Ü

Ü, or ü, is a character that typically represents a close front rounded vowel [y]. It is classified as a separate letter in several extended Latin alphabets (including Azeri, Estonian, Hungarian and Turkish), but as the letter U with an umlaut/diaeresis in others such as Catalan, French, Galician, German, Occitan and Spanish. Although not a part of their alphabet, it also appears in languages such as Swedish when retained in foreign names and words, and Swedish spells said letter and sound in domestic words solely as Y. A small number of Dutch words also use this as a diaeresis.

Ü ü

U-umlaut

VolapukAOU
Johann Martin Schleyer proposed alternative forms for Ü and ü (Ꞟ and ꞟ, respectively) in Volapük but they were rarely used.

A glyph, U with umlaut, appears in the German alphabet. It represents the umlauted form of u, which results in the same sound as the [y]. It can also represent [ʏ]. The letter is collated together with U, or as UE. In languages that have adopted German names or spellings, such as Swedish, the letter also occurs. It is however not a part of these languages' alphabets. In Swedish the letter is called tyskt y which means German y.

In other languages that do not have the letter as part of the regular alphabet or in limited character sets such as ASCII, U-umlaut is frequently replaced with the two-letter combination "ue". Software for optical character recognition sometimes sees it falsely as ii.

Letter Ü

The letter Ü is present in the Hungarian, French, Turkish, Uyghur Latin, Estonian, Azeri, Turkmen, Crimean Tatar, Kazakh Latin and Tatar Latin alphabets, where it represents a close front rounded vowel [y]. It is considered a distinct letter, collated separately, not a simple modification of U or Y, and is distinct from UE.

This same letter appears in the Chinese Romanisations pinyin, Wade-Giles, and the German-based Lessing-Othmer, where it represents the same sound [y]: 綠/lü (green) or 女/nü (female). Standard Mandarin Chinese pronunciation has both the sounds [y] and [u]. Pinyin only uses "Ü" to represent [y] after the letters "L" or "N" to avoid confusion with words such as 路/lu (road) and 怒/nu (anger). Words such as 玉/yu (jade) or 句/ju (sentence) are pronounced with [y], but are not spelled with "Ü". Although Wade-Giles and Lessing use Ü in all situations. As the letter "Ü" is missing on most keyboards and the letter "V" is not present in standard Mandarin pinyin, the letter "V" is used on most computer Chinese input methods to enter the letter "Ü". As a result, romanisation of Chinese with the letter "V" representing the Ü sound is sometimes found. However, Ü sound should be officially represented by "yu" in Pinyin when it's difficult to enter Ü. For example, the surname Lü (吕) would be written as "Lyu" in the passports.[1]

U-diaeresis

Several languages use diaeresis over the letter U to show that the letter is pronounced in its regular way, without dropping out, building diphthongs with neighbours, etc.

In Spanish, it is used to distinguish between "gue"/"güe" [ɡe]/[ɡwe] and "gui"/"güi" [ɡi]/[ɡwi]: nicaragüense ("Nicaraguan"), pingüino ("penguin").

Similarly in Catalan, "gue~güe" are [ɡe]~[ɡwe], "gui~güi" are [ɡi]~[ɡwi], "que~qüe" are [ke]~[kwe] and "qui~qüi" are [ki]~[kwi], as in aigües, pingüins, qüestió, adeqüi. Also, ü is used to mark that vowel pairs that normally would form a diphthong must be pronounced as separate syllables, examples: Raül, diürn.

In French, the diaeresis appears over the "u" only very rarely, in some uncommon words, capharnaüm [-aɔm] ('shambles'), Capharnaüm/Capernaüm [-aɔm] or Emmaüs [-ays]. After the 1990 spelling reforms, it is applied to a few more words, like aigüe (formerly aiguë), ambigüe (formerly ambiguë) and argüer [aʁɡɥe] (formerly without the diaeresis).

Usage in phonetic alphabets

In the Rheinische Dokumenta, a phonetic alphabet for many West Central German, the Low Rhenish, and few related vernacular languages, "ü" represents a range from [y] to [ʏ].

Typography

Historically the unique letter Ü and U-diaeresis were written as a U with two dots above the letter. U-umlaut was written as a U with a small e written above: this minute e degenerated to two vertical bars in medieval handwritings. In most later handwritings these bars in turn nearly became dots.

In modern typography there was insufficient space on typewriters and later computer keyboards to allow for both a U-with-dots (also representing Ü) and a U-with-bars. Since they looked near-identical the two glyphs were combined, which was also done in computer character encodings such as ISO 8859-1. As a result, there was no way to differentiate between the three different characters. While Unicode theoretically provides a solution, this is almost never used.

Computing codes

Character Ü ü
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH DIAERESIS LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH DIAERESIS
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 220 U+00DC 252 U+00FC
UTF-8 195 156 C3 9C 195 188 C3 BC
Numeric character reference Ü Ü ü ü
Named character reference Ü ü
EBCDIC family 252 FC 220 DC
ISO 8859-1/3/4/9/10/14/15/16 220 DC 252 FC
CP437 154 9A 129 81
Code page 10029 134 86 159 9F

Keyboarding

The methods available for entering ⟨Ü⟩ and ⟨ü⟩ from the keyboard depend on the operating system, the keyboard layout, and the application.

  • Microsoft Windows – some keyboard layouts feature separate keys for ⟨Ü⟩
    • Using the Swiss French keyboard, ⟨ü⟩ can be entered by typing ⇧ Shift+È
    • Using the US International layout, ⟨ü⟩ can be entered by typing AltGR+Y
  • Microsoft Windows: with the Number Lock on, hold down the Alt key while typing on the numeric keypad the decimal value of the code point from the active DOS/OEM code page without a leading zero, then release the Alt key; i.e. Alt+1+5+4 for ⟨Ü⟩ and Alt+1+2+9 for ⟨ü⟩
  • Microsoft Windows: with the Number Lock on, hold down the Alt key while typing on the numeric keypad the decimal value of the code point from the active ANSI code page with a leading zero, then release the Alt key; i.e. Alt+0+2+2+0 for ⟨Ü⟩ and Alt+0+2+5+2 for ⟨ü⟩
  • Microsoft Word for Windows: type Ctrl+: followed by ⇧ Shift+U for ⟨Ü⟩ or Ctrl+: then U for ⟨ü⟩
  • macOS with an English keyboard layout (Australian, British, or US): type ⌥ Option+U followed by ⇧ Shift+U for ⟨Ü⟩ or ⌥ Option+U and then U for ⟨ü⟩ or by keeping the U key pressed and then typing 2
  • In GTK-based GUI-Applications, Ctrl+⇧ Shift+ufollowed by the Hex-Code and ↵ Enter
  • On systems with a Compose key, Compose, followed by " and U for ⟨Ü⟩, and Compose, ", u for ⟨ü⟩

See also

References

  1. ^ 新版护照“吕”姓改拼“LYU” 英文无ü被替代. Beijing Daily. 2012-10-11.
Central Tibetan language

Central Tibetan, also known as Dbus, Ü or Ü-Tsang, is the most widely spoken Tibetic language and the basis of Standard Tibetan.

Dbus and Ü are forms of the same name. Dbus is a transliteration of the name in Tibetan script, དབུས་, whereas Ü is the pronunciation of the same in Lhasa dialect, [wy˧˥˧ʔ] (or [y˧˥˧ʔ]). That is, in Tibetan, the name is spelled Dbus and pronounced Ü. All of these names are frequently applied specifically to the prestige dialect of Lhasa.

There are many mutually intelligible Central Tibetan dialects besides that of Lhasa, with particular diversity along the border and in Nepal:

Limi (Limirong), Mugum, Dolpo (Dolkha), Mustang (Lowa, Lokä), Humla, Nubri, Lhomi, Dhrogpai Gola, Walungchung Gola (Walungge/Halungge), Tseku, BasumEthnologue reports that Walungge is highly intelligible with Thudam, Glottolog that Thudam is not a distinct variety. Tournadre (2013) classifies Tseku with Khams.

Diaeresis (diacritic)

The diaeresis ( dy-ERR-i-sis; plural: diaereses; also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma or trema) and the umlaut are two homoglyphic diacritical marks that consist of two dots ( ¨ ) placed over a letter, usually a vowel. When that letter is an i or a j, the diacritic replaces the tittle: ï.The diaeresis and the umlaut are diacritics marking two distinct phonological phenomena. The diaeresis represents the phenomenon also known as diaeresis or hiatus in which a vowel letter is pronounced separately from an adjacent vowel and not as part of a digraph or diphthong. The umlaut (), in contrast, indicates a sound shift.

These two diacritics originated separately; the diaeresis is considerably older.

Nevertheless, in modern computer systems using Unicode, the umlaut and diaeresis diacritics are identically encoded, e.g. U+00E4 ä LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS (HTML ä · ä) represents both a-umlaut and a-diaeresis (much like the hyphen-minus code point represents both a hyphen and often a minus sign).

The same symbol is also used as a diacritic in other cases, distinct from both diaeresis and umlaut. For example, in Albanian and Tagalog ë represents a schwa.

Diplo

Thomas Wesley Pentz Jr. (born November 10, 1978), known professionally as Diplo, is an American DJ and record producer based in Los Angeles, California. He is the co-creator and lead member of the electronic dancehall music project Major Lazer, a member of the supergroup LSD, with Sia and Labrinth also working with producer and DJ Skrillex as part of the electronic duo Jack Ü, as well as on Silk City with Mark Ronson. He founded and manages record company Mad Decent, as well as co-founding the non-profit organization Heaps Decent. Among other jobs, he has worked as a school teacher in Philadelphia. His 2013 EP, Revolution, debuted at number 68 on the US Billboard 200. The EP's title track was later featured in a commercial for Hyundai and is featured on the WWE 2K16 soundtrack.

During his rise to fame, Diplo worked with British musician M.I.A., an artist who is credited with giving him exposure in his early career. Later, he and fellow M.I.A. producer Switch created a Jamaican dancehall project and cartoon series titled Major Lazer. Since then, Diplo has worked on production and mixtape projects with many other pop artists, such as Gwen Stefani, M.I.A., Die Antwoord, Britney Spears, Madonna, Shakira, Beyoncé, No Doubt, Justin Bieber, Usher, Snoop Dogg, Trippie Redd, Chris Brown, CL, G-Dragon, Bad Bunny, MØ, and Poppy. His alias, short for Diplodocus, derives from his childhood fascination with dinosaurs.

French Braille

French Braille is the original braille alphabet, and the basis of all others. The alphabetic order of French has become the basis of the international braille convention, used by most braille alphabets around the world. However, only the 25 basic letters of the French alphabet plus w have become internationalized; the additional letters are largely restricted to French Braille and the alphabets of some neighboring European countries.

Jack Ü

Jack Ü is an American DJ duo consisting of electronic music producers Skrillex and Diplo, formed in 2013. They released their first official single, "Take Ü There", featuring vocals from Kiesza, on September 17, 2014. On February 3, 2015, the duo announced that they would be working with Missy Elliott on a remix to "Take Ü There". They released their first and only album, Skrillex and Diplo Present Jack Ü, on 27 February 2015.Jack Ü performed at Ultra Music Festival Miami in 2014. They also performed at Ultra Music Festival in 2015 with the entire "Jack Ü crew", featuring live contributions from CL, Kai, Diddy, Kiesza and Justin Bieber

According to Skrillex, the collaboration is called 'Jack Ü' because it refers to how the music 'jacks you up' with its high energy beats and bassline.

Kinder Surprise

Kinder Surprise, also known as Kinder Egg or Ovetto Kinder (ovetto means small egg in Italian) or Kinder Surprise Egg, is a candy manufactured by the Italian company Ferrero since 1974. It was co-created by Michele Ferrero and William Salice, and is one of several candies sold under the Kinder brand. Each chocolate egg surrounds a plastic capsule that contains a small toy. Kinder Surprise was originally created with children in mind, replicating an Italian Easter family tradition in which adults give children large chocolate eggs with a toy inside. However, Kinder Surprise toys have become collectible for adults as well. Since 1974, 30 billion Kinder Surprise eggs have been sold worldwide.

List of Latin-script alphabets

The tables below summarize and compare the letter inventory of some of the Latin-script alphabets. In this article, the scope of the word "alphabet" is broadened to include letters with tone marks, and other diacritics used to represent a wide range of orthographic traditions, without regard to whether or how they are sequenced in their alphabet or the table.

List of Tibetan monasteries

This list of Tibetan monasteries is a listing of historical and contemporary monasteries of Tibetan Buddhism within the ethno-cultural Tibet itself and elsewhere. Tibetan monasteries are works of architectural, pictorial, decorative and landscape art.

List of football clubs in Estonia

The following is a list of football clubs in Estonia.

Pinyin

Hanyu Pinyin (simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.

The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, and was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes. But "some cities, businesses, and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.The word Hànyǔ (simplified Chinese: 汉语; traditional Chinese: 漢語) means 'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn (拼音) literally means 'spelled sounds'.

Skrillex and Diplo Present Jack Ü

Skrillex and Diplo Present Jack Ü is the only studio album by American DJ duo Jack Ü, individually known as Skrillex and Diplo. It was released on February 27, 2015 by OWSLA and Mad Decent, Skrillex and Diplo's respective labels. The album features collaborations with a range of artists including Kiesza, AlunaGeorge, 2 Chainz, Missy Elliott and Justin Bieber. It also features the Trinidadian soca artist Bunji Garlin. The album produced the internationally successful single "Where Are Ü Now" featuring Justin Bieber.

The album won the Grammy Award for Best Dance/Electronic Album and "Where Are Ü Now" won the Grammy Award for Best Dance Recording at the 58th Annual Grammy Awards.

Take Ü There

"Take Ü There" is the debut collaboration single by American EDM DJ duo Skrillex and Diplo together as Jack Ü, written and performed by the duo and Canadian singer Kiesza, and produced by the duo. It serves as the lead single from Jack Ü's debut studio album Skrillex and Diplo Present Jack Ü, and was released on October 4, 2014 through Skrillex's OWSLA and Diplo's Mad Decent. It peaked at number 63 on the UK Singles Chart.

Tibetic languages

The Tibetic languages (Tibetan: བོད་སྐད།) are a cluster of Tibeto-Burman languages descended from Old Tibetan, spoken across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering the Indian subcontinent, including the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas in Baltistan, Ladakh, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh. Classical Tibetan is a major regional literary language, particularly for its use in Buddhist literature.

The Central Tibetan language (the dialects of Ü-Tsang, including Lhasa), Khams Tibetan, and Amdo Tibetan are generally considered to be dialects of a single language, especially since they all share the same literary language, while Dzongkha, Sikkimese, Sherpa, Ladakhi, and Balti are generally considered to be separate languages.Tibetic languages are spoken by some 6 million people.

With the worldwide spread of Tibetan Buddhism, the Tibetan language has spread into the western world and can be found in many Buddhist publications and prayer materials; with some western students learning the language for translation of Tibetan texts. Outside Lhasa itself, Lhasa Tibetan is spoken by approximately 200,000 exile speakers who have moved from modern-day Tibet to India and other countries. Tibetan is also spoken by groups of ethnic minorities in Tibet who have lived in close proximity to Tibetans for centuries, but nevertheless retain their own languages and cultures.

Although some of the Qiang peoples of Kham are classified by China as ethnic Tibetans (see rGyalrongic languages; rGyalrong people are identified as 'Tibetan' in China), Qiangic languages are not Tibetic, but rather form their own branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

Classical Tibetan was not a tonal language, but some varieties such as Central and Khams Tibetan have developed tone registers. Amdo and Ladakhi-Balti are without tone. Tibetic morphology can generally be described as agglutinative.

U with diaeresis (Cyrillic)

U with diaeresis (Ӱ ӱ; italics: Ӱ ӱ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, derived from the Cyrillic letter U (У у У у).

U with diaeresis is used in the alphabets of the Altai, Khakas, Khanty, Mari and Shor languages, where it represents the close front rounded vowel /y/, the pronunciation of the Latin letter U with umlaut (Ü ü) in German. It is also used in the Komi-Yodzyak language.

U with double acute (Cyrillic)

U with double acute (Ӳ ӳ; italics: Ӳ ӳ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, derived from the Cyrillic letter U (У у У у).

U with double acute is used in the alphabet of the Chuvash language, where it represents the close front rounded vowel /y/, the pronunciation of the Latin letter U with umlaut (Ü ü) in German. It is placed between ⟨У⟩ and ⟨Ф⟩ in the Chuvash alphabet. It is usually romanized as ⟨Ü⟩ but its ISO 9 transliteration is ⟨Ű⟩.

Ue (Cyrillic)

Ue or Straight U (Ү ү; italics: Ү ү) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It is a form of the Cyrillic letter U (У у У у) with a vertical, rather than diagonal, center line. Whereas a standard Cyrillic U resembles a lowercase Latin y, Ue instead uses the shape of a capital Latin Y, with each letter set higher or lower to establish its case. The pronunciation is similar to wool.

Ue is used the alphabets of the Bashkir, Buryat, Kalmyk, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Mongolian, Tatar and other languages. It commonly represents the front rounded vowels /y/ and /ʏ/, except in Mongolian where it represents /u/.

In Tuvan and Kyrgyz the Cyrillic letter can be written as a double vowel.

Where Are Ü Now

"Where Are Ü Now" is a song produced by American EDM artists Skrillex and Diplo under their collaborative effort Jack Ü, with vocals from Canadian singer Justin Bieber. The song was released as the second single from the duo's debut studio album, Skrillex and Diplo Present Jack Ü (2015), on their respective labels OWSLA and Mad Decent, and is also included on Bieber's fourth studio album Purpose (2015). It was released simultaneously with the album on February 27, 2015, later sent to mainstream radio on April 21, 2015.

Initially, a demo was written by Bieber as a piano ballad titled "The Most"; however, Bieber decided to send the track to the duo, who transformed the track into electronic dance music, but maintained the original lyrics. The song main's instrumentation consists in sharp dancehall stabs and an Eastern melody. Bieber's vocals also suffered alterations in some parts of the song. Lyrically, "Where Are Ü Now" talks about caring and praying for an ex who didn't return the favor, and longing for someone who could comfort him in his time of need.

The song was featured on several year-end list of best songs of 2015, being at the top of two publications. It also won a Grammy Award for Best Dance Recording. Commercially, the song peaked at number eight on the Billboard Hot 100, giving both Skrillex and Diplo their first top 10 single on the chart, also giving Bieber his seventh. Internationally, the song has peaked within the top-ten of the charts in eight countries, including Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom.

Ü-Tsang

Ü-Tsang or Tsang-Ü, is one of the four traditional provinces of Tibet, the other being Amdo in the North-East, the Kham in the East and the Ngari (including former Guge kingdom) in the North-West. Geographically Ü-Tsang covered the south-central of the Tibetan cultural area, including the Brahmaputra River watershed. The western districts surrounding and extending past Mount Kailash are included in Ngari, and much of the vast Changtang plateau to the north. The Himalayas defined Ü-Tsang's southern border. The present Tibet Autonomous Region corresponds approximately to what was ancient Ü-Tsang and western Kham.

Ü-Tsang was formed by the merging of two earlier power centers: Ü (Wylie: dbus) in central Tibet, controlled by the Gelug lineage of Tibetan Buddhism under the early Dalai Lamas, and Tsang (Wylie: gtsang) which extended from Gyantse to points west, controlled by the rival Sakya lineage. Military victories by the powerful Khoshut Mongol Güshi Khan that backed 5th Dalai Lama and founded Ganden Phodrang government in 1642, consolidated power over the combined region, followed by the rule of the Qing Dynasty started in 1720 by the Qianlong Emperor that continued until the British expedition to Tibet (1903-1904).

Ü-Tsang is the cultural heartland of the Tibetan people, governed by Rinpungpa dynasty, the Tsangpa dynasty ruled the Tsang part between 1565 and 1642. The dispute between Tsang kings, Karma Tenkyong Wangpo followers of karmapa and Khoshut khan, Güshi Khan, follower of gelugpa and Dalai Lamas ended by the rule on Tibet from the Potala and Norbulingka palaces in Lhasa from the last one. Jokhang, perhaps the most holy temple in Tibetan Buddhism, is also located there. The Lhasa dialect is used as a lingua franca in Ü-Tsang and the Tibetan Exile koiné language is also based largely on it.

Ü (region)

Ü (Tibetan: དབུས་, Wylie: dbus, ZYPY: Wü, Lhasa dialect IPA: /wyː˨˧˩/) is a geographic division and a historical region in Tibet. Together with Tsang (Tib. གཙང་, gtsang), it forms Central Tibet Ü-Tsang (Tib. དབུས་གཙང་, Wyl. dbus gtsang), which is one of the three Tibetan regions or cholka (cholka-sum). The other two cholka are Kham (Tib. ཁམས་, Wyl. khams) (Dotod) and Amdo (Tib. ཨ༌མདོ;Wyl. a mdo) (Domed). According to a Tibetan saying, "the best religion comes from Ü-Tsang, the best men from Kham, and the best horses from Amdo".

Alphabets (list)
Letters (list)
Multigraphs
Keyboard layouts (list)
Standards
Lists

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.