Villa rustica from the east
Shown within Turkey
|Location||Erdemli, Mersin Province, Turkey|
|Periods||early Byzantine Empire|
|Ownership||Ministry of Culture and Tourism|
Üçayaklı ruins are on the plateau at the south of Toros Mountains with an altitude of 915 metres (3,002 ft) between two Turkmen villages named Küstülü and Hüsametli in Erdemli district of Mersin Province. Although the site is in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey, bird's flight distance to Mediterranean coast is 20 kilometres (12 mi) and highway distance to the main highway D.400 at the coast is 25 kilometres (16 mi). The total distance to Erdemli is about 30 kilometres (19 mi) and to Mersin is about 65 kilometres (40 mi).
The ruins are composed of two houses and a cistern. The big house is a two- or three-storey building with balconies and wide windows on the second floor. The building was a villa rustica during the Byzantine Empire period. The stone walls, interior coving and blind vaults as well as corbels to support the balconies survive. But the ceiling and floor structures which were wooden have been demolished. There is a wide downspout which leads the rain water to a cistern at the back of the house. (In the Mediterranean area such cisterns were common during the Roman times). One of the balconies was a toilet room with sewage drain. There is also a smaller house at the back which was probably a service building of the villa.
Hüsametli is a village in Erdemli district of Mersin Province, Turkey. At 36°40′N 34°10′E it is 21 kilometres (13 mi) north-west of Erdemli and about 57 kilometres (35 mi) west of Mersin. The population of the village was 416 as of 2012. There are traces of ancient civilizations around the village (See Üçayaklı ruins) But the village was founded in the early 1800s by a Turkmen chieftain named Hüsamettin. The economy of the village depends on agriculture. Traditional dry farming is now being replaced by irrigated farming. Main crops are beans and cucumber. The attitude of the village is 840 m. which makes its climate pretty cold during the winter. Along with agriculture, some inhabitants of the village make their living with cattle breeding which is a traditional occupation of the Turkmen people. The literacy in the village is high particularly in the new generation. There are 3 coffee-houses in the village where people gather to communicate in their leisure times.Küstülü
Küstülü (former Yanıkköy) is a village in Erdemli district of Mersin Province, Turkey. At 36°41′N 34°06′E it is 30 kilometres (19 mi) north west of Erdemli and about 65 kilometres (40 mi) west of Mersin. The population of the village was 570 as of 2012. There are traces of ancient civilizations around the village (See Üçayaklı ruins) But the village was founded in 1790 by a Turkmen tribe named Elbeyli. Küstüllü ise a dispersed settlement due to shortage of irrigation water. Main economic activity is farming. Tomato cucumber and bean among the main crops Fruits like plum, peach and apple are also produced.Mersin Province
The Mersin Province (Turkish: Mersin ili) is a province in southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast between Antalya and Adana. The provincial capital is the city of Mersin and the other major town is Tarsus, birthplace of St Paul. The province is part of Çukurova, a geographical, economical and cultural region, that covers the provinces of Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye and Hatay.Tower of Gömeç
The Tower of Gömeç (Gömeç Kalesi) is a Roman watch tower in Rough Cilicia in southern Turkey.Villa rustica
Villa rustica (countryside villa) was the term used by the ancient Romans to denote a villa set in the open countryside, often as the hub of a large agricultural estate (latifundium). The adjective rusticum was used to distinguish it from an urban or resort villa. The villa rustica would thus serve both as a residence of the landowner and his family (and retainers) and also as a farm management centre. It would often comprise separate buildings to accommodate farm labourers and sheds and barns for animals and crops.
In modern British archaeology, a villa rustica is commonly (and misleadingly) referred to simply as a "Roman villa".
The villa rustica's design differed depending on the architect, but usually it consisted of three parts; the urbana (main house), agricultural center and the rusticana (farm area).