Øresund Bridge

The Øresund or Öresund Bridge (Danish: Øresundsbroen [ˈøːɐsɔnsˌbʁoːˀn̩]; Swedish: Öresundsbron [œrɛ²sɵnːdsˌbruːn]; hybrid name: Øresundsbron) is a combined railway and motorway bridge across the Øresund strait between Sweden and Denmark. The bridge runs nearly 8 kilometres (5 miles) from the Swedish coast to the artificial island Peberholm in the middle of the strait. The crossing is completed by the 4-kilometre (2.5 mi) Drogden Tunnel from Peberholm to the Danish island of Amager.

The Øresund Bridge is the longest combined road and rail bridge in Europe and connects two major metropolitan areas: Copenhagen, the Danish capital city, and the Swedish city of Malmö. It connects the road and rail networks of the Scandinavian Peninsula with those of Central and Western Europe. A data cable also makes the bridge the backbone of internet data transmission between central Europe and Sweden (and, prior to 2016 also Finland).[2]

The international European route E20 crosses via road, the Oresund Line via railway. The construction of the Great Belt Fixed Link (1988-1998), connecting Zealand to Funen and thence to the Jutland Peninsula, and the Øresund Bridge have connected Central and Western Europe to Scandinavia by road and rail.

The Øresund Bridge was designed by the Danish engineering firm COWI. The justification for the additional expenditure and complexity related to digging a tunnel for part of the way, rather than raising that section of the bridge, was to avoid interfering with air traffic from the nearby Copenhagen Airport, to provide a clear channel for ships in good weather or bad, and to prevent ice floes from blocking the strait.

The Øresund Bridge crosses the border between Denmark and Sweden, but in accordance with the Schengen Agreement and the Nordic Passport Union, there are usually no passport inspections. There are a few random customs checks at the entrance toll booths entering Sweden, but not when entering Denmark. Since January 2016, checks have become significantly more stringent due to the European migrant crisis.

Construction began in 1995, with the bridge opening to traffic on 1 July 2000. The Øresund Bridge received the 2002 IABSE Outstanding Structure Award.

Øresund Bridge
Öresund Bridge
Øresund Bridge from the air in September 2015
Coordinates55°34′31″N 12°49′37″E / 55.57528°N 12.82694°E
CarriesFour lanes of European route E20
Double-track Oresund Line
CrossesØresund strait (the Sound)
LocaleCopenhagen, Denmark and Malmö, Sweden
Official nameØresundbron (used by company), Øresundsbroen, Öresundsbron
Characteristics
DesignCable-stayed bridge
Total length7,845 metres (25,738 ft)
Width23.5 metres (77.1 ft)
Height204 metres (669 ft)
Longest span490 metres (1,608 ft)
Clearance below57 metres (187 ft)
History
DesignerJorgen Nissen, Klaus Falbe Hansen, Niels Gimsing and Georg Rotne
Engineering design byOve Arup & Partners
Setec
ISC
Gimsing & Madsen
Constructed byHochtief, Skanska, Højgaard & Schultz and Monberg & Thorsen
Construction start1995
Construction end1999
Construction cost19.6 billion DKK
25.8 billion SEK
2.6 billion Euro
Opened1 July 2000
Statistics
Daily trafficca. 19,000 road vehicles (2014)[1]
TollDKK 390, SEK 460 or 54

History

The concept of a bridge over the Øresund was first formally proposed in 1936 by a consortium of engineering firms who proposed a national motorway network for Denmark.[3][4] The idea was dropped during World War II, but picked up again thereafter and studied in significant detail in various Danish-Swedish government commissions through the 1950s and 1960s.[3] However, disagreement existed regarding the placement and exact form of the link, with some arguing for a link at the narrowest point of the sound at HelsingørHelsingborg, further north of Copenhagen, and some arguing for a more direct link from Copenhagen to Malmö. Additionally, some regional and local interests argued that other bridge and road projects, notably the then-unbuilt Great Belt Fixed Link, should take priority.[3] The governments of Denmark and Sweden eventually signed an agreement to build a fixed link in 1973.[5] However, that project was cancelled in 1978 due to the economic situation,[6] and growing environmental concerns.[7] As the economic situation improved in the 1980s, interest continued and the governments signed a new agreement in 1991.

An OMEGA centre report identified the following as primary motivations for construction of the bridge:[7]

  • to improve transport links in northern Europe, from Hamburg to Oslo;[7]
  • regional development around the Øresund as an answer to the intensifying globalisation process and Sweden's decision to apply for membership of the European Community;[7]
  • connecting the two largest cities of the region, which were both experiencing economic difficulties;[7]
  • improving communications to Kastrup airport, the main flight transportation hub in the region.[7]

A joint venture of Hochtief, Skanska, Højgaard & Schultz and Monberg & Thorsen (the same of the previous Great Belt Fixed Link), began construction of the bridge in 1995 and completed it 14 August 1999.[8] Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark and Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden met midway across the bridge-tunnel on 14 August 1999 to celebrate its completion.[9] The official dedication took place on 1 July 2000, with Queen Margrethe II, and King Carl XVI Gustaf as the host and hostess of the ceremony.[10] Because of the death of nine people, including three Danes and three Swedes, at the Roskilde Festival the evening before, the ceremony opened with a minute of silence.[11] The bridge-tunnel opened for public traffic later that day. On 12 June 2000, two weeks before the dedication, 79,871 runners competed in Broloppet, a half marathon from Amager, Denmark, to Skåne, Sweden.[12]

Despite two schedule setbacks – the discovery of 16 unexploded World War II bombs on the seafloor and an inadvertently skewed tunnel segment – the bridge-tunnel was finished three months ahead of schedule.

Although traffic between Denmark and Sweden increased by 61 percent in the first year after the bridge opened, traffic levels were not as high as expected, perhaps due to high tolls.[13] However, since 2005, traffic levels have increased rapidly. This may be due to Danes buying homes in Sweden to take advantage of lower housing prices in Malmö and commuting to work in Denmark. In 2012, to cross by car cost DKK 310, SEK 375 or 43, with discounts of up to 75% available to regular users. In 2007, almost 25 million people travelled over the Øresund Bridge: 15.2 million by car and bus and 9.6 million by train. By 2009, the figure had risen to 35.6 million by car, coach or train.[14][15]

In January 2016, during the European migrant crisis, Sweden was granted a temporary exemption from the Schengen Agreement in order to mandate that all travellers across the bridge had photographic proof of identity. A fine of SEK 50,000 would be the punishment for travel companies serving travellers without such identity documents.[16] The move marked a break with 60 years of passport-free travel between the Nordic countries.[17]

Øresund Bridge - Øresund crop
Øresund Bridge, Øresund

Link features

Bridge

Oresund-over-2008
Aerial photo of Øresund Bridge. In the foreground is Copenhagen Airport on the island of Amager, to the left of the bridge is the Danish island of Saltholm, and in the background, the bridge connects to Malmö.

At 7,845 m (25,738 ft), the bridge covers half the distance between Sweden and the Danish island of Amager, the border between the two countries being 5.3 km (3.3 mi) from the Swedish end. The structure has a mass of 82,000 tonnes and supports two railway tracks beneath four road lanes in a horizontal girder extending along the entire length of the bridge. On both approaches to the three cable-stayed bridge sections, the girder is supported every 140 m (459 ft) by concrete piers. The two pairs of free-standing cable-supporting towers are 204 m (669 ft) high allowing shipping 57 m (187 ft) of head room under the main span, but most ships' captains prefer to pass through the unobstructed Drogden Strait above the Drogden Tunnel. The cable-stayed main span is 491 m (1,611 ft) long. A girder and cable-stayed design was chosen to provide the specific rigidity necessary to carry heavy rail traffic, and also to resist large accumulations of ice. The bridge experiences occasional brief closures during very severe weather, such as the St. Jude storm of October 2013.[18]

Due to high longitudinal and transverse loads acting over the bridge and to accommodate movements between the superstructure and substructure, it has bearings weighing up to 20 t each, capable of bearing vertical loads up to 96,000 kN in a longitudinal direction and up to 40,000 kN in transverse direction. The design, manufacturing and installation of the bearings were carried out by the Swiss civil engineering firm Mageba.[19]

Vibration issues, caused by several cables in the bridge moving under certain wind and temperature conditions, were combatted with the installation of compression spring dampers installed in pairs at the centre of the cables. Two of these dampers were equipped with laser gauges for ongoing monitoring. Testing, development and installation of these spring dampers was carried out by specialists European Springs.[20]

Peberholm

The bridge joins Drogden tunnel on the artificial island of Peberholm (Pepper Islet). The Danes chose the name to complement the natural island of Saltholm (Salt Islet) just to the north. Peberholm is a designated nature reserve built from Swedish rock and the soil dredged up during the bridge and tunnel construction, approximately 4 km (2.5 mi) long with an average width of 500 m (1,640 ft). It is 20 m (66 ft) high.

Drogden Tunnel

Oresund tunnel
Cross-section of the Drogden Tunnel

The connection between Peberholm and the artificial peninsula at Kastrup on Amager island, the nearest populated part of Denmark, is through the 4,050-metre (13,287 ft) long Drogden Tunnel (Drogdentunnelen). It comprises a 3,510-metre (11,516 ft) immersed tube plus 270-metre (886 ft) entry tunnels at each end. The tube tunnel is made from 20 prefabricated reinforced concrete segments – the largest in the world at 55,000 tonnes each – interconnected in a trench dug in the seabed. Two tubes in the tunnel carry railway tracks, two carry roads and a small fifth tube is provided for emergencies. The tubes are arranged side-by-side.

Rail transport

Oresund.ASTER.20040410
Satellite image of the Øresund Bridge
Øresund Bridge
The bridge's full stretch between Peberholm and Malmö
Öresundbrücke - Ansicht von Klagshamn
View from Klagshamn

The rail link is operated jointly by the Swedish Transport Administration and Danish railways. Passenger train service is commissioned by Skånetrafiken and the Danish transport agency under the Øresundståg brand, with Transdev and DSB being the current operators[21]. A series of new dual-voltage trains was developed, linking the Copenhagen area with Malmö and southern Sweden as far as Gothenburg and Kalmar. SJ operates X2000 trains over the bridge, with connections to Gothenburg and Stockholm. Copenhagen Airport at Kastrup has its own railway station close to the western bridgehead. Trains operate every 20 minutes, once an hour during the night, in both directions. An additional couple of Øresundstrains are operated at rush hour. Freight trains also use the crossing.

The rail section is double track 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge and capable of speeds of up to 200 kilometres per hour (120 mph), slower in Denmark, especially in the tunnel section. There were challenges related to the difference in electrification and signalling between the Danish and Swedish railway networks. The solution chosen is to switch the electrical system from Swedish 15 kV, 16.7 Hz to Danish 25 kV, 50 Hz before the eastern bridgehead at Lernacken in Sweden. The line is signalled according to the standard Swedish system across the length of the bridge. On Peberholm the line switches to Danish signalling, which continues into the tunnel.

Swedish trains run on the left, Danish on the right. Initially the switch was made at Malmö Central Station, a terminus at that time. After the 2010 inauguration of the Malmö City Tunnel connection, a flyover was built at Burlöv, north of Malmö, where the two southbound tracks cross over the northbound pair. The railway in Malmö thus uses the Danish standard.

Costs and benefits

Öresundsbrons vajrar 1
On the bridge
Öresundstunneln till Danmark
In the tunnel

The cost for the Øresund Connection, including motorway and railway connections on land, was DKK 30.1 billion (~€4.0 bn) according to the 2000 year price index, with the cost of the bridge expected in 2003 to be recouped by 2037.[22] In 2006, Sweden began work on the Malmö City Tunnel, a SEK 9.45 billion connection with the bridge that was completed in December 2010.

The connection will be entirely user-financed. The owner company is owned half by the Danish state and half by the Swedish state. This owner company has taken loans guaranteed by the governments to finance the connection and the user fees are its only income. After the increase in traffic, these fees are enough to pay the interest and begin repaying the loans, which is expected to take about 30 years.

Taxpayers have paid for neither the bridge nor the tunnel, but tax money has been used for the land connections. On the Danish side, the land connection has domestic benefits, mainly to connect the airport to the railway network. The Malmö City Tunnel has the benefit of connecting the southern part of the inner city to the rail network and allowing many more trains to and from Malmö.

According to The Öresund Committee, the bridge has made a national economic gain of DKK 57 billion, or SEK 78 billion SEK (~€8.41 billion) on both sides of the strait by increased commuting and lower commuting expense.[23] The gain is estimated to be SEK 6.5 billion per year but this could be increased to 7.7 billion by removing the three biggest obstacles to integration and mobility, the two largest being that non-EU nationals in Sweden are not allowed to work in Denmark and that many professional qualifications and merits are not mutually recognised.[24]

Cultural references

Environmental effects

The underwater parts of the bridge have become covered in marine organisms and act as an artificial reef.

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ Data for 2014: 34,087 motorbikes, 6,217,111 passenger cars, 194,495 vans, 50,362 busses, 422,222 trucks, 6,918,277 total (18,954 per day). Trafikstatistik (oresundsbron.com) Archived 12 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ "New Baltic data cable plan unfolding". Yle yhtiönä. 11 December 2013. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2013. According to current plans, the undersea optic fibre cable would run directly from Germany to Finland. Haavisto said that the project could make Finland a significant international data hub. So far, all data transmission to Finland has taken place via the Øresund Bridge, that is through Denmark and Sweden.
  3. ^ a b c Boge, Knut (2006). Votes Count but the Number of Seats Decides: A comparative historical case study of 20th century Danish, Swedish and Norwegian road policy (Ph.D.). DBI Norwegian School of Management. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
  4. ^ Marstrand, Wilhelm (14 March 1936). "Det Store Vej - og broprojekt Motorveje med broer over storebælt og Øresund" [The Great Road and Bridge Project Motorway with Bridge over the Great Belt and Øresund]. Ingeniøren (in Danish): 67–70. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  5. ^ OECD (2003). OECD Territorial Reviews OECD Territorial Reviews: Oresund, Denmark/Sweden 2003. OECD Publishing. p. 77. ISBN 978-9264100800. Archived from the original on 19 November 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
  6. ^ Krokeborg, J, ed. (1 January 2001). Strait crossings 2001: proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Strait Crossings, Bergen, Norway, 2 - 5 September 2001. Lisse: CRC Press. ISBN 978-9026518454. Archived from the original on 19 November 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Centre for Mega Projects in Transport and Development (2014). "Project Profile: Sweden, The Oresund Link" (PDF). OMEGA Case Studies. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  8. ^ "HOCHTIEF Infrastructure Scandinavia". HOCHTIEF. Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  9. ^ "Danmark og Sverige landfast" [Denmark and Sweden by Land] (in Danish). DR. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  10. ^ "Øresundsbroen indviet" [Oresund Bridge inaugurated]. B.T. (in Danish). Ritzau. 1 July 2000. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  11. ^ "Broåbning i tragediens skygge". Berlingske (in Danish). Ritzau. 1 July 2000. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  12. ^ "90.000 løbere over Øresundsbroen" [90,000 runners cross the Øresunds Bridge]. B.T. (in Danish). Ritzau. 12 June 2000. Archived from the original on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
  13. ^ Baunkjær, Claus F. (28 March 2013). "Cautious traffic assumptions for the Fehmarnbelt project". Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link. Archived from the original on 2 July 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  14. ^ "Øresundsbrons bokslut för 2008: Bättre resultat trots den ekonomiska avmattningen" [Øresundsbrons financial statements for 2008: better results despite the economic slowdown] (in Swedish). Uk.oresundsbron.com. Archived from the original on 13 March 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
  15. ^ "Traffic numbers". Archived from the original on 19 October 2013., "Øresundsbron traffic figures all years". Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
  16. ^ "Migrant crisis: Sweden border checks come into force". BBC News. 4 January 2016. Archived from the original on 4 January 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  17. ^ Kirk, Lisbeth (5 January 2016). "Domino effect: Denmark follows Sweden on EU border checks". EUObserver. Archived from the original on 25 January 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
  18. ^ "Stormen lukker Øresundsbroen" [Storm closes the Oresund Bridge]. JydskeVestkysten (in Danish). 28 October 2013. Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  19. ^ "Øresund Bridge". Mageba. Archived from the original on 23 December 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2016.
  20. ^ "The Öresund bridge". European Springs and Pressings Ltd. Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  21. ^ https://www.oresundstag.se/en/about-us/
  22. ^ OECD (2003). OECD Territorial Reviews OECD Territorial Reviews: Oresund, Denmark/Sweden 2003 OECD Territorial Reviews Series. OECD Publishing. p. 38. ISBN 978-92-64-10080-0.
  23. ^ Ekonomiska vinster av Øresundsförbindelsen (PDF) (in Swedish). Öresund Institute. November 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  24. ^ Hamberg, Thomas (31 August 2014). "Öresundsbron ger mångmiljardvinster" [Oresund Bridge provides multi-billion profits]. Dagens Nyheter. Stockholm. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  25. ^ Robert Barry, "Bleeding Edge: Nicky Wire on Futures, Futurism and Futurology," TheQuietus.com, 27 May 2014.

External links

External video
Marine environment

Coordinates: 55°34′N 12°51′E / 55.57°N 12.85°E

2000 in Denmark

The following lists events that happened during 2000 in Denmark.

2010 in Denmark

Events from the year 2010 in Denmark.

Aida Hadzialic

Aida Hadžialić (Bosnian pronunciation: [aǐːda hadʒiǎliːt͜ɕ]; born 21 January 1987) is a Bosnian-born Swedish politician and a member of the Social Democrats. She served as Minister for Upper Secondary School, Adult Education and Training from 3 October 2014 until her resignation on 15 August 2016.She resigned from her position as a minister on the 13 August 2016 after being caught driving in Lernacken, the Swedish bridgehead of the Øresund Bridge while over the legal alcohol limit.Born in Foča, Bosnia and Herzegovina, she came to Sweden as a refugee at the age of 5. She is a lawyer by profession.

Amager

Amager ([ˈɑmɑːˀ] or, especially among older speakers, [ˈɑmæjˀɐ]) in the Øresund is Denmark's most densely populated island, with almost 200,000 inhabitants on the small appendix to Zealand. The protected natural area of Naturpark Amager (including Kalvebod Fælled) makes up more than one-third of the island's total area of 96 km2.The Danish capital, Copenhagen, is partly situated on Amager, which is connected to the much larger island of Zealand by eight bridges and a metro tunnel. Amager also has a connection across the Øresund to Sweden, the Øresund Bridge. Its western part begins with a tunnel from Amager to another Danish island, Peberholm. Copenhagen Airport is located on the island, around 7 km (4 mi) from Copenhagen city centre.

Amager is the largest island in the Øresund, and the only one with a large population. As of 2017, 196,045 people lived on the island, including its northern tip, Christianshavn. The northern part is included in the Copenhagen municipality. The middle part comprises Tårnby municipality, and Dragør municipality is located on the southeast part of the island.

Most of the western part is land that was claimed from the sea from the 1930s-1950s. This enlargement, from the shallow sound towards Zealand, is known as Kalveboderne. The enlargement has never been built-up and its soil isn't suitable for agricultural use. However the area between Dragør town and the airport is cultivated land of high quality. Amager has in the past been referred to as the "kitchen of Copenhagen". At the border of the enlargement there is an old beech forest, Kongelunden (The King's Grove).

Broloppet

Broloppet (Danish: Broløbet; the Bridge Run) was a running event that took place on the Øresund Bridge between 2000 and 2006. The event was organized by MAI and Sparta Atletik. The first event took place on June 12, 2000. With over 90,000 entrants and 79,719 finishers it remains one of the largest running events ever held, and the world's largest half marathon ahead of Göteborgsvarvet (59,000) and the Great North Run (54,000).

The first race, which was won by Ethiopian runner Tesfaye Tola only three months before he won the bronze medal at the 2000 Summer Olympics, started at the Danish end of the bridge on the island of Amager, continued through the tunnel under the artificial island of Peberholm, over the Öresund Bridge to the finish in Limhamn in Malmö. The competition was originally meant to be a one-time event to celebrate the opening of the Öresund Bridge, but it continued on for six more years until it ended in 2006.

On June 12, 2010 the race was revived as part of the 10th anniversary of the Øresund Bridge. The race distance was the same as the original.

City Tunnel (Malmö)

The City Tunnel (Swedish: Citytunneln) is a 17-kilometre rail link in Malmö, Sweden, running between Malmö Central Station (Malmö C) and the Øresund Bridge, of which six kilometres under Malmö city centre is in tunnel, to increase capacity on the Scanian network by changing Malmö C from a terminus to a through station. It's a part of the Oresund Line to Copenhagen Central Station. The work was projected to cost 9.45 billion SEK. Under construction since March 2005, the line was inaugurated by King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden on December 4, 2010, and revenue service commenced on December 12, 2010. Unlike other dual track railways in Sweden, is right-side traffic used. The spot at which the two tracks shifts side, is located in Arlöv around 5 km north-east of Malmö Central Station, and isn't considered to be a part this particular railway.

DSB Øresund

DSB Øresund was a Danish railway company which was the successor of what was left of DSBFirst Denmark. DSB Øresund operated train services on the tendered Coast Line and half of the train services between Copenhagen Central Station and Malmö via the Øresund Bridge. The other half of the cross-border service was operated by Transdev. On 13 December 2015, DSB took over operation of all activities from DSB Orsund A/S.

Geography of Denmark

Denmark is a Nordic country located in Northern Europe. It consists of the Jutland peninsula and several islands in the Baltic sea, referred to as the Danish Archipelago. Denmark is located southwest of Sweden and due south of Norway and is bordered by the German state (and former possession) Schleswig-Holstein to the south, on Denmark's only land border, 68 kilometres (42 miles) long.

Denmark borders both the Baltic and North Seas along its 8,750 km (5,440 mi) tidal shoreline. Denmark's general coastline is much shorter, at 1,701 km (1,057 mi), as it would not include most of the 1,419 offshore islands (each defined as exceeding 100 square meters in area) and the 180 km long Limfjorden, which separates Denmark's second largest island, North Jutlandic Island, 4,686 km2 in size, from the rest of Jutland. No location in Denmark is further from the coast than 52 km (32 mi). The size of the land area of Denmark cannot be stated exactly since the ocean constantly erodes and adds material to the coastline, and because of human land reclamation projects (to counter erosion). On the southwest coast of Jutland, the tide is between 1 and 2 m (3.28 and 6.56 ft), and the tideline moves outward and inward on a 10 km (6.2 mi) stretch.A circle enclosing the same area as Denmark would be 742 km (461 miles) long. Denmark has 443 named islands (1,419 islands above 100 m²), of which 72 are inhabited (as of 1 January 2007, Statistics Denmark). The largest islands are Zealand (Sjælland) and Funen (Fyn). The island of Bornholm is located east of the rest of the country, in the Baltic Sea. Many of the larger islands are connected by bridges; the Øresund Bridge connects Zealand with Sweden; the Great Belt Bridge connects Funen with Zealand; and the Little Belt Bridge connects Jutland with Funen. Ferries or small aircraft connect to the smaller islands. Main cities are the capital Copenhagen on Zealand; Århus, Aalborg and Esbjerg in Jutland; and Odense on Funen.

Denmark experiences a temperate climate. This means that the winters are mild and windy and the summers are cool. The local terrain is generally flat with a few gently rolling plains. The territory of Denmark includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of metropolitan Denmark, but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Its position gives Denmark complete control of the Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat) linking the Baltic and North Seas. The country's natural resources include petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone, chalk, stone, gravel and sand.

HH Ferry route

The HH Ferry route (About the name: Helsingør - Helsingborg; Helsingør is Danish for Elsinore) is a very old shipping route which connects Helsingør at Zealand, Denmark and Helsingborg, Scania, Sweden across the northern, and narrowest part of the Øresund. Due to the short distance, which is less than 3 nautical miles, is it one of the world's busiest international car ferry routes, with around 70 daily departures from each harbour. The oldest known written mention of the route dates to the German traveller Adam of Bremen in the 11th century, but it has likely been in use much longer. Before 1658, the route was a domestic Danish route. For several centuries, the route has been run regularly by various Danish shipping lines. Its significance grew during the 1950s, but since the inauguration of the Øresund Bridge in 2000, at the southern end of the Øresund, it has lost some significance but remains as one of the World's most important ferry routes. Since 1952, passports has not been required for Scandinavian and Finland citizens.

Hyllie railway station

Hyllie Station (Swedish: Hyllie station) is a railway station in the southwestern part of Malmö, Sweden, located in Hyllie city district. It is the first station on the Swedish side of the Oresund Line, being closest to the Øresund Bridge.

The station opened in 2010 as a part of the newly built City Tunnel along with Triangeln railway station and a new underground part of Malmö Central Station.

Close to the station are Malmö Arena and the Emporia shopping mall. Many companies, including Skanska, also have offices next to the station.

The station is being served by Øresundståg regional trains and Pågatågen commuter trains. It is also an important hub for regional bus services to/from Trelleborg, Vellinge, Skanör and Falsterbo.

Höllviken

Höllviken is a locality situated in Vellinge Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 10,607 inhabitants in 2010. It is located close to both Malmö and the Øresund Bridge which connects Sweden and Denmark.

The town is a popular summer vacation spot for northern Europeans, who are attracted to its sand beaches and the historical sites which date back to the time of the Vikings. The peninsula on which the town is situated is unique because it is surrounded by two different seas: Öresund and The Baltic Sea.

Prior to the 1960s, the peninsula remained mainly populated by wealthy businessmen from the Malmö region during the summers. Recently, however, it has begun to grow as a commuter town.

The following sports clubs are located in Höllviken:

FC Höllviken

Kalvebod Fælled

Kalvebod Fælled ("Kalvebod Commons"), also known as Vestamager ("Western Amager"), takes up roughly one fourth of the island of Amager near Copenhagen, Denmark.

The area consists of reclaimed sea bed, with a number of former islets making up small isolated hills; it was dammed and drained during the 1940s to serve as an artillery training range. After active military use ended in 1983, some of the area has been used for transportation infrastructure (motorway and railway in connection with the Øresund bridge), a landfill on the stip between the motorway and the ocean dyke, a golf course and the southern end of the Ørestad urban development. Most of the area, however, lies as lightly maintained parkland featuring a range of nature types, from young forests to tidal marshes; some areas are prevented from developing into forests by grazing livestock and game. After years of preparation the area was finally cleared of unexploded munitions and fully opened to the general public on October 15, 2010.

Previously, because of the risk of unexploded munitions, walking outside the paths and roads was generally not allowed. A large area in the southwestern corner is set aside under the Natura 2000-scheme as an EU-recognized bird protection area to which the general public has no access.

Malmö

Malmö (, also US: , Swedish: [²malmøː] (listen); Danish: Malmø [ˈmalmøːˀ]) is the largest city of the Swedish county of Skåne County, the third-largest city in Sweden, after Stockholm and Gothenburg, and the sixth-largest city in Scandinavia, with a population of 312,012 inhabitants in 2017 out of a municipal total of 338,230. The Malmö Metropolitan Region is home to over 700,000 people, and the Øresund Region, which includes Malmö, is home to 4 million people.Malmö was one of the earliest and most industrialized towns of Scandinavia, but it struggled with the adaptation to post-industrialism. Since the construction of the Øresund Bridge, Malmö has undergone a major transformation with architectural developments, and it has attracted new biotech and IT companies, and particularly students through Malmö University, founded in 1998. The city contains many historic buildings and parks, and is also a commercial center for the western part of Scania.

Oresund Line

Oresund Line (Swedish: Öresundsbanan, Danish: Øresundbanen) is a 24/7 railway between Copenhagen in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden via the Oresund Bridge, with a 35-40 minutes trip. On the Swedish side it is managed by the Swedish Transport Administration, on the Danish side by Banedanmark.

The railway line approaches Copenhagen from the Continental Line south of Malmö and heads west, passing over the Oresund Bridge on the lower section of the Peberholm artificial island, under Copenhagen Airport to Copenhagen Central Station. In Malmö, the City Tunnel connects the railway directly to Malmö C.

IC3 Oresundtrains are operated by DSB on the Danish side and Transdev on the Swedish side. It connects Copenhagen and Malmö, with connections to Gothenburg, Kalmar, and Karlskrona. On the Danish side, many trains continue northwards on the Coast Line to Helsingør. SJ operates SJ 2000 high-speed trains between Stockholm, Malmö, and Copenhagen. Freight trains are operated by Railion using EG locomotives.

Peberholm

Peberholm (Pepper Islet, Swedish: Pepparholm), is a small artificial island in the Danish part of the Øresund strait, created as part of the Øresund Bridge connecting Denmark with Sweden. Peberholm is close to the small natural island of Saltholm (Salt Islet), and was named to complement it. It has an area of 1.3 km² (325 acres) and belongs to Denmark.

Saltholm

Saltholm (Salt Islet) is a Danish island in the Øresund, the strait that separates Denmark and Sweden. It is located to the east of the Danish island of Amager in Tårnby municipality and lies just to the west of the sea border between Denmark and Sweden. It is 7 km long and 3 km wide, covering an area of 16 km2, making it Denmark's 21st largest island. Saltholm is very flat; its highest point stands only 2 m (6 ft) above sea level, rendering it vulnerable to flooding if persistent east winds cause a tidal surge in the Baltic Sea. It is a relatively new landmass in geological terms, having risen from the sea about 4,000 years ago due to post-glacial rebound, and is surrounded by a large area of shallow water (of 2 m depth or less) that covers an area of 28 km2 (11 sq mi). A series of islets, inlets and rock deposits from the last ice age appear at the south end of the island.

Its neighboring island to the south is the artificial island Peberholm (Pepper Islet), which is a part of the Øresund Bridge and was named to complement Saltholm.

The Bridge (2011 TV series)

The Bridge (Danish: Broen; Swedish: Bron) is a Scandinavian noir crime television series created and written by Hans Rosenfeldt. A joint creative and financed production between Sweden's Sveriges Television and Denmark's Danmarks Radio, it has been shown in more than 100 countries.The first series begins with the discovery of a dead body exactly on the centre of the Øresund Bridge, which links Malmö with Copenhagen, necessitating a joint investigation. Sofia Helin, as the Swedish police detective Saga Norén, stars in all four series. In the first and second, her Danish counterpart, Martin Rohde, is played by Kim Bodnia, and in the third and fourth Thure Lindhardt plays Henrik Sabroe. The first series was broadcast on the Swedish SVT1 and Danish DR1 during the autumn of 2011, and on the United Kingdom's BBC Four the following spring.

The second series aired in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland and Iceland during the autumn of 2013, and in the UK in early 2014. The third series was broadcast in Denmark, Sweden and Finland during the autumn of 2015 and in the UK in November 2015. The fourth series premiered on 1 January 2018 in the Nordic countries and was broadcast weekly on BBC Two in the UK from 11 May 2018.

Øresund

Øresund or Öresund (UK: , US: ; Danish: Øresund, pronounced [ˈøːɐsɔnˀ]; Swedish: Öresund, pronounced [œrɛˈsɵnːd]), commonly known in English as the Sound, is a strait which forms the Danish–Swedish border, separating Zealand (Denmark) from Scania (Sweden). The strait has a length of 118 kilometres (73 mi) and the width varies from 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) to 28 kilometres (17 mi). It is 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) wide at its narrowest point between Helsingør in Denmark and Helsingborg in Sweden.

Øresund is along with the Great Belt, Little Belt and Kiel Canal one of four waterways that connects the Baltic Sea to the Atlantic Ocean via Kattegat, Skagerrak, and the North Sea, and is one of the busiest waterways in the world.The Øresund Bridge, between the Danish capital Copenhagen and the Swedish city of Malmö, inaugurated on 1 July 2000, connects a bi-national metropolitan area with close to 4 million inhabitants. The HH Ferry route, between Helsingør, Denmark and Helsingborg, Sweden, in the northern part of Øresund, is one of the world's busiest international ferry routes with more than 70 departures from each harbour per day.Øresund is a geologically young strait that formed 8500–8000 years ago as a result of rising sea levels. Previously the Ancylus Lake, a fresh-water body occupying the Baltic basin, had been connected to the sea solely by the Great Belt. As such the entrance of salt water by Øresund marked the beginning of the modern Baltic Sea as a salt-water sea.

Øresund Region

The Øresund Region (Danish: Øresundsregionen; Swedish: Öresundsregionen [œːrɛ²sɵnːdsrɛɡɪˌuːnɛn]), also known as Greater Copenhagen for marketing purposes, is a metropolitan region that comprises eastern Denmark and Skåne in southern Sweden. Centred around the Øresund strait and the two cities which lie on either side, Copenhagen in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden, the region is connected by the Øresund Bridge, which spans the strait at its southern end, and the HH Ferry route between Elsinore, Denmark, and Helsingborg, Sweden, at the narrowest point of the strait.

The Capital Region of Denmark and Region Zealand constitute the Danish side, while Scania constitutes the Swedish side. On 1 January 2016 the name of the region was changed to "Greater Copenhagen" and the Øresund Committee was renamed as "The Greater Copenhagen & Skåne Committee. The region has a population of 4,002,372 (2018) and a population density of 191.79/km2 (496.7/sq mi).Since the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658, Scania (Swedish: Skåne) has been subordinate to the King of Sweden, except during the Scanian War (1676–79) and briefly in 1710, but it only became a province of Sweden under the Treaty of Stockholm 1720 (dated 3 July 1720). From 800 to 1658, Greater Copenhagen was united under the flag of Denmark, although in the early years Denmark sometimes had several local kings. In recent years, part of the population has stressed Scania's regional identity again.The Øresund Region consists of both rural and urban areas. There are two metropolitan areas within the region, Copenhagen metropolitan area and Metropolitan Malmö. Areas on the periphery of the region have a relatively low population density, whereas the two metropolitan areas of Copenhagen and Malmö are two of the most densely populated in Scandinavia. Helsingborg also forms an important urban hub on the Swedish side.

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