Ă

Ă (upper case) or ă (lower case), usually referred to in English as A-breve, is a letter used in standard Romanian language, Vietnamese language and Chuvash language orthographies. In Romanian, it is used to represent the mid-central unrounded vowel, while in Vietnamese it represents the short a sound. It is the second letter of both the Romanian, Vietnamese, and the pre-1972 Malaysian alphabets, after A.

Ă/ă is also used in several languages for transliteration of Bulgarian letter Ъ/ъ.

A with breve

Romanian

The sound represented in Romanian by ă is a mid-central vowel /ə/, i.e. schwa. Unlike in English, Catalan and French but like in Indonesian, Bulgarian, Albanian and Afrikaans, the vowel can be stressed. There are words in which it is the only vowel, such as "măr" /mər/ (apple) or "văd" /vəd/ (I see). Additionally, some words that also contain other vowels can have the stress on ă like "cărțile" /ˈkərt͡sile/ (the books) and "odăi" /oˈdəj/ (rooms).

Vietnamese

Ă is the 2nd letter of the Vietnamese alphabet and represents /a/. Because Vietnamese is a tonal language this letter may have any one of the 5 tonal symbols above or below it (or even no accent at all, since the Vietnamese first tone is identified by the lack of accent marks). See Vietnamese phonology.

  • Ằ ằ
  • Ắ ắ
  • Ẳ ẳ
  • Ẵ ẵ
  • Ặ ặ

Malay

The sound represented in pre-1972 Malaysian orthography by ă is a vowel. It occurred only in the final syllable of the root word such "mată" /matə/ (eye). The letter was replaced in 1972 with a in the New Rumi Spelling.

Pronunciation respelling for English

In some systems for Pronunciation respelling for English including American Heritage Dictionary notation, ă represents the short A sound, /æ/.

Character mappings

Character ă Ă
Unicode name LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH BREVE LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH BREVE
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 259 U+0103 258 U+0102
UTF-8 196 131 C4 83 196 130 C4 82
Numeric character reference ă ă Ă Ă
ISO 8859-1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 14, 15, 16 259 103 258 102

See also

A with breve (Cyrillic)

A with breve (Ӑ ӑ; italics: Ӑ ӑ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. In all its forms it looks exactly like the Latin letter A with breve (Ă ă Ă ă).

It is used in the Chuvash and Romanian alphabets.

Breve

A breve ( (listen), less often (listen); French: [bʁɛv] (listen); neuter form of the Latin brevis “short, brief”) is the diacritic mark ˘, shaped like the bottom half of a circle. As used in Ancient Greek, it is also called vrachy, or brachy. It resembles the caron (the wedge or háček in Czech) but is rounded; the caron has a sharp tip.

Compare caron:

Ǎ ǎ Ě ě Ǐ ǐ Ǒ ǒ Ǔ ǔversus breve:

Ă ă Ĕ ĕ Ĭ ĭ Ŏ ŏ Ŭ ŭ

Code page 912

Code page 912 (also known as CP 912, IBM 00912) is a code page used under IBM AIX and DOS to write the Albanian, Bosnian, Croatian, Czech, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, and Sorbian languages. It is an extension of ISO/IEC 8859-2.

EBCDIC 036

IBM code page 36 (CCSID 36) is an EBCDIC code page used in IBM mainframes in Romania to support the Romanian language.

EBCDIC 258

IBM code page 258 (CCSID 258) is an EBCDIC code page used in IBM mainframes.

These code values can be used for the following languages:

Afrikaans

Albanian

Corsican

Dutch (IJ/ij typed as two letters)

English

French (without Œœ and Ÿÿ)

German

Italian

Occitan

Romanian

Swedish

Turkish

EBCDIC 330

IBM code page 330 (CCSID 330) is an EBCDIC code page used in IBM mainframes.

It supports the following languages:

Albanian (fully compatible with EBCDIC 256 for Albanian texts)

Bosnian

Croatian

Czech

English

German (fully compatible with EBCDIC 256 for German texts)

Hungarian

Polish

Romanian

Serbian Latin

Slovak

Slovene

Upper Sorbian

Lower Sorbian

EBCDIC 870

IBM code page 870 (CCSID 870) is an EBCDIC code page with full Latin-2-charset used in IBM mainframes.

CCSID 1110 replaces byte 90 ˚ (ring above) with ° (degree sign)

CCSID 1153 is the Euro currency update of code page/CCSID 870. Byte 9F is replacing ¤ with € in that code page.

E (Cyrillic)

E (Э э; italics: Э э; also known as backwards e, from Russian э оборо́тное, e oborótnoye, [ˈɛ ɐbɐˈrotnəjə]) is a letter found in two Slavic languages: Russian and Belarusian. It represents the [e] and [ɛ], as e in word "editor". In other Slavic languages that use the Cyrillic script, the sounds are represented by Ye (Е е), which represents in Russian and Belarusian [je] in initial and postvocalic position or [e] and palatalizes the preceding consonant.

In Cyrillic Moldovan, which was used in the Moldovan SSR during the Soviet Union and is still used in Transnistria, the letter corresponds to ă in the Latin Romanian alphabet. It is also used in the Cyrillic alphabets used by Mongolian and many Uralic, Caucasian languages and Turkic languages of the former Soviet Union.

ISO 9

The ISO international standard ISO 9 establishes a system for the transliteration into Latin characters of Cyrillic characters constituting the alphabets of many Slavic and non-Slavic languages.Published on February 23, 1995, the major advantage ISO 9 has over other competing systems is its univocal system of one character for one character equivalents (by the use of diacritics), which faithfully represents the original spelling and allows for reverse transliteration, even if the language is unknown.

Earlier versions of the standard, ISO/R 9:1954, ISO/R 9:1968 and ISO 9:1986, were more closely based on the international scholarly system for linguistics (scientific transliteration), but have diverged in favour of unambiguous transliteration over phonemic representation.

The edition of 1995 supersedes the edition of 1986.

Legge romanization

Legge romanization is a transcription system for Mandarin Chinese, used by the prolific 19th century sinologist James Legge. It was replaced by the Wade–Giles system, which itself has been mostly supplanted by Pinyin. The Legge system is still to be found in Legge's widely available translation of the Yijing, and in some derivative works such as Aleister Crowley's version of the Yijing. The transcription was initially devised by Max Müller for the publication of the multivolumed Sacred Books of the East.

Legge transcription uses the following consonants:

And it uses the following vowels and semivowels:

The vowel letters also occur in various vowel digraphs, including the following:

Features of the Legge system include:

Comparing words in the Legge system with the same words in Wade–Giles shows that there are often minor but nonsystematic differences, which makes direct correlation of the systems difficult.

NB. Although frequently improperly called a "transliteration", Legge's system is a transcription of Chinese, as there can be no transliteration of Chinese script into any phonetic script, like the Latin (or English) alphabet. Any system of romanization of Chinese renders the sounds (pronunciation) and not the characters (written form).

List of museums in Greece

This is a list of museums in Greece by regional unit.

Mac OS Romanian encoding

Mac OS Romanian is a character encoding used on Apple Macintosh computers to represent the Romanian language. It is a derivative of Mac OS Roman.

Romanian alphabet

The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language. It is a modification of the classical Latin alphabet and consists of 31 letters, five of which (Ă, Â, Î, Ș, and Ț) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language:

The letters Q (chiu), W (dublu v), and Y (igrec or i grec) were formally introduced in the Romanian alphabet in 1982, although they had been used earlier. They occur only in foreign words and their Romanian derivatives, such as quasar, watt, and yacht. The letter K, although relatively older, is also rarely used and appears only in proper names and international neologisms such as kilogram, broker, karate. These four letters are still perceived as foreign, which explains their usage for stylistic purposes in words such as nomenklatură (normally nomenclatură, meaning "nomenclature", but sometimes spelled with k instead of c if referring to members of the Communist leadership in the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc countries, as Nomenklatura is used in English).In cases where the word is a direct borrowing having diacritical marks not present in the above alphabet, official spelling tends to favor their use (München, Angoulême etc., as opposed to the use of Istanbul over İstanbul).

Tenseness

In phonology, tenseness or tensing is, most broadly, the pronunciation of a sound with greater muscular effort or constriction than is typical. More specifically, tenseness is the pronunciation of a vowel with narrower mouth width (often, with the tongue being raised) and usually with less centralization and longer duration compared with another vowel, perhaps even causing a phonemic contrast between the two vowels. The opposite quality of tenseness, in which a vowel is produced as relatively more widened (often lowered), centralized, and shortened is called laxness or laxing.

Contrast between vowels on the basis of tenseness is common in many languages, including English. For example, in most English dialects, beet and bit are contrasted by the vowel sound being tense in the first word but not the second; i.e., (as in beet) is the tense counterpart to the lax (as in bit); the same is true of (as in kook) versus (as in cook). Unlike most distinctive features, the feature [tense] can be interpreted only relatively, often with a perception of greater tension or pressure in the mouth, which, in a language like English, contrasts between two corresponding vowel types: a tense vowel and a lax vowel. An example in Vietnamese is the letters ă and â representing lax vowels, and the letters a and ơ representing the corresponding tense vowels. Some languages like Spanish are often considered as having only tense vowels, but since the quality of tenseness is not a phonemic feature in this language, it cannot be applied to describe its vowels in any meaningful way. The term has also occasionally been used to describe contrasts in consonants.

Tiberian Hebrew

Tiberian Hebrew is the canonical pronunciation of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh committed to writing by Masoretic scholars living in the Jewish community of Tiberias in ancient Judea c. 750–950 CE. They wrote in the form of Tiberian vocalization, which employed diacritics added to the Hebrew letters: vowel signs and consonant diacritics (nequdot) and the so-called accents (two related systems of cantillation signs or te'amim). These together with the marginal notes masora magna and masora parva make up the Tiberian apparatus.

Though the written vowels and accents came into use only c. 750 CE, the oral tradition they reflect is many centuries older, with ancient roots. Although not in common use today, the Tiberian pronunciation of Hebrew is considered by textual scholars to be the most accurate reproduction of the original Semitic consonantal and vowel sounds of ancient Hebrew.

Tiberian vocalization

The Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian pointing, or Tiberian niqqud (Hebrew: נִיקוּד טְבֵרִיָנִי Nikkud Tveriyani) is a system of diacritics (niqqud) devised by the Masoretes of Tiberias to add to the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible to produce the Masoretic Text. The system soon became used to vocalize other Hebrew texts, as well.

The Tiberian vocalization marks vowels and stress, makes fine distinctions of consonant quality and length, and serves as punctuation. While the Tiberian system was devised for Tiberian Hebrew, it has become the dominant system for vocalizing all forms of Hebrew and has long since eclipsed the Babylonian and Palestinian vocalization systems.

VSCII

VSCII (Vietnamese Standard Code for Information Interchange) also known as TCVN 5712:1993 and ISO-IR-180, is a set of three Vietnamese national standard character encodings for using the Vietnamese language with computers. It should not be confused with the similarly-named unofficial VISCII encoding.

Unicode and the Windows-1258 code page are now used for virtually all Vietnamese computer data, but legacy VSCII and VISCII files may need conversion.

Vietnamese alphabet

The Vietnamese alphabet (Vietnamese: chữ Quốc ngữ; literally "national language script") is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language. It uses the Latin script, based on its employment in the alphabets of Romance languages, in particular the Portuguese alphabet, with some digraphs and the addition of nine accent marks or diacritics – four of them to create additional sounds, and the other five to indicate the tone of each word. The many diacritics, often two on the same vowel, make written Vietnamese easily recognizable.

Vietnamese phonology

This article is a technical description of the sound system of the Vietnamese language, including phonetics and phonology. Two main varieties of Vietnamese, Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), are described below.

Alphabets (list)
Letters (list)
Multigraphs
Keyboard layouts (list)
Standards
Lists

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