Ĝ

Ĝ or ĝ (G circumflex) is a consonant in Esperanto orthography, representing a voiced postalveolar affricate (either palato-alveolar or retroflex), and is equivalent to a voiced postalveolar affricate /dʒ/ or a voiced retroflex affricate /dʐ/.

While Esperanto orthography uses a diacritic for its four postalveolar consonants, as do the Latin-based Slavic alphabets, the base letters are Romano-Germanic. Ĝ is based on the letter g, which has this sound in English and Italian before the vowels i and e (with some exceptions in English), to better preserve the shape of borrowings from those languages (such as ĝenerala from general) than Slavic đ would.

Ĝ is the ninth letter of the Esperanto alphabet. Although it is written as gx and gh respectively in the x-system and h-system workarounds, it is normally written as G with a circumflex: ĝ.

GwithCircumflex
Doulos SIL glyphs for Majuscule and minuscule ĝ.

Uses of Ĝ in other languages

In Haida, a language isolate, the letter ĝ was sometimes used to represent pharyngeal voiced fricative /ʕ/

In Aleut, an Eskimo-Aleut language, ĝ represents a voiced uvular fricative /ʁ/. The corresponding voiceless Aleut sound is represented by .

In Dutch, the letter ĝ is used in some phrase books and dictionaries for pronunciation help. It represents a plosive [ɡ], because g is pronounced as a fricative /ɣ/ in Dutch.

In some transcriptions of Sumerian, ĝ is used to represent the velar nasal /ŋ/.

Character mappings

Character Ĝ ĝ
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER G WITH CIRCUMFLEX LATIN SMALL LETTER G WITH CIRCUMFLEX
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 284 U+011C 285 U+011D
UTF-8 196 156 C4 9C 196 157 C4 9D
Numeric character reference Ĝ Ĝ ĝ ĝ

See also

Acceleration (human development)

Acceleration in human development process is the phenomenon which has been registered in many populations around the world. This applies equally to the growth of certain anthropometric parameters and the speed of reaching sexual maturity. These facts illustrate the results of secular changes in body height and appearance of the first menstruation (menarche).Increases in human stature are a main indicator of improvements in the average health of populations. The newest data set for the average height of adult male birth cohorts, from the mid-nineteenth century to 1980, in 15 European countries was studied (in the populations listed).

During a century average height increased by 11 cm representing a dramatic improvement of this phenomenon. The apparent acceleration of body height occurred during the Ĝ.In the mid-nineteenth century young European women's menarche occurred at the average age of 16.5 years. One hundred years later, this age was reduced to under 12 years.

Increase in adult height of birth cohorts (cm/decade)

Circumflex

The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin and Greek scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus "bent around"—a translation of the Greek περισπωμένη (perispōménē). The circumflex in the Latin script is chevron-shaped ( ˆ ), while the Greek circumflex may be displayed either like a tilde ( ˜ ) or like an inverted breve ( ̑ ).

In English the circumflex, like other diacritics, is sometimes retained on loanwords that used it in the original language (for example, crème brûlée).

The diacritic is also used in mathematics, where it is typically called a hat or roof or house.

Code page 853

Code page 853 (also known as CP 853 or IBM 00853) is a code page used under DOS to write Turkish, Maltese, and Esperanto. It includes all characters from ISO 8859-3.

Domari language

Domari is an endangered Indic language, spoken by older Dom people scattered across the Middle East and North Africa. The language is reported to be spoken as far north as Azerbaijan and as far south as central Sudan, in Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Syria and Lebanon. Based on the systematicity of sound changes, we know with a fair degree of certainty that the names Domari and Romani derive from the Indic word ḍom. The language itself actually derives from an Indo-Aryan language. It shares many similarities to Punjabi and Rajasthani, two languages that originated in India. The Arabs referred to them as nawar as they were a nomadic people that originally immigrated to the Middle East from India.Domari is also known as "Middle Eastern Romani", "Tsigene", "Luti", or "Mehtar". There is no standard written form. In the Arab world, it is occasionally written using the Arabic script and has many Arabic and Persian loanwords. Descriptive work was done by Yaron Matras, who published a comprehensive grammar of the language along with an historical and dialectological evaluation of secondary sources (Matras 2012).

Domari is an endangered language and is currently being shifted away from in younger generations, according to Yaron Matras. In certain areas such as Jerusalem, only about 20% of these Dom people, known as “Middle Eastern Gypsies”, speak the Domari language in everyday interactions. The language is mainly spoken by the elderly in the Jerusalem community. The younger generation are more influenced by Arabic, therefore most only know basic words and phrases. The modern-day community of Doms in Jerusalem was established by the nomadic people deciding to settle inside the Old City from 1940 until it came under Israeli administration in 1967 (Matras 1999).

EBCDIC 905

IBM code page 905 (CCSID 905) is an EBCDIC code page with full Latin-3-charset used in IBM mainframes.

Esperantido

An Esperantido is a constructed language derived from Esperanto. Esperantido originally referred to the language which is now known as Ido. The word Esperantido is derived from Esperanto plus the affix -id- (-ido), which means a "child (born to a parent), young (of an animal) or offspring" (ido). Hence, Esperantido literally means an "offspring or descendant of Esperanto".

A number of Esperantidos have been created to address a number of perceived flaws or weaknesses in Esperanto, or in other Esperantidos, attempting to improve their lexicon, grammar, pronunciation, and orthography. Others were created as language games or to add variety to Esperanto literature.

Esperanto Braille

Esperanto Braille is the braille alphabet of the Esperanto language. One Esperanto Braille magazine, Aŭroro, has been published since 1920, and another, Esperanta Ligilo, since 1904.

Esperanto orthography

Esperanto is written in a Latin-script alphabet of twenty-eight letters, with upper and lower case. This is supplemented by punctuation marks and by various logograms, such as the numerals 0–9, currency signs such as $, and mathematical symbols.

Twenty-two of the letters are identical in form to letters of the English alphabet (q, w, x, and y being omitted). The remaining six have diacritic marks, ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ, and ŭ (that is, c, g, h, j, and s circumflex, and u breve).

In handwritten Esperanto, the diacritics pose no problem. However, since they do not appear on standard alphanumeric keyboards, various alternative methods have been devised for representing them in printed and typed text. The original method was a set of digraphs now known as the "h-system", but with the rise of computer word processing, the so-called "x-system" has become equally popular. These systems are described below. However, with the advent of Unicode, the need for such work-arounds has lessened.

Esperanto phonology

Esperanto is a constructed international auxiliary language. The creator of Esperanto, L. L. Zamenhof, illustrated Esperanto pronunciation by comparing its letters with their equivalents in several major European languages and declaring a principle of "one letter, one sound".

With over a century of use, Esperanto has developed a phonological norm, including accepted details of phonetics, phonotactics, and intonation, so that it is now possible to speak of proper Esperanto pronunciation and properly formed words independently of the languages originally used to describe Esperanto. This norm diverges only minimally from the original ideal of "one letter, one sound"; that is, it accepts only minor allophonic variation.Before Esperanto phonotactics became fixed, foreign words were adopted with spellings that violated the apparent intentions of Zamenhof and the norms that would develop later, such as poŭpo ('poop deck'), ŭato ('Watt'), and matĉo ('sports match'). Many of these coinages have proven to be unstable, and have either fallen out of use or been replaced with pronunciations more in keeping with the developing norms, such as pobo for poŭpo, vato for ŭato, and maĉo for matĉo. On the other hand, the word jida ('Yiddish'), which was also sometimes criticized on phonotactical grounds but had been used by Zamenhof, is well established.

Fourier transform

The Fourier transform (FT) decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the frequencies (or pitches) of its constituent notes. The Fourier transform of a function of time is itself a complex-valued function of frequency, whose absolute value represents the amount of that frequency present in the original function, and whose complex argument is the phase offset of the basic sinusoid in that frequency. The Fourier transform is called the frequency domain representation of the original signal. The term Fourier transform refers to both the frequency domain representation and the mathematical operation that associates the frequency domain representation to a function of time. The Fourier transform is not limited to functions of time, but in order to have a unified language, the domain of the original function is commonly referred to as the time domain. For many functions of practical interest, one can define an operation that reverses this: the inverse Fourier transformation, also called Fourier synthesis, of a frequency domain representation combines the contributions of all the different frequencies to recover the original function of time. In image processing the notion of a time domain is replaced by that of a spatial domain where the intensity of a signal is identified by its spatial position rather than at any point in time.

Linear operations performed in one domain (time or frequency) have corresponding operations in the other domain, which are sometimes easier to perform. The operation of differentiation in the time domain corresponds to multiplication by the frequency, so some differential equations are easier to analyze in the frequency domain. Also, convolution in the time domain corresponds to ordinary multiplication in the frequency domain. Concretely, this means that any linear time-invariant system, such as a filter applied to a signal, can be expressed relatively simply as an operation on frequencies. After performing the desired operations, transformation of the result can be made back to the time domain. Harmonic analysis is the systematic study of the relationship between the frequency and time domains, including the kinds of functions or operations that are "simpler" in one or the other, and has deep connections to many areas of modern mathematics.

Functions that are localized in the time domain have Fourier transforms that are spread out across the frequency domain and vice versa, a phenomenon known as the uncertainty principle. The critical case for this principle is the Gaussian function, of substantial importance in probability theory and statistics as well as in the study of physical phenomena exhibiting normal distribution (e.g., diffusion). The Fourier transform of a Gaussian function is another Gaussian function. Joseph Fourier introduced the transform in his study of heat transfer, where Gaussian functions appear as solutions of the heat equation.

The Fourier transform can be formally defined as an improper Riemann integral, making it an integral transform, although this definition is not suitable for many applications requiring a more sophisticated integration theory. For example, many relatively simple applications use the Dirac delta function, which can be treated formally as if it were a function, but the justification requires a mathematically more sophisticated viewpoint. The Fourier transform can also be generalized to functions of several variables on Euclidean space, sending a function of 3-dimensional space to a function of 3-dimensional momentum (or a function of space and time to a function of 4-momentum). This idea makes the spatial Fourier transform very natural in the study of waves, as well as in quantum mechanics, where it is important to be able to represent wave solutions as functions of either space or momentum and sometimes both. In general, functions to which Fourier methods are applicable are complex-valued, and possibly vector-valued. Still further generalization is possible to functions on groups, which, besides the original Fourier transform on ℝ or ℝn (viewed as groups under addition), notably includes the discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT, group = ℤ), the discrete Fourier transform (DFT, group = ℤ mod N) and the Fourier series or circular Fourier transform (group = S1, the unit circle ≈ closed finite interval with endpoints identified). The latter is routinely employed to handle periodic functions. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) is an algorithm for computing the DFT.

G

G (named gee ) is the 7th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

GX

GX, Gx, or gx may refer to:

Airlines:

Pacificair (IATA airline designator)

Air Ontario (IATA airline designator)

Guangxi Beibu Gulf Airlines (IATA airline designator)In arts and entertainment:

GX (gaming expo), a non-gambling game convention in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

GX Jupitter-Larsen, an American artist and writer

F-Zero GX, a racing video game for the Nintendo GameCube console

Yu-Gi-Oh! GX, an anime seriesOther uses:

Gx or gx, a digraph in the Esperanto x-system orthography, representing the sound [d͡ʒ], normally spelled as Ĝ or ĝ in the Esperanto alphabet

GX, the on-line policy interface in the GPRS core network

GX (rocket), a Japanese launch vehicle

Lexus GX, a sport utility vehicle made by Lexus

Gerrards Cross, a town in Buckinghamshire, England

Global Xpress, a satellite communication system by Inmarsat

Guangxi, an autonomous region of China (Guobiao abbreviation GX)

Ge with inverted breve

Ge with inverted breve (Г̑ г̑; italics: Г̑ г̑) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

Ge with inverted breve is used in the Aleut language, where it represents the voiced uvular fricative /ʁ/. It corresponds to Latin letter G with circumflex (Ĝ ĝ Ĝ ĝ).

Gh (digraph)

Gh is a digraph found in many languages.

Latin Extended-A

Latin Extended-A is a Unicode block and is the third block of the Unicode standard. It encodes Latin letters from the Latin ISO character sets other than Latin-1 (which is already encoded in the Latin-1 Supplement block) and also legacy characters from the ISO 6937 standard.

The Latin Extended-A block has been in the Unicode Standard since version 1.0, with its entire character repertoire, except for the Latin Small Letter Long S, which was added during unification with ISO 10646 in version 1.1.

Mac OS Maltese/Esperanto encoding

Mac OS Maltese/Esperanto, called MacOS Esperanto in older sources, is a character encoding for Esperanto, Maltese and Turkish created by Michael Everson on August 15 1997, based on the Mac OS Turkish encoding. It is used in his fonts, but not on official Mac OS fonts.ISO/IEC 8859-3 supports the same languages with a different layout.

Proto-Esperanto

Proto-Esperanto (Esperanto: Pra-Esperanto) is the modern term for any of the stages in the evolution of L. L. Zamenhof's language project, prior to the publication of Unua Libro in 1887.

Ğ

Ğ (g with breve) is a Latin letter found in the Turkish and Azerbaijani alphabets as well as the Latin alphabets of Laz, Crimean Tatar and Tatar. It traditionally represented the voiced velar fricative /ɣ/ or (in case of Tatar) the similar voiced uvular fricative /ʁ/ in all those languages. However, in Turkish, the phoneme has in most cases been reduced to a silent letter, serving as a vowel-lengthener.

Ǧ

Ǧ/ǧ (G with caron, Unicode code points U+01E6 and U+01E7) is a letter used in several Latin orthographies.

In transliteration of South Azeri, ǧ represents /ɣ/, the voiced velar fricative.

In the Romany and Skolt Sami languages, it represents the palatalized g [ɟ͡ʝ].

It has also been used in Czech (and Slovak) orthographies until the middle of the 19th century to represent the

consonant /ɡ/, whereas "g" stood for /j/.

In a romanization of Pashto, ǧ is used to represent [ɣ] (equivalent to غ).

In the Berber Latin alphabet, ǧ is pronounced [d͡ʒ] as an English J, like in Jimmy.

In Lakota, ǧ represents voiced uvular fricative /ʁ/.

In DIN 31635 Arabic transliteration it represents the letter ﺝ (ǧīm).

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