Đakovo concentration camp

The Đakovo concentration camp (Croatian: Đakovo koncentracioni logor) was a concentration camp established in 1941 in Đakovo, Independent State of Croatia (modern-day Croatia). It was established in the deserted flour mill Cereale owned by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Đakovo. The camp was established on 1 December 1941 mainly for Jewish women and children, including some Serb girls. It was operational until its disestablishment on 7 July 1942. Around 3,000 women and children were its inmates and subjected to beatings, rapes, dog attacks and death from sickness and starvation. At least 650 women and children died in it. During the camp's disestablishment, the remaining inmates were transported to other camps and killed.

Đakovo concentration camp
Concentration camp
Peace in Heaven 2013 Đakovo Croatia
Peace in Heaven by Dina Merhav, the monument commemorating the Holocaust victims from Đakovo concentration camp
LocationĐakovo, Independent State of Croatia (modern-day Croatia)
Operated byIndependent State of Croatia
Original usethe mill Cerereale owned by local Catholic bishopric
Operational1 December 1941 - 7 July 1942
InmatesJewish women and children
Number of inmates3,000
Killedat least 516 or 650

Establishment

The Diocese of Đakovo (Bishop Akšamović, canon Dr. Rogić and Ustasha Asandić, the manager of the diocesan estates) did not give its approval for the establishment of the camp in their flour mill with the explanation that the Diocese needed the mill.[1] In spite of their opposition, Ustaše established concentration camp in early December 1941[2] mostly for Jewish women and children, 3,000 of them being inmates of the camp.[3]

Inmates

The first two transports of inmates brought 1,830 Jewish women and children and 50 Serb girls to Đakovo camp, followed by transport of about 1,200 women and children transported from Stara Gradiška camp on 24 February 1942.[4]

One fifth of inmates were registered as victims of this camp, most of them died after Ustaše took over complete control of the camp[5] on 29 March 1942.[6] They began a terrible terror of camps inmates who were subjected to beatings, death from sickness, starvation, Ustaše threw bread crumbs among starving children and set guard dogs to attack them,[7] girls were raped and killed.[8][9] More than 516 or 650[10] corpses of people who died in Đakovo concentration camp are buried in Đakovo cemetery.[11]

Ustaše forcibly transported hundreds of people infected with typhus from Stara Gradiška to Đakovo camp to spread the disease.[12]

Disestablishment

The camp was disestablished in period 15 June - 7 July 1942.[13] The disestablishment was organized by Jozo Matković, Ustaše Lieutenant. The remaining inmates numbering between 2,000 and 3,000 Jewish women and children were transported to Jasenovac and killed.[14]

See also

References

  1. ^ (Bulajić 2002, p. 150) The Djakovo Diocese, headed by Bishop Antun Akšamović opposed the use of its mill as a camp for internees and did everything in its power to prevent the establishment of the camp. When the representatives of the Osijek Police Department came to the Djakovo Diocese together with the representatives of the Jewish Community in Osijek to discuss this issue, Bishop Akšamović, canon Dr. Rogic and Ustasha Commander Asandic395, an engineer who managed the diocesan estates, energetically dismissed the pleas of the delegation for allowing the mill to be used to accommodate Jews and set up a camp, with the explanation that the Diocese needed those premises.
  2. ^ (Colić 1973, p. 384): "Logor u Djakovu osnovan je početkom decembra 1941"
  3. ^ (Jelić-Butić 1977, p. 186): "U prosincu 1941. osnovan je logor u Đakovu, namijenjen prvenstveno židovskim ženama i djeci, kojih je bilo oko 3.000."
  4. ^ (Bulatović 1990, p. 73): "U prva dva transporta stiglo je u logor Đakovo 1830 jevrejskih žena i djece i 50 srpskih djevojaka."
  5. ^ (Centar 1984, p. 217): " Broj evidentiranih logorskih žrtava sahranjenih na Jevrejskom groblju u Đakovu iznosio je peti dio od ukupnog broja zatočenih. Uzme li se u obzir da je najveći dio logorašica stradao neposredno nakon što su ustaše preuzele upravu logora, ..."
  6. ^ (Švob 2004, p. 318): "Mjesec dana nakon dolaska transporta iz Stare Gradiške, 29.3.1942. ustaše preuzimaju logor."
  7. ^ (Council 1998, p. 69): "Often the children were subjected to whatever cruelty the whim of the Ustashi dictated. In the Djakovo camp, the Ustashi amused themselves by throwing bread crumbs among the starving children and then setting guard dogs on them."
  8. ^ (Švob 2004, p. 318): "Nastao je strašan teror, premlaćivanje, umiranje od bolesti, izgladnjivanje, napadanje djece psima, prisiljavanje ....."
  9. ^ (Bulajić 2002, p. 174): "The second phase of the Djakovo camp, where after a short while the number of prisoners reached around three thousand, which was far beyond available space, was launched on 24 February 1942, when the Ustasha took full control of the camp. The treatment of prisoners was real hell."
  10. ^ (ABSEES 1973, p. 267):" JEWS Some 65O women and children, buried in the Djakovo Jewish cemetery, died in the local ustasi concentration camp between December 19^1 and June 19^2, deported there mainly from other towns of Bosnia and Herzegovina."
  11. ^ (Bulatović 1990, p. 74)
  12. ^ (Arsdale 2006, p. 72): "hundreds of typhus infected inmates from the Stara Gradiska camp were forcibly transported to another camp near Djakovo so as to spread the infection."
  13. ^ (Goldstein 2001, p. 324): "U razdoblju od 15. lipnja do 7. srpnja 1942. likvidiran je koncentracioni logor u Đakovu"
  14. ^ (Basta 1986, p. 176): "Posebno ističem da je u početku ljeta izvršena u Jasenovcu likvidacija logorg Đakovo. Tom je likvidacijom rukovodio Joso Matković, ustaški poručnik. Kod te likvidacije logora Đakovo računam da je pobijeno oko 2-3 hiljade Židovki i njihove ..."

Sources

Coordinates: 45°11′01″N 18°14′37″E / 45.1836°N 18.2436°E

Aloysius Stepinac

Aloysius Viktor Stepinac (Croatian: Alojzije Viktor Stepinac, 8 May 1898 – 10 February 1960) was a Croatian prelate of the Catholic Church. A cardinal, Stepinac served as Archbishop of Zagreb from 1937 until his death, a period which included the fascist rule of the Ustaše over the Axis puppet state the Independent State of Croatia (Croatian: Nezavisna Država Hrvatska or NDH) from 1941 to 1945 during World War II. He was tried by the communist Yugoslav government after the war and convicted of treason and collaboration with the Ustaše regime. The trial was depicted in the West as a typical communist "show trial", biased against the archbishop; In a verdict that polarized public opinion both in Yugoslavia and beyond, the Yugoslav authorities found him guilty on the charge of high treason (for collaboration with the fascist Ustaše regime), as well as complicity in the forced conversions of Orthodox Serbs to Catholicism. He was sentenced to 16 years in prison, but served only five at Lepoglava before being transferred to house arrest with his movements confined to his home parish of Krašić.

In 1952 he was designated for elevation to cardinal by Pope Pius XII. He was unable to participate in the 1958 conclave due to the house arrest to which he had been sentenced. On 10 February 1960, still under confinement in Krasic, Stepinac died of polycythemia and other illnesses he contracted while imprisoned. On 3 October 1998, Pope John Paul II declared him a martyr and beatified him before 500,000 Croatians in Marija Bistrica near Zagreb.His record during World War II, conviction, and subsequent beatification remain controversial. On 22 July 2016, the Zagreb County Court annulled his post-war conviction due to "gross violations of current and former fundamental principles of substantive and procedural criminal law". However, some claim the trial against A. Stepinac was "carried out with proper legal procedure".Stella Alexander, author of The Triple Myth, a sympathetic biography of Stepinac, writes about him that "Two things stand out. He feared Communism above all (especially above fascism); and he found it hard to grasp that anything beyond the boundaries of Croatia, always excepting the Holy See, was quite real. ... He lived in the midst of apocalyptic events, bearing responsibilities which he had not sought. ... In the end one is left feeling that he was not quite great enough for his role. Given his limitations he behaved very well, certainly much better than most of his own people, and he grew in spiritual stature during the course of his long ordeal."Croatian historian Jozo Tomasevich wrote that while Stepinac is to be commended for his actions on behalf of individuals and groups, as well as his general proclamations of human rights, Stepinac's failure to publicly condemn the genocide against the Serbs, “cannot be defended from the standpoint of humanity, justice and common decency”. The historian Robert McCormick states, “for all the Archbishop’s hand wringing, he continued to be a tacit participant in the Independent State of Croatia (NDH). He repeatedly appeared in public with the Poglavnik (the Ustaše leader Ante Pavelić), and issued Te Deum's on the anniversary of the NDH’s creation. His failure to publicly denounce the Ustaše's atrocities in the name of the NDH, was tantamount to accepting Pavelić's policies".

Ljubo Miloš

Ljubomir "Ljubo" Miloš (25 February 1919 – 20 August 1948) was a Croatian public official who was a member of the Ustaše of the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during World War II. He served as commandant of the Jasenovac concentration camp on several occasions and was responsible for various atrocities committed there during the war. He fled Yugoslavia in May 1945 and sought refuge in Austria. In 1947, he returned to Yugoslavia with the intention of starting an anti-communist uprising. He was soon arrested by Yugoslav authorities and charged with war crimes. Miloš was found guilty on all counts and hanged in August 1948.

Đakovo

Đakovo (Hungarian: Diakovár, German: Djakowar) is a town in the region of Slavonia, Croatia. Đakovo is the centre of the fertile and rich Đakovo region (Croatian: Đakovština [d͡ʑakǒːʋʃtina]).

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