Köşk
Pembe Köşk (Pink Villa) is an Ottoman-era house in the Çankaya district of Ankara, Turkey, which is the city’s oldest villa and was the home of Turkish President İsmet İnönü from 1925 to 1973.İnönü purchased the villa in 1924 and it was used for strategic meetings by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, as well as concerts, gallery openings, pool and chess tournaments and the city’s first ball, on February 22, 1927.
The building now houses a museum of İnönü’s personal belongings and diplomatic photographs which is occasionally opened to the public.İnönü Military Quarter and War Museum
İnönü Military Quarter and War Museum (Turkish: İnönü Karargah Binası ve Savaş Müzesi) is a military and war museum in Turkey.
It is situated in İnönü ilçe (district) of Eskişehir Province at 39°48′53″N 30°08′38″E. İnönü ilçe is 31 kilometres (19 mi) west of Eskişehir.İsmet İnönü Boulevard
İsmet İnönü Boulevard (Turkish: İsmet İnönü Bulvarı) is a major avenue in Mersin, Turkey. It is named after İsmet İnönü (1884-1973), the second president of Turkish Republic between 1938 and 1950.İsmet İnönü Boulevard (Ankara)
İsmet İnönü Boulevard (a.k.a. Eskişehir Boulevard) is a busy boulevard in Ankara, Turkey. The boulevard is named after İsmet İnönü, the second president of Turkey and one of the pioneers of the Turkish War of Independence.İsmet İnönü House Museum
İsmet İnönü House Museum is a house museum in Istanbul, Turkey.
The house is in Heybeliada, the second largest island of the Adalar (Prince Islands) in İstanbul at 40°52′41″N 29°05′36″E. The house, then known as Mavromatis Mansion, was built in the 19th century.In 1924, it was rented by the former prime minister İsmet Pasha, during the 3rd government of Turkey, in which he left his seat to Fethi Bey. However, in 1925, he returned to his former post. Beginning by 1925, the house was used by İsmet Pasha's family as a summer residence. In 1934, İsmet Pasha who has adopted the surname "İnönü" bought the house. The household furniture was donated by Atatürk, the president. In 1937, İsmet İnönü resigned from his post, and began living mostly in Heybeliada. The next year however, he was elected as the president, and began spending the vacations in other places, so the house lost its past liveliness. When ismet İnönü lost the 1950 general elections, the house once again returned to its former liveliness.İsmet İnönü died on 25 December 1973. The family kept the house. Finally, it was decided to transform the house into a house museum, keeping the original furniture. The garden of the house is used by the Museum of the Princes' Islands.İsmet İnönü Stadium
İsmet İnönü Stadium (Turkish: Beşiktaş Belediyesi İsmet İnönü Spor Tesisi), formerly Çilekli Football Field, is a ootball stadium of the Beşiktaş municipapity at 4. Levent neighborhood of Beşiktaş district in Istanbul, Turkey.
The stadium was renamed to onor Turkish statesman İsmet İnönü (1884–1973) by a decision of the Beşiktaş municipal council in April 2018. The venue is home to football matches of the Turkish Amateur Football Leagues.
|Government of the Grand |
|Republic of Turkey|
Italics denote acting prime ministers.